Mod. 3 Lectures 1-3
Mod. 3 Lectures 1-3 ASM 104
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Hsu on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASM 104 at Arizona State University taught by Campisano in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 382 views. For similar materials see Bones, Stones/Human Evolution in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
MODULE 3 LECTURE 1 INTRODUCTION This lecture is about the Order Primates and what features make them unique from other Orders of mammals KEY POINTS Binomial nomenclature Species name includes the Genus followed by the trivial name Ex For Homo sapiens Homo is the Genus and sapiens is the trivial name Within a Genus there are many species but none have the same trivial name Taxonomy hierarchical classification of species used in science Developed by Carl Linnaeus in the 1700s Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Other classifications can be inserted between Order and Genus Order Semiorder Infraorder Superfamily Family Subfamily Genus Superfamily ends in oidea Family ends in dae Subfamily ends in nae Unique features of mammals Long gestation amp live birth Young are nourished by mammary glands Long period of parental care More ossified skeleton harder Heterodonty different types of teeth Ability to regulate body temperature with sweat glands Hair follicles with sebaceous glands Fourchambered heart Highly developed senses of sight and smell Extremely specialized sense of hearing MAIN IDEAS Distinguishing features of primates Large forwardfacing eyes Optic convergence binocular vision fields of vision from both eyes overlap in the middle providing ability to see farther amp with depth perception Smaller nasal region amp reduced sense of smell Much smaller nose than other mammals such as wolves or foxes Allows the eyes to be closer together Flat nails amp more sensitive fingertips Small at nails on the fingers amp toes Much better sense of touch than animals with claws or hooves Grasping ability Divergent hallux big toe Most primates big toe is partially opposable to the rest of their toes so it can be used like a thumb to grasp things Humans have lost this feature because they are bipedal Higher ratio of brain size to body size than other terrestrial mammals Brain is more complex amp convoluted with a larger cerebellum and other areas Skeletal biology Postorbital bar bone encircling the eyes or postorbital closure eyes enclosed in sockets Thought to stabilize the forwardfacing eyes Shorter noses Face below the skull or brain case instead of in front of it Middle ear bones enclosed by the auditorypetrosal bulla thin sheet of bone Better hearing Behavioral features Infants amp juveniles show more dependency on learned behavior Adult males more involved in caring for young MODULE 3 LECTURE 2 INTRODUCTION This lecture is about the bone development amp growth of primates Some of the material about bone growth is review from Module 1 MAIN IDEAS Bone functions Protect amp support soft tissues Anchor amp hold muscles tendons amp ligaments in place Produce blood cells Bone composition Collagen protein that provides exibility Calcium amp phosphorus minerals that provide strength amp rigidity Magnesium potassium amp sodium bonding materials for calcium amp phosphorus Bone structure Diaphysis bone shaft Metaphysis regions of bone growth on either side of the diaphysis Epiphysis ends of the bone Proximal epiphysis end closest to the body Distal epiphysis end farther from the body Articular cartilage covers epiphysis at joints Periosteum membrane that covers the surface of the bone Endosteum lining of the medullary cavity Medullary cavity cavity that holds bone marrow Bone layers Periosteum Hard compact bone dense supports the weight of the body Spongy bone less dense occurs at the ends of long bones amp contains marrow Bone types Long bones 0 Provide support amp structure that makes movement possible Short bones 0 Mostly spongy bone with a thin layer of hard bone 0 Elasticity exibility amp shock absorption 0 Ex 8 carpal bones in the wrist make the wrist exible amp absorb shock if you fall Flat bones 0 Protect internal organs amp provide places for muscles to attach 0 Ex ribs sternum shoulder blades Seisamoid bones 0 Embedded in a tendon or joint like the knee cap 0 Reduces friction and or changes the angle of a muscle connection Irregular bones 0 Don t fit into other categories 0 Ex skull pelvis vertebrae thoracic vertebrae that attach to the ribs lumbar near the bottom of the spine 0 Provide movement support and spread out weight protect spinal cord sites of muscle attachments Bone growth In uenced by growth hormones from the pituitary gland amp sex hormones from the ovaries or testes Osteoblasts ossify cartilage to form bone on the inner side closer to the center of the bone of the epiphyseal plate which is made of cartilage Once adulthood is reached the epiphyseal plate ossifies stopping growth Appositional growth Bones stop growing in length at adulthood but can continue to grow in diameter Can happen in response to increased muscle activity or increased weight Osteoblasts in the periosteum form new bone at the surface while osteoclasts break down bone in the medullary cavity so the bone gets wider but not thicker Directions in human anatomy Superior above the head is superior to the neck Inferior below Anterior in front of the face is anterior to the back of the head Posterior behind Lateral position outside or farther from the center of the body little toe Medial position close to the center of the body big toe Proximal on the limbs closest to the body Distal farther from the body Anatomical planes Sagittal top to bottom would bisect the body between your eyes Coronal front to back perpendicular to the sagittal plane Transverse horizontal Directions in primate anatomy Superior towards the head Inferior away from the head Ventral towards the front or stomach Dorsal towards the back Human skull structure Face braincase amp mandible lower jaw skull without mandible is a cranium Separate bones fused together at sutures Frontal bone forehead meets the parietal bones at the coronal suture Parietal bones sides of the head meeting at the top along the sagittal suture Temporal bones sides of the head beneath the parietal bones Occipital bone back of the head Dentition teeth Human teeth are divided into four quadrants the left and right sides of the top jaw and the left and right sides of the bottom jaw 2 incisors 1 canine 2 premolars 3 molars Axial skeleton Clavicle Sternum Ribs Vertebrae Cervical Thoracic Lumbar Sacral Caudal Forelimb Arm scapula amp humerus Forearm Radius amp ulna Carpal bones wrist Metacarpals hand Phalanges fingers Hind limb leg Pelvis Femur thigh Patella kneecap Tibia medial amp fibula lateral Tarsal bones ankle Metatarsals foot Phalanges toes Body movement caused by muscles which are attached to the bones contracting Flexion distal part of a limb moves towards the body Extension distal part of a limb moves away Abduction movement towards the sagittal plane Adduction movement away from the sagittal plane MODULE 3 LECTURE 3 INTRODUCTION This lecture focuses on primate adaptations KEY POINTS Primates are mostly found in tropical forests of South America Africa Madagascar amp South Asia Some also live in Ethiopia Northern China amp Iapan There are around 250 species of primates which differ in many ways including body size diet activity patterns amp locomotion Niche a species role in its environment including many factors such as their size diet hours of activity etc If species in the same habitat didn t occupy different niches they would all be competing for resources MAIN IDEAS Body size affects diet amp access to resources Mouse lemur 211 oz Gorilla 385 lbs Activity patterns Diurnal active during the day Nocturnal active at night Crepuscular active at dawn amp dusk Cathemeral active intermittently throughout the 24hour period rare amp contested whether or not it actually exists Frugivore fruit Folivore leaves Insectivore insects invertebrates Gumivore tree sap Most eat a combination of these amp some even eat meat Usually primates that weigh less than 1 lb eat insects amp fruit while ones that weigh more eat leaves amp fruit Smaller primates do not have long enough guts to digest leaves Larger ones cannot get enough protein from insects Dentition generalized amp primitive fewer teeth than ancestral mammals which had 13 teeth in each quadrant Frugivores 0 Wide incisors to bite into fruit 0 Low blunt cusps chewing surface on molars 0 Medium to large body size Folivores o Narrower incisors 0 High sharp cusps to break down cellulose 0 Large body size Insectivores 0 Small sharp incisors for biting through insect shells 0 High sharp cusps 0 Small body size Gumivores 0 Many have procumbent incisors that stick out in front of the face used to hold on to and gouge into tree bark 0 Very small body size Locomotion Primates have generalized limb structure grasping ability five digits on hands amp feet and nails amp sensitive fingers instead of claws Quadrupedal walking on all four limbs o Digitigrade walking on the fingertips o Quadrupedal primates run along large branches grasp smaller ones amp sometimes leap o Forelimbs amp hind limbs are the same length Shoulder amp elbow joints designed for stability 0 Chest is wider fronttoback instead of sidetoside so it doesn t get in the way 0 Arboral quadrupedal primates have shorter limbs so their center of gravity is closer to the tree branches VCL vertical clinging amp leaping used to move between trees 0 Longer hind limbs than forelimbs o Tibia amp fibula may be fused for strength Suspensory locomotion o Brachiation swinging from arm to arm 0 Quadrumanus using both the hands and feet 0 Longer forelimbs than hind limbs o Scapula shoulder blades rotated farther back to stay out of the way of swinging 0 Head of the humerus arm bone rounded for more freedom of movement where it connects to the shoulder 0 Chest wider from sidetoside so arms are farther apart Bipedal locomotion to be covered in a future lecture O