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by: Kara Ott

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# ASTR - Chapter 4 Reading Notes ASTR 11200

Marketplace > Rowan University > ASTR 11200 > ASTR Chapter 4 Reading Notes
Kara Ott
RU
GPA 4.0
Exploration of the Solar system
Andrew Watson

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Here are the notes I took from reading through chapter 4! Hopefully they will be helpful in studying and reviewing for tonight's quiz!!
COURSE
Exploration of the Solar system
PROF.
Andrew Watson
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
5
WORDS
KARMA
25 ?

## 2

1 review
"I was sick all last week and these notes were exactly what I needed to get caught up. Cheers!"
Ollie Koepp

## Popular in Department

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kara Ott on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ASTR 11200 at Rowan University taught by Andrew Watson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 94 views.

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## Reviews for ASTR - Chapter 4 Reading Notes

I was sick all last week and these notes were exactly what I needed to get caught up. Cheers!

-Ollie Koepp

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Date Created: 09/08/15
Chapter 4 Reading Notes 0 Speed distance over an amount of time 0 Velocity tells speed AND direction ie 100 mph going due North 0 Acceleration if the velocity of an object changes in ANY way whether speed or direction or both then the object has an acceleration 0 Galileo discovered that gravity accelerates ALL objects by the same amount regardless of their mass 0 Air resistance is what makes our everyday experiences seem to contradict Galileo o Acceleration of gravity g1 causes falling objects to fall faster by 98 m s approximately 10 m s with each passing second therefore g 10 m s2 o Momentum product of an object s mass and velocity m v o m changes an object s momentum 0 Net Force combined effect of all the individual forces acting on an object o A change in momentum only occurs when net force does NOT equal zero 0 Planets are always accelerating because they are constantly changing direction as they orbit the Sun 0 Angular momentum circling momentum any object that is spinning or moving along a curved path has angular momentum o Torgue twisting force type of force that can change an object s angular momentum Formula for Earth s angular momentum m V r 0 Where mEarth s mass vorbital velocity r radius of orbit M amount of matter in your body any object Weight FORCE that a scale measures when you stand on it meaning weight depends on mass and forces acting on your mass Freefall falling without any resistance to slow you down The Space Shuttle and all other orbiting objects stay in orbit because they are constantly falling around the Earth They are in a constant state of free fall making them weightless Newton s Laws of Motion o l An object moves at constant velocity if there is no net force acting upon it Also an object in motion tends to stay in motion and an object at rest tends to stay at rest 0 2 Force mass X acceleration Fma o 3 For any force there is always an equal and opposite reaction force Law of conservation of momentum As long as there are no external forces the total momentum of interacting objects cannot change and their total momentum is conserved Law of conservation of angular momentum As long as there is no external torque the total angular momentum of a set of interacting objects cannot change Law of conservation of energy Energy cannot be created or destroyed Kinetic Energy KE energy of motion 0 Quantitatively KE 1sz2 m mass v speed Radiative Energy energy carried by light Potential Energy PE stored energy which might later be converted into KE or radiative energy Thermal Energy subcategory of KE which represents the COLLECTIVE KE of the many individual particles atoms and molecules moving randomly within a substance 0 All objects contain thermal energy even when they are not moving because the particles within are always moving randomly Temperature measures AVERAGE KE of the particles in a substance 0 Higher temperature means more KE and fast moving particles Kelvin temperature scale used in science no negative temperatures because scale starts at absolute zero 0 K Thermal energy depends on temperature because a higher average KE for the particles in a substance means a higher total energy Thermal energy also depends on density and number of particles Gravitational potential energy depends on mass and how far it can fall as a result of gravity 0 Gravitation PE mgh mmass gaccel of gravity hheight above Earth A cloud of interstellar gas contracts because its own gravity has more gravitational PE when it s spread out than when it shrinks The lost PE is converted to thermal energy making the center of the cloud hot Massenergy amount of PE contained in mass 0 E mc2 Eamount of PE mmass cspeed of light Universal Law of Gravitation 0 Every mass attracts every other mass through gravity 0 The strength of the gravitational force attracting any two objects is DIRECTLY proportional to the product of their masses ie If you double the mass of one of the objects the force of gravity between them doubles o The strength of gravitational force between 2 objects DECREASES with the square of the distance between their centers ie If you double the distance between two objects the force of gravity is weakened by a factor of 22 or 4 Fg GM1M2d2 0 Where Fg force of gravitational attraction G gravitational constant 667 X 10 11 m3kg X s2 M1 and M2 masses of the 2 objects d distance between their centers Orbiting objects move m at the nearer points in their orbit and m at the farther points Bound orbits orbits in which an object goes around another object over and over again ie ellipses Unbound orbits paths that bring an object close to another object just once ie parabolas or hyperbolas Center of mass point at which two objects would balance if they were somehow connected Newton s Version of Kelper s 31rd Law relates the orbital periods distances and masses of any pair of orbiting objects 0 p2 4H2 GM1M2a 3 0 Where M1 and M2 objects masses a average distance between their centers p orbital period Orbital energy sum of a planet s KB and gravitational PE Orbits cannot change spontaneously but they CAN change through exchanges of energy One way is through a qravitational encounter where one object passes another object near enough that the first feels the effects of the second s gravity Friction can also cause objects to lose orbital energy Escape velocity from Earth s surface is about 40000 km hr Synchronous rotation is the name for the trait that explains why the moon almost always shows the same face to Earth The acceleration of any falling mass does NOT depend on an object s mass

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