First Week of Notes
First Week of Notes PSY 311
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Rinaldi on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 311 at University of Miami taught by Ray Winters in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Emotion in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
January 20 2015 Appraisal amp Emotion A Emotion a type of experience that results from the appraisal of an event or set of circumstances B Appraisal the unconscious process in the mind that gives personal meaning to events generates knowledge C Lazarus model of emotion 1 Event 2 Appraisal of the personal meaning of the event 3 Emotional reaction D Emotion is linked to motivated behavior and a person s goals 1 Motivation the general desire or willingness to do something to take action to achieve a goal 2 Initiates guides and maintains goal oriented behaviors 3 Causes us to act 4 Refers to the dynamics of behavior the way they re initiated sustained directed and terminated E 4 components of emotion I subjectiveexperiential a what a person feels b ex angry sad happy 2 somatic component a changes in the body b ex change in heart rate blood pressure sweating dilation of pupils release of stress hormones into blood stream etc c Football example Jim Kelly quarterback of UM 3979 reporter followed him around to see what it was like to be a football player Regular life was not notable but he threw up an hour before the game and claimed he did that before ever game It s a somatic component because his stress was causing him to throw up d quotpoker facequot is one of the only somatic components that people have control of 3 cognitive component a thoughts generated by appraisal helps sustain an emotion once it s generated b ex worrying thoughts when anxious 4 motivational component a change in the person s motivational state b actions you re inclined to take c ex you feel anxious before a job interview so you are motivated to prepare 5 do 4 components appear together a b blue ribbon emotions same as core emotions yes automatic unconscious emotions motivational amp somatic component are observed F discrete approach emotions can be viewed in terms of categories 1 5 basic emotions amp their associated core appraisals stated in terms of goals a b d e anger blocking or frustration of a valued goa through a perceived agent fearanxiety physical or social threat possibly of not obtaining goals to self or valued goa disgust elimination or distancing from person object or idea repulsive to self and to valued goas happiness successful move towards completion of valued goa sadness loss or failure actual or possible of valued goal 2 all emotions fall in one of the categories or are a combination G dimensional approach it is possible to describe emotional experience in terms of a small number of dimensions such as arousal and peasantness or positive affect and negative affect 1 positive amp negative affect linked to emotional tendencies to approach how sensitive the individual is to the incentives that lead to goals or avoidance sensitivity to threat of punishment a positive excited enthusiastic cheerful interested based on individual s sensitivity to incentive stimuli negative distressed nervous hostile re ects individual s sensitivity to threat Higl l positi re a 1TH e t elated eiirlhuaiaslie I lleasain lness emnm Engagement happy aroused xx 1 ow um in v I n 39loariLil Ulgh quot15quot 4 nervous 534 quot39 l w nine affect Dalila a Tout v aHhH g Ill Iie i39 J Ihengagrtnenl I l llunitEastinlnese Amway slugglsl39l Low positive affect c d Russell amp Carroll there exists one bipolar dimension instead of two orthogonal dimensions also a dimension of activation i Ex pleasant words with high activation elated enthused energetic thrilled ii Pleasant with low activation relaxed serene calm iii Negative affect with high activation nervous tense upset iv Negative affect with low activation bored lethargic depressed H Mood an emotion at a lower level of intensity gtUUl 39 Positive emotional reaction MOOD Jquot F Negative emotional reaction l Loss ofjob Depressed mood MO OD you always have a mood if you re awake mood DOES NOT require appraisal dispositional theory of mood a state in which a particular emotionrelated appraisal is more likely to take place 5 mood biases the appraisal process because if a person is in an angry mood they will make appraisals that lead to the emotion of anger ll Cognition processes and information essential to the representation of knowledge in the mind how it s constructed manipulated etc in this class we are examining the relationship between cognition emotion and mood A Cognitive content 1 thoughts attitudes expectations beliefs 2 an individual can bring the contents of cognition to conscious awareness B Cognitive process 1 attention thinking memory storage and retrieval are cognitive processes 2 cognitive processes operate at an unconscious level of awareness C appraisal is called a cognitive process because it creates knowledge the way someone appraises something is what they thinkhow they feel about it 1 ex an honors student getting a B would appraise it differently than a failing student getting a B D 2 types of appraisal 1 cognitive appraisal schemabased generates blue ribbon emotions a based on beliefs about self world and others b requires retrieval of declarative memories and emotional memories i declarative memories fact memory refers to the ability to consciously recall a past experience or previously learned info speci c facts events ii aka explicitconscious memory c asks questions what does this mean to me Is this a threat to my ego d Schema based further explained later E 2 automatic appraisegenerates automatic emotions a based on emotional associative memories and are unrelated to beliefs i important emotional memory a memory of the association of an event set of circumstances behavior or situation and either reward or punishment An emotional response is elicited when an emotional memory is triggered by a situation it functions without people being consciously aware of it E Schematic Models Schemas 1 lmplicational beliefs about self world and others a lmplicational belief iv Concerned with emotional consequences belief that you are intelligent enough to obtain a medical degree or that you are liked by others pointing the bone ancient ritual where the witch doctor picks up a bone from a dead animal and points it at someone that person dies instantly Shows how powerful beliefs can be come from life experiences b propositional belief refers to factual information without personal emotional content beliefs that Paris is the capital of France easy to change ex if you think 22 is 3 you will change your belief when you learn it s really 4 2 Serve as a way to organize personal knowledge in the mind 3 Based on life experiences 4 Essential to the appraisal process cognitive not automatic that leads to emotional reactions F Appraisal always made with respect to an individual s goals 1 you must have a goal to have an emotion 2 appraisalgoaemotion 3 examples of goals DP00quot to be a kind generous person to be loyal to be a good parent to be physically t in general they tell about the type of person you want to be the idealself G relationship between implicational beliefs schematic models schemas appraisals goals and an individual s life expedences 1 implicational beliefs result from life experiences 2 implicational beliefs about self world and others determine an individual s goals 3 homeostatic principle of schemas a most important goal everyone has to preserve and maintain their schemas b major implication of this principle is that the appraisal process is never objective appraisal is always biased evidence inconsistent with implicational beliefs are distorted and your beliefs are difficult to change e quotin the face of contradictory evidencequot 4 it is possible to change implicational beliefs but it is hard if you have an implicational belief schematic model about someone you cognitively interpret what they do so that it ts your schema 5 appraisal tendency theory your appraisal process is biased depending on your emotional state you are likely to maintain that emotion 6 dispositional theory of mood mood biases appraisal 7 declarative memory fact memory a aka explicit or conscious memory b refers to the ability to consciously recall a past experience or previously learned information Ill The Minuteman A Damage to the hippocampus led to an inability to form new declarative memories 1 He forgot about doing a crossword puzzles going to a party meeting new people B Evidence that he could form and retrieve emotional memories and generate an emotion via automatic appraisal 1 He could form emotional memories and not declarative memories because they use different parts of the brain 2 Stooge provokes anger and an emotional memory association between the sight of the minuteman and punishment Emotion measured by somatic component heart rate blood pressure sweating 3 Return of the stooge elicits emotional memory and thereby through automatic appraisal an emotional response as measured physiologically and by verbal comments 4 Summary someone came in and made the minuteman mad then left When he came back again the minuteman had an emotional memory which was detected by measuring his somatic components IV Two memory hypothesis A Amygdala which is important to emotional memories ls fully developed at birth B Hippocampus which is important to declarative memories is not fully developed until age 3 or older an C Implication we form emotional memories which cannot consciously be recalled before we develop declarative memories which we can consciously recall D we have emotional memories straight out of the womb 1 some adult emotions are continuations of emotional memories from youth 2 could be negative or positive E it takes a few years to develop the brain structures for declarative memories 1 it s possible to form emotional memories without forming declarative memories F emotional memories can in uence declarative memories 1 lunch example 2 asking someone what they had for lunch 10 years ago today can t remember 3 one student remembered a 6 course meal at an elegant restaurant 4 she remembered this because her boyfriend asked her to marry him she had an emotional response G development of negative emotional memories 1 classical conditioning association between an event stimulus set of circumstances or behavior and an emotional reaction reward or punishment a ex squirting a cat with a water gun when he is about to attack the other cat b sight of water gun conditioned stimulus l punishment water from water gun unconditioned stimulus 2 negative emotional memories lead to the generation of fearanxiety the anticipation of punishment based on an appraisal of threat ofpunishment 3 the motivational component for the emotion of fear anxiety is avoidance a ex sight of water gun l fear anxiety I decision to run away b after a negative emotional memory is formed the situation that triggered the emotional reaction now evokes the emotion of fear c the motivational component of the emotion of anxiety is avoidance thus the cat will see the water gun and run away H development of positive emotional memories 1 classical conditioning a ex association between the sound of a can opener conditioned stimulus and reward tuna unconditioned stimulus 2 positive emotional memories lead to the generation of the emotion of hope 3 anticipatory pleasure the anticipation of reward based on an appraisal of potential reward 4 motivational component for hope is approach or incentive motivation Attachment Styles A Strange situation test 1 An infant and parent enter a toy lled room and the infant is allowed to play stranger enters the room stranger and mother leave stranger returns parent returns infant s response de nes hisher attachment style e attachment style protest when parent leaves room shows joy when parent returns quotcheck inquot with parent in playroom explores surroundings and returns to caregiver every so often 5 means that parents did a good job C anxiousambivalent 1 becomes extremely upset when parent leaves cling to parent 2 push parent away when parent returns 3 parents of these infants are inconsistent in meeting needs for contact sometimes ignoring sometimes forcing affection on child D Avoidant Attachment Style 1 Infants pay little attention to parent when parent is present 2 Cries when caregiver leaves 3 This style associated with children who have been rejectedavoided by the caregiver 4 Child learns to protect himherself shows exploratory behavior but it serves as an escape mechanism E Attachment Styles in Adults 1 Secure a I don t often worry about being abandoned or about someone getting too close to me b Trust with a healthy level of dependency 2 Anxious ambivalent style a I nd others reluctant to get as close as I like I often worry that my partner doesn t love me or won t stay with me I want to merge completely U39lhUUN B secu W gtUUl 39 with another person and this desire sometimes scares people away b Tends to be jealous and describe relationships as a mix ofjoy and pain 3 Avoidant attachment style a nd it dif cult to trust people completely I am somewhat uncomfortable being close to others I nd it dif cult to depend on others b Shows greatest fear of having a relationship F Reactive Attachment Disorder 1 Early childhood disorder 2 Markedly disturbed amp developmentally inappropriate social relatedness 3 Persistent failure to initiate or respond to most social interactions 4 Lack of selectivity in attachment gures 5 Due to pathological child care in which the emotional needs needs for contact comfort stimulation and affection are not provided by caregiver 129 notes I How Emotional memories are developed by humans A An intense emotional experience 1 The student in the quotlunch examplequot learned to associate a day and place with reward 2 Case ofJulie learned to associate birds with punishment a Is embarrassed and knows there s nothing to be afraid of b Says she quotcan t help itquot because its always been this way c She doesn t have a declarative memory of her traumatic experience with a bird but she has emotional memories B From a repeated emotional experience 1 Originally emotions were generated by cognitive schemabased appraisal 2 Eventually same emotions can be elicited by automatic appraisal a plays a central role in psychopathology amp emotional mood disorders 3 automatic appraisal leads to automatic emotions by activating an emotional memory A particular type of emotional memory is important to vulnerability to depression negative selfreferent emotional memories 4 more examples selfworthlessness selfinept self inadequate selfdefective selfuseless self unimportant selfunlovable selfunlikeable selfnot good enough 5 Case of peter a Father always yelled at him as child b Associated yelling with fear c Stimulus generalization he is intolerant of anyone shouting at him d Now if his dad yells at him he feels fear that he felt through his childhood and anger that someone is yelling at him Depression A an A state of despondency marked by feelings of powerlessness and hopelessness Changes in sleep patterns and eating patterns are often observed Decrease in incentive amp motivation More on negative selfreferent emotional associative memories 1 abuse a Emotional abuse fault nding heavy use of criticism statements that demean or belittle b Physical abuse c Sexual abuse 2 Neglect parents having little time for their children a Children think quotsomething is wrong with mequot b quotI m not good enough c quotI m not importantquot d quotI m unlovable 3 children from divorced families often blame themselves a when parents argue and the child s emotional needs affection praise attention nurturing are not met the child often has the implicational belief that there is something wrong with him 4 after a traumaticstressful experience healthy people return to their normal selves a mood of someone who is vulnerable to depression becomes more and more negative until symptoms of depression are expressed b negativeself referent emotional memories play a role in downward spiral that leads to depression E automatic thoughts The cognitive component of emotional memories used in automatic appraisal to generate automatic emotions 1 Elicit more negative automatic emotions via automatic appraisal so mood becomes even more depressed 2 Automatic appraisal then produces more automatic emotions whose cognitive component is an automatic thought 3 Downward Spiral repetition of automatic thoughts then automatic appraisal each time mood becomes more depressed 4 quotI am worthlessquot quotI am ineptquot quotI am unlovablequot F Cognitive therapy used to treat depression 1 Metacognitive awareness a helpful in treatment of depression b the ability to minimize the functional importance of automatic thoughts that come to a person s mind c depressed people might learn that automatic thoughts are events that occur in the mind and therefore are not necessarily a true re ection of reality G why doesn t everyone who has experienced a traumatic experience show an increased vulnerability to depression as an adult 1 Genetic variables 2 People who are prone have a variation in serotonin transporter gene renders them more sensitive to negative life experiences as a child
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