Topic 5: Can Emotions be Non-Conscious?
Topic 5: Can Emotions be Non-Conscious? PSY 311
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Rinaldi on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 311 at University of Miami taught by Ray Winters in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Emotion in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Topic 5 Can Emotions be NonConscious Can emotion that is unconsciously caused but not felt lead to changes in motivated behavior Theoretical Foundation 0 Activation of a goal representation automatically produces goal directed motivated behavior if associated with positive affect o This automatically signals to the person that the goal or behavioral state is desired and worth pursuing o The individual will work to achieve the behavioral state or goal 0 This incentive motivation can occur without awareness of its source Stated differently a goal or behavioral state that is associated in memory with positive affect has motivational properties 0 Retrieved associative memory motivates behavior 0 A positive unconscious somatic marker signals the individual to go for it o If an emotional memory is developed through classical conditioning o conditioned stimulus activates the emotional memory lautomatic appraisal lmotivated behavior 0 This can occur without awareness Custers amp Aarts 2005 0 Used classical conditioning to develop positive emotional memories amp generate positive somatic markers 0 Demonstrated that emotions can motivate behavior without the person knowing it 0 Used subliminal conditioned stimuli o Behavioral state words or nonwords were repeatedly and subliminally presented as a conditioned stimuli followed by supraliminally presented perceptible positive affect words Activitybehavioral state words doing puzzles studying changing clothes writing going for a walk Positive affect words nice good funny pleasant 0 Then asked if people wanted to engage in certain activities represented in words on screen 1 conditioned stimulus doing puzzles subliminal amp unconditioned stimulus nice supraliminal emotional memory doing puzzles amp nice event asked if he wants to do puzzle automatic appraisal based on step 2 gtUU 5 automatic emotion and positive somatic marker a no subjective experiential component b no cognitive component c motivational component approach reward choose to do puzzle d somatic component changes I heart rate blood pressure that re ect the motivational component e positive somatic marker says go for it Results Custers and Aarts following conditioning subjects wanted to engage in the behavioral states that were connected with the positive affect words 0 they were motivated enough to quickly compete another task 0 they showed increased effort in attaining the behavioral state in that they worked harder and faster on another task to get to the desired task 0 all occurred at a nonconscious level Wickielman amp Berridge amp Wilbarger 2005 Theoretical Foundation Importance of the Motivational Component of an Emotion Background Information 0 Several studies have shown that subliminally presented pictures of faces elicit pleasant or unpleasant responses 0 Mood has been shown to be altered by subliminally presenting positive and negative images 0 When a neutral supraliminal stimulus such as a Chinese ideograph is presented immediately prior to a subliminally presented picture of happy or angry faces altered how much people liked the ideograph Predictions o Stimuli that elicit affective responses should moderate the incentive value of a subsequent good target such as a beverage even though they appear to be unrelated o The presentation of a picture of a person with a happy facial expression should temporarily increase the incentive value of a beverage and facilitate consumption whereas an angry face should decrease the incentive value 0 Procedure 0 The study assessed subjects pouring and drinking of a novel beverage after they were subliminally exposed to several emotional facial expressions 0 Subjects were rst asked if they were thirsty 0 Then asked to rate their feelings on scales assessing emotional experience 0 Given a novel lemonlime drink to pour consume and evaluate Resu s o Conscious feelings were not in uenced by the subliminally presented faces 0 consumption and rating of the drink Thirsty people in uenced by subliminally presented pictures of faces Happy faces compared to angry faces poured more from pitcher drank more from cup willing to pay twice as much Affective state created by the pictures in uenced the motivational state of the individual 0 How is the possible 0 Reward BAS system in uences the level of incentive motivation activated by internal drive state of thirst positive automatic emotion generated by the picture of the happy face increasing the motivation to consume the lemonlime drink 0 BAS is activated when a person is motivated to pursue a particular reward and anticipates receiving it o It is the pleasure from being motivated to pursue a reward and anticipating obtaining that reward anticipatory pleasure O
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