Topic 6: The Influence of Affect on Cognition
Topic 6: The Influence of Affect on Cognition PSY 311
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Rinaldi on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 311 at University of Miami taught by Ray Winters in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Emotion in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Topic 6 The In uence of Affect on Cognition Bless amp Fiedler Model Affect in uences information processing style 0 Two processing styles 0 Accommodative focusing on demands of the external world paying careful attention to external stimulus information externally oriented thinking using inductive bottomup thinking premises provide evidence for conclusion which is not necessarily true 0 Assimilative complementary process in which existing knowledge structures in the mind guide processing producing topdown deductive thinking logical 0 Positive affect promotes assimilative type a Negative affect promotes accommodative type Mood Induction Techniques Used 0 False feedback paradigm 0 what is the English translation of the following words rliea ojeqox kprael 0 person has no idea how they did so the experimenter can tell some people they did well and some people they did poody o mUSIC 0 different types of music can have different effects on your mood unexpected reward 0 example giving someone candy quotjust for showing upquot when they walk into an experiment imagery o imagine a time you were sad or angry o the weather 0 weather can change people s mood When is sad better than happy 0 Negative affect reduces or eliminates judgmental mistakes such as the fundamental attribution error 0 Fundamental attribution error believing that the action of others have internal causes even if they are actually caused by external forces or circumstances ex believing people are poor because they re lazy Negative affect leads to more accurate eyewitness reports 0 Sad subjects are less likely to incorporate misleading information into their eyewitness accounts 0 People are more externally oriented so they can zero in on what s really happening rather than on themselves Negative affect improves the quality of interpersonal persuasive message 0 Sad subjects produced more persuasive arguments on a topical issue ex student fees aboriginal land rights in Australia More attentive and better at recalling past events 0 Experimenters placed a variety of trinkets such as toy soldiers plastic animals and miniature cars near a checkout counter Tested on rainy and sunny days along with corresponding music 0 Sad subjects remembered 4 times as many trinkets Cognitive Bene ts of Positive Affect Studies by lsen Ashby and colleagues 2000 Unexpected reward such as receiving a small bag of candy they use this procedure because it activates the BAS behavioral activation system and hence the anticipatory pleasure associated with the secretion of dopamine againanticipatory pleasure associated with secretion of dopamine conclusions 0 positive affect in uences the way in which stimuli are thought about or related to other ideas It increases cognitive exibility ways cognitive exibility is tested word association task subjects are presented with a stimulus word such as tree and asked to respond with the rst word that comes to mind a broader range of associations in word association task and more associations among those in a positive affective state similarity and differences task asking for similarities and differences between two things 0 examples what are the similarities and what are the differences among snack foods What are the similarities among people in this classroom and what are the differences among people in this classroom a High positive affect subjects answered with more original answers and more answers Diagnostic tasks a type of problem solving a Better solutions to diagnostic problems among physicians can organize information in different ways a Positive affect subjects perform better than controls on the ckerse Duncker39s candle problem a person is given a candle a box of tacks and a book of matches and asked to attach the candle to the wall so that it will burn without dripping wax on the table or oor a Remote associations task subjects are presented with three words and a blank line and asked to respond with a word that relates to each of the three words 0 Ex mower atomic foreign power 0 Ex gown club mare night Positive Affect amp the Ability to Negotiate Positive affect increases the ability to negotiate Less likely to 0 Break off negotiations o Engage in aggressive tactics o More likely to 0 Reach an agreement 0 Reach the optimal agreement in the situation 0 Enjoy the task more than controls Positive Affect and Motivation 0 Motivated to maintain current positive mood state 0 Dispositional theory of moods o Appraisal tendency theory 0 No general increase in motivation Will help a stranger if the stranger is not depressed because the person wants to stay in their motivated state 0 Increase in perceived incentive value of winning the lottery or getting a job 0 Increased enjoyment or pleasure from relatively positive material and situations 0 Increased likelihood of engaging in activities that are enjoyable or expected to be fun Affect Regulation 0 Risk aversive when you re in a happy state you want to stay happy so you won t risk losing all your money o Bet less 0 Require a higher probability of winning opposite of distressed affective state In uence of Positive Affect on Interpersonal Interactions 0 PA promotes helpfulness generosity friendliness sociability tendency to be kind to self and others Improves social connectedness o Improves the ability to see situations from another s point of view 0 Enhanced social interactions promote affect regulation amp keep mood positive SUMMARY People in a positive affective state 0 Show a better ability to negotiate Show a higher level of cognitive exibility o Are better at looking at problems from a different perspective