Topic 7: In what way does an individual’s temperament influence his or her emotional life?
Topic 7: In what way does an individual’s temperament influence his or her emotional life? PSY 311
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Rinaldi on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 311 at University of Miami taught by Ray Winters in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 114 views. For similar materials see Emotion in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Topic 7 In what way does an individual s temperament in uence his or her emotional life Temparament s In uences on an Individual s Personality Psychosocial life experiences biological factors inborn dispositions brain chemistry innate emotional proclivities o Temperament is a component of personality that has a biological basis Question becomes what is relationship between an individual s temperament and his emotions and moods on a regular basis Answer an individual s personality in uences the way he appraises incentives and threats De nition of Incentive Something such as the expectation of reward or relief from anxiety that induces action or increases motivational effort motivates someone to do something 0 Positive incentive expectation of reward 0 Negative incentive relief from anxiety Neurobiological Substrates of Temperament 0 Brain structures thought to form the basis for temperament About emotions o BAS behavioral activation system reward system ventral tegmental area nucleus accumbens o BIS behavioral inhibition system anxiety system amygdala About cognition 0 Executive control system aka effortful control system 0 The neural structure associated with this function is the prefrontal cortex Appraisal of Positive Incentives and the Brain s Reward System BAS BAS modulates approach motivation at the nucleus accumbens in the limbic system 0 Emotional experience subjective experiential component of emotion is one of hope excitement enthusiasm anticipatory pleasure and motivated behavior 0 Goes along with being motivated to reach a goal o On the way to reaching a goal not once you ve already reachedit 0 Person anticipates future reward or relief from anxiety How is BAS Activated Incentive stimulus rouses and moves the person to action 0 Positive incentive stimuli and negative incentive stimuli activate BAS when there is an appraisal of potential reward or possible relief from anxiety 0 Positive incentive stimulus PIS signals that there is a reward to be obtained Social rewards PIS praise compliments words of appreciation affection attention a thank you reaching a goal being with a friend 0 Negative incentive stimulus signals that there is an action that will allow the person to relieve her anxiety Social punishments rejection failure criticism fault nding being ignored being neglected o BAS sensitivity to incentives underlies the personality trait of extraversion o Extraverts are highly sensitive to incentives so incentive stimuli is valuable to them when they make appraisals Brain Structures In uenced by BAS o BAS neurons originate in the ventral tegmental area Secretion of dopamine can increase activity in the nucleus accumbens o Increases incentive approach motivation feelings of hope excitement enthusiasm and anticipatory pleasure DOPAMINE is the neurotransmitter secreted by BAS neurons at the nucleus accumbens Scientists who study drug addiction are particularly interested in dopamine and BAS because 0 Most addictive drugs increase DOPAMINE secretion by BAS neurons 0 This underlies the elevation in mood high produced by these psychoactive drugs Addiction results when excessive use of the drug decreases the sensitivity of BAS to incentives Down regulation of dopamine receptors occurs when someone is addicted to a drug leads to depressed mood and loss of motivation Appraisal of Threat and the Brain s Anxiety System BIS What Brain structures are involved in the emotion of anxiety Anxiety and the Amygdala o The emotion of anxiety is generated when an appraisal of threat of social punishment is made 0 Amygdala is the structure in the brain that is most closely associated with an appraisal of threat 0 Someone with an amygdala that is sensitive to threat is more likely to o be in an anxious mood 0 make an appraisal of threat in response to an event or change in circumstances 0 It leads to avoidance motivation Anxiety 0 Anxiety is an emotion that is generated when an appraisal of threat is made Anticipatory emotion the person is emotionally distressed even though nothing bad has happened yet Emotional distress based on uncertainty about the possibility of a negative outcome in the future I Cingulate gyrus Mammillal39sy WW I Thalamus Fornix I V Hypothalamus Hippocampus Amygdala F326 Parts of the limbic sYst em l Brain Structures Underlying Temperament BIS o BIS is involved in the processing of threat 0 BIS activation is linked to o avoidance motivation o the emotion of anxiety in response to an appraisal of threat 0 When an appraisal of threat is made BIS inhibits BAS activity 0 BIS is capable of stopping approach behavior and decreasing incentive motivation BIS decreases activity in BAS in response to an appraisal of threat BIS is a stop system BAS is a go system BAS is a go system that can be inhibited by BIS Reactive Reward system BAS is important for approaching rewards and relief from anxiety Reactive punishment system BIS is important for avoiding punishment by stopping behavior or withdrawal 0 They compete for control of behavior decisions the outcome of the competition is dependent on the sensitivity of the two systems Most Emotionally Signi cant Situations Activate BAS and BIS Example meeting a new person 0 BAS more sensitive than BIS go for it o BIS more sensitive than BAS person would be less likely to engage in social activities 0 Example changing career goals starting new business 0 BAS anticipation of success 0 BIS anticipation of failure BAS vs BIS When you are seeking a reward there is usually a threat of failure or rejection 0 Relative sensitivity of BAS and BIS becomes important in emotion and decision making 0 If someone s BAS is more sensitive than BIS o more likely to make an appraisal of an incentive 0 will experience hope approach motivation and positive somatic markers in decision making 0 If someone s BIS is more sensitive than BAS 0 person is more likely to make an appraisal of threat 0 will experience anxiety avoidance motivation negative somatic markers in decision making motivation generated by positive incentives can combine with motivation generated by negative incentives to increase the individual s overall motivation 0 example students not motivated to study after they have taken an exam even though there s a positive incentive of a good grade on the next exam 0 anxiety increases as the exam gets closer 0 negative incentive relief of anxiety wasn t there right after last exam 0 combination of positive incentive and negative incentive lead to increased motivation to study Neurotransmitter Secreted by BIS Neurons norepinephrine is associated with the increased attentiveness when a person is anxious Do BAS and BIS in uence mood as well as emotions BAS and BIS activity form the substrate for a person s mood and emotion o Other neurotransmitters are involved Roles of BIS and BAS in Making Decisions 0 Once an automatic emotion is generated it is used in making decisions via somatic markers 0 The motivational component of the emotion either says 0 Positive somatic marker Go for it because you will receive a reward or actively avoid punishment Generated when BAS is activated 0 Negative somatic marker danger stay away or you will be punished Generated when BIS is activated AutomaticEmotional Decisions 0 Activation of BIS neurons of BAS neurons leads to automatic decisions 0 Automatic decisions decisions based on the rst emotional reaction that occurs without thinking Referred to as emotional decisions The Role of BIS and BAS in DecisionMaking Structures of the limbic system BIS and BAS mediate automatic decisions and behaviors based on automatic emotional reactions 0 Automatic decisions 0 do not require thought 0 require an automatic emotional reaction based on an appraisal of incentives and threats BAS one limbic system involved in automatic decisions 0 Activated when the appraisal process says there is an incentive in the environment BIS other limbic system involved in automatic decisions 0 Activated when an appraisal of threat is made 0 inclination is to stop or withdraw examples of automatic decisions based on automatic emotional reactions 0 BAS approach someone offers you your favorite sweet chocolate 0 BAS approach you see an expensive item at the store that you would like very much to have BAS approach someone invites you to a party 0 BIS avoid someone invites you to Minnesota in January 0 BIS avoid you have an appointment with the dentist tomorrow 0 Cognitive Factors in Personality amp Emotion The Executive effortful Control System 0 Prefrontal cortex is most important in executive control 0 advanced cognitive functions planning reasoning inhibition of impulses thinking judgment decisionmaking based on thought and planning rather than automatic emotional reactions Personality Triangle Limbic system 0 a complex system of nerves and networks in the brain involving several areas near the edge of the cortex concerned with instinct mood basic emotions fear pleasure anger and drives hunger sex dominance care of offspring o BAS important for approaching rewards or actively avoiding punishment 0 BIS o Prefrontal cortex 0 ExecutiveEffortful control system can override the outcome of the competition between BIS and BAS Properties of Effortful Control System amp Relationship with Limbic System Deters the tendency to act impulsively o Anticipates future emotional consequences of actions amp makes decisions accordingly Decisionmaking goes beyond immediate cues of incentive BAS or threat BIS 0 Provides cautious analytical planful way of proceeding 0 Effortful control system is conscious cautious deliberate thoughtful analytic planful anticipatory o Operates consciously uses logical rules verbal deliberative slow not automatic Other Characteristics of Executive Control System ECS is superordinate to BAS and BIS and can override both automatic systems 0 Approach BAS and avoidance BIS systems respond to short term contingencies without consideration for long term consequences Effortful control system takes long term consequences into account Situations that require Effortful Control over decisions based on automatic emotional reactions from activation of BIS andor BAS someone offers you your favorite sweet chocolate but you are on a diet 0 you see an expensive item at the store that you would like very much to have but you are broke and would have to use a credit card someone invites you to Minnesota in January but that is when your nephew plays ice hockey you have an appointment with the dentist tomorrow but you think of the long term consequences of not going someone invites you to a party but you have an exam the next day 2 Videos 0 The Human Brain How We Decide 0 California Academy of Science 0 YouTube Dopamine in Base cliff Jumping o The Secret Life of the Brain 0 Youtube 0 Note the woman s con ict between BAS hope and approach motivation to jump and BIS fear and avoidance motivation to not jump and the in uence of the prefrontal cortex on the nal decision Dopamine most important before the jump BIS BAS and the Big Five Personality Model Extraversion versus introversion sociable assertive energetic experiences positive emotions enthusiastic Agreeabeness versus antagonism trusting forgiving not demanding warm compliant not stubborn modest not showoff sympathetic Conscientiousness versus lack of direction competent organized efficient dutiful not careless thorough high level of selfdiscipline deliberate not impulsive Neurotic5m versus emotional stability anxious irritable depressed not content selfconscious moody impulsive Openness versus closed to experience imaginative curious artistic wide interests excitable unconvenUonaL Personality Characteristics Related to BAS extroverts people with high BAS sensitivity to incentives report that their lives are full and interesting friendly assertive hopeful optimistic gregarious and outgoing more likely to approach and assert themselves in situations that lead to reward such as success and money but particularly situations involving social rewards lntroverts people with low BAS sensitivity to incentives reserved retiring aloof less energetic enthusiastic and motivated particularly with regard to social rewards Personality Characteristics Related to BIS Individuals with high BIS sensitivity to threat are said to be high on the personality trait of Neurotic5m High BIS people 0 Experience higher levels of anxiety 0 more likely to become depressed o introspective show a lot of selfexamination with respect to their own feelings and thoughts 0 look at the negative aspects of themselves others and the world and are highly dissatis ed with life 0 report living highlv stressful lives because of their bias in appraisal amp are easily stressed by life s circumstance Individuals with low BIS Sensitivity to threat are said to be low on the personality trait of Neuroticism Low BIS people Experience low levels of psychological distress not anxious don39t worry at lot are calm and relaxed self satis ed content and secure lClicker Questions BAS shows highest level of activity when individual is PURSUING a reward BIS can stop activity in BAS Synaptic transmitter for Bas is dopamine BIS is activated when threat is made BAS increases an individual s incentive motivation by its in uence on the nucleus accumbens Amygdala is most closely associated with fear and anxiety What to BAS and BIS have in common They both underlie anticipatory emotions Only BAS secretes dopamine Norepinephrine is the neurotransmitter that underlies the increased vigilance that occurs when a person is anxious or fearful BIS Most addictive drugs increase the secretion of dopamine by BAS BAS is a go system that can be stopped when an appraisal of threat is made BAS becomes activated when an appraisal of threat is made if the person can take some action that will help her avoid the threat BIS is activated when person withdraws from anxiety provoking situation Bis and bas are involved in automatic decisions Bis only provides negative somatic markers and bas only provides positive somatic markers