Topic 8: The Role of Temperament in Emotional Health
Topic 8: The Role of Temperament in Emotional Health PSY 311
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Rinaldi on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 311 at University of Miami taught by Ray Winters in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Emotion in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Topic 8 The Role of Temperament in Emotional Health The Three Temperament Theory of the role of Temperament in Emotional Health Rothbart and Eisenberg argues for three basic temperamental systems 0 reactive implicit system for approaching rewards BAS o reactive implicit system for the avoidance of punishment BIS o effortfu control explicit system that can override both implicit systems 0 created to help understand emotionbased socia adjustment problems in children and adolescents o innate biological factors underlie many of these problems useful to apply ideas and thinking from this theory to adult emotional health problems 0 many disorders involve imbalances in the temperament triangle BIS BAS ECS where one of them gains control Effortful Control System re ective system 0 can diminish the role of either reactive system in determining behavior BIS amp BAS respond to shortterm contingencies without consideration for longterm consequences the effortful control system takes longterm consequences into account Operates mostly consciously uses ogica rules is verbal deliberative slow provides a more cautious analytical planful way of proceeding anticipates the future affective consequences of actions makes decisions accordingly beyond immediate cues of incentive or threat deters the tendency to act impulsively superordinate to BIS amp BAS mediates activation control it can override re exive tendencies to not act eg doing something boring getting a sedentary adult to exercise doing something that is difficult o motivates attentional control 0 a n attentional control system amp a n inhibitory control system 0 has the ability to suppress BAS when appropriate Big 5 Personality Model amp Effortful Control System Extraversion versus introversion sociable assertive energetic experiences positive emotions enthusiastic Agreeabeness versus antagonism trusting forgiving not demanding warm compliant not stubborn modest not showoff sympathetic Conscientiousness versus lack of direction competent organized efficient dutiful not careless thorough high level of selfdiscipline deliberate not impulsive Neurotic5m versus emotional stability anxious irritable depressed not content selfconscious moody impulsive Openness versus closed to experience imaginative curious artistic wide interests excitable unconventional Types of Adjustment Problems in Children and Adolescents Reactive undercontrol situations where BAS dominates o Relates to impulsive and externalizing disorders ex proactive aggression stealing impulsivity manipulativeness explosive emotional reactions antisocial behavior Reactive overcontrol situations where BIS dominates o Relates to behavioral inhibition and internalizing disorders ex social anxiety behaviorally inhibited in relating to others Symptoms of Depression 0 State of despondency marked by feelings of powerlessness and hopelessness Changes in sleep eating habits Decrease in motivation to seek rewards Feel worthless sad and alone BAS is very low BIS is very high 0 Alice M example Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder 0 Mania 0 High BAS low BIS BAS activity is poorly regulated by serotonin so it can gain control of Temperament Triangle Person shows no fear or anxiety because BIS activity is low ECS shows low functioning o Hyperactive talkative racing mind grandiose optimistic energized sensitive to incentives Activity in nucleus accumbens increases 0 Strong stimulants such as methamphetamine amp cocaine evoke behaviors at high doses that are similar to a bipolar individual experiencing a manic episode 0 0 Individuals sometimes show symptoms of mania and sometimes depression 0 Dopamine levels 0 high BAS activity high dopamine levels 0 low BAS activity low dopamine levels 0 Robert B example of dentistry People who are more likely to become depressed Have high neuroticism Anxiety disorders such as GAD Generalized anxiety disorder characterized by chronic excessive worrying the cognitive component of the emotion of anxiety about a number of events and activities accompanied by at least three of the following symptoms restlessness or feeling keyed up or on edge 0 a sense of being easily fatigued difficulty concentrating or mind going blank 0 irritability muscle tension 0 sleep disturbances Stress Anxiety and Depression 0 when someone is under a lot of stress 0 amygdala becomes more active 0 BIS activity increases 0 Avoidance motivation increases 0 Person feels anxious lf stress is extremely intenseprolonged o BIS may become so high that it shuts down BAS 0 When BAS is shut down the person loses incentive motivation and becomes depressed People tend to treat high levels of anxiety with alcohol ADD 0 Symptoms o Fails to give close attention to details 0 Difficulty in sustaining attention 0 Does not listen when spoken to directly 0 Doesn t follow through on instructions or nish schoolworkduties Difficulty in organizing tasks Avoids tasks requiring sustained attention 0 Loses things necessary for tasks forgetful distractible OO Role 0 O O of ECS in ADD Dysfunctions in ECS interfere with an individual s ability to control his own behavior produces an inattentive impulsive person who has difficulty voluntarily allocating cognitive resources attention in situations involving sustaining attention Barkley s theory of ADD There are 5 executive abilities that are being disrupted in ADD 1 the mind s brakes To exhibit selfrestraint or inhibition 2 the mind s eye inability to have hindsight or foresight to visualize 3 the mind s voice for self direction to provide instructions and clarify thinking 4 the ability to control your emotions inhibiting strong emotions buying time to reappraise situation rede ne it develop different response 5 the mind s playground used for inventive problem solving 0 Example 0 0 Young children have very little ability to refrain from acting on an impulse ie to inhibit their behavior more typical for a young child to quotact outquot the things that pop into his or her mind when a young child is able to refrain from acting on impulse it is often because something in the immediate surroundings keeps him or her from doing so the child may refrain from throwing a toy when frus trated because his mother is present and he knows he will be punished if he throws it BIS is activated NOT executive control system an older child may also have the impulse to smash a toy but does not act on this impulse because she or he can antici pate the following future consequences He won t have the toy to play with later on His parents would be upset if he broke his new toy He would be upset for letting down his parents amp letting his temper get out of control In this example the child has learned to inhibit and regulate his behavior based on internal controls rules guidelines and standards Individuals with good self control can do this His behavior is not going to be the result of the immediate threat of external consequences by his mother but what is on his mind about future consequences 0 the ADD person shows poor selfcontrol and would respond to the immediate threat not the future consequences 0 in summary the ADD individual s de cits in executive functioning speci cally response inhibition renders him compelled to respond to what is right in front of him now rather than to what is on his mind one thing that might be on his mind is the future consequences of responding to what is right in front of him may have excellent ideas amp plans for the future but feels compelled to respond to immediate stimuli decisions are based on BAS and BIS with poor regulation from ECS Treatment of ADD 0 ADD is treated with stimulants Ritalin Adipex Adderal that increase executive function by facilitating affect dopamine and norepinephrine transmission in the prefrontal cortex 0 Note dosage issues with stimulation of BAS Conduct Disorder in terms of BIS BAS and Executive Control 0 A persistent pattern in which the rights of others or major age appropriate societal norms or rules are violated Behaviors include o Aggressive conduct which threatens physical harm to other people or animals 0 Nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage 0 Deceitfulness or theft 0 Serious violations of rules or laws 2 Important Factors in Conduct Disorder 0 insensitive threat system 0 BAS controls BIS 0 Insuf cient executive control 0 De cit in inhibition for conduct disorder is different from de cit in inhibition shown by ADD individual 2 Factors in Generalized Anxiety Disorder 0 Diminished executive control thought to be involved 0 Dispositional anxiety thought to be related to overly sensitive threat system iCIicker False BAS mediates activation control answer is ECS False people with ADD have a BIS that is overly sensitive to threat Externalizing disorders reactive undercontrol BAS dominates nothing to do w BIS During manic episode in a person with bipolar disorder BAS gains control in triangle high levels of dopamine In individuals with high anxiety BIS decreases activity in BAS ADD is inability to regulate behavior by internal controls
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