Topic 10: Behavioral Regulation of Anger
Topic 10: Behavioral Regulation of Anger PSY 311
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Rinaldi on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 311 at University of Miami taught by Ray Winters in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 50 views. For similar materials see Emotion in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Topic 10 Behavioral Regulation of Anger Lazarus Model Two Types of Coping EVEN T DR CHANGE IN CIRCUT39UISTANCES PREIARY APPRAISAL v EMOTIONAL REACTION w SECONDARY APPRAISAL A ACTIEE CDPING CDGNITI HE CDPING Problem focused coping Emo un fucused coping active coping managing or correcting the distressing situation itself 0 problemfocused coping o breaking a romantic attachment changing your major cognitive copingreappraisal changing the personal meaning of the situation 0 emotionfocused coping o quotI didn t like him anyway H M he was selfcenteredquot SocialCommunication function of Emotions communication of emotions facilitates interpersonal relationships in groups 0 interpersonalfunction 0 whereas other functions are intrapersonal functions De ning Anger intrapersonal o anger de ned in terms of goals cognitive contribution anger as a moral emotion o anger de ned in terms of the ego cognitive contribution attribution of blame interpersonal o anger as a social emotion authors of intrapersonal amp interpersonal de nitions use the discrete approach to the study of emotions Core Appraisals are appraisals stated in terms of goals sadness loss of valued goal happiness successful move towardscompletion of valued goal anger blocking or frustration of a valued goal through a perceived agent fearanxiety physical or social threat to self or valued goal disgust elimination or distancing from person object or idea repulsive to the self and to valued goals lntrapersonal De nitions of Anger Power amp Dalgleish say there are two important components of the appraisal process when anger is evoked 0 Core appraisal being blocked in pursuit of a goal by an external agent 0 Moral appraisal attributions of intent negligence accountability or blame Power amp Dalgleish contend that anger is a moral emotion 0 They say de ning anger in terms of goals alone ignores the importance of the role of cognition in making an appraisal that generates anger 0 Example o If you step on somebody s toe by accident it is okay because it was an accident o If someone stomps on your toe on purpose because they don t like you it s not okay morally o If you step on a cat s tail accidentally the cat is not capable of moral appraisal so it will still be mad Lazarus lntrapersonal De nition of Anger A demeaning offense to me or mine Attribution of blame anger is considered a moral emotion Similar to Rozin and Haidt textbook de nition anger occurs when there is a violation of autonomy Tavris Interpersonal De nition of Anger There must be an injustice the breaking of a rule of a social construct of a social system applies to all cultures not biased One must believe that an act is unfair to experience anger Tarvis speaks of anger as a social event and stresses the importance in the regulation of behavior with respect to rules of a social contract Advantage of this de nition 0 Lazarus and Tavris de nitions of anger are compatible o Lazarus de nition can be viewed in terms of a broken rule people should be treated with respect and dignity Cultural differences in the expression of anger in terms of breaking the rules of a social contract 0 Among the Utkas there is no situation in which anger is considered a justi able or appropriate reaction 0 In the Nomad Society ofKungs anger is only expressed when someone fails to share foodwater Both types of societies live in harsh environments where cooperation is essential for survival 0 Social con ict must be kept at a minimum for the sake of survival in the face of famines and droughts lndividualistic socieities 0 Encourage the expression of anger iClicker o Anger acts as a personal judiciary in societies where individual rights are valued more than the collective good 0 Personal judiciary it s all in your hands you have to look out for yourself you are the enforcer of the rule the judge and the jury Replication Theory of Marriage according to Tarvis why people are more angry argue more during initial stage of marriage 0 Marriage involves two people trying to confer their goals values beliefs worldviews customs and social norms to their children 0 The quotrulesquot that people have learned 0 Often times these rules are not the same for two individuals particularly if they have different ethnic backgrounds De nitions of World View 1 the overall perspective from which one sees and interprets the world 2 a collection of beliefs about life and the universe held by an individual or group 3 a theory of the world a mental model of reality a framework or ideas amp attitudes about the world ourselves and life a comprehensive system of beliefs with answers for a wide range of questions 4 the basic way of interpreting events that pervades a culture so thoroughly that it becomes a culture s concept of reality a what is good what is important what is sacred what is real b worldview is more than culture even though the distinction between the two can sometimes be subtle c extends to perceptions of time amp space of happiness and wellbeing d the beliefs values and behaviors of a culture stem directly from its worldview Anger Frustration Aggression and Assertiveness Aggression o to do harm to others or use aversive control by actions or words 0 usually involves social punishment 0 3 types of aggression physical aggression bodily harm verbal aggression hurting with words or using aversive control temper tantrums guilt threats passive aggression hurting by withholding something that the victim of the aggression wants the cold shoulder frustration being blocked in pursuit of a goal 0 anger 0 an emotion being blocked in pursuit of a goal by an outside agent with accountability 0 requires an appraisal to be elicited and can have intrapersonal or interpersonal function assertiveness expression of thoughts and feelings without being hurtful insulting or demeaning relationship between anger and aggression o instrumental aggression getting what you want by using aggression sales clerk example a lady in a store was yelling at the sales clerk because she was trying to get her money back for a dress she bought 2 years ago amp already wore and cleaned She got her money back because she was so aggressive intrapersonal function of anger involves aggressive behavior 0 exacting justice by using aggression justice by retaliation quotan eye for an eyequot law of retaliation setting right the wrong by returning in kind and degree retaliation is the action tendency for anger a link between anger and aggression interpersonal function of anger that involves aggressive behavior Ways of Exacting Justice Without Aggression 0 restorative justice 0 exacting justice by countering a wrong with a socially constructive act 0 ex community service assigned by judge to certain criminals 0 ex diamond ring Kobe cheated on his wife but then bought her a ring 0 cognitive coping reconciliation by forgiveness o apologyforgiveness method justice by mercy 0 individuals with low selfesteem have a difficult time achieving reconciliation by forgiveness 0 people who use forgiveness as opposed to seeking retaliatory justice report less depression hostility and anger are more hopeful and experience higher selfesteem Anger Expression in Western Cultures Tavris asserts that anger acts as a personal judiciary in societies where an individual s rights need to be respected Assertiveness model of anger expressions taught in western cultures re ects this view and minimizes retaliation Tavris two rules for effective anger expression 0 1 Anger must be directed towards the source of your anger o 2 The way in which anger is expressed toward the target should minimize defensiveness and the aggressive expression of anger Displaced Aggression Aggression toward an objectperson that is not the source of the anger 0 Examples Tavris rule 1 o verbal aggression toward someone who is not source of the anger quotthe chain of ventilation 0 physical aggression toward a wall quotbashing the bossquot helped workers vent their anger toward bosses Ventilation Theory of Coping says this is a good way to cope with anger Situational speci city since anger can t be directed to the target the coping method depends on the circumstances Minimizing Aggression when Confronting the Source of the Anger Tavris Rule 2 Confronting the source of anger often leads to defensiveness 0 quotThat s not me I m not rude hurtful inconsiderate or insensitivequot o the best way to minimize defensiveness is to use assertive behavior rather than aggressive behavior since aggression leads to defensiveness o passivity not saying anything accomplishes nothing and angry person may harbor resentment quotYou messagesquot 0 aggressive o insults threats rude or condescending statements 0 quotIf you don t turn down your stereo I will call the copsquot 0 quotyou are wrongselfish 0 quotyour test was unfair bc there were a lot of ambiguous queonnsquot quotl messagesquot 0 assertive o communicating feelings and thoughts without being demeaning rude or insulting o quotI am having a difficult time studying I can t concentrate because the volume is too highquot 0 quotl disagreel am offended by what you saidquot 0 quotI studied hard and still did poorly How can I improvequot Disadvantages of the Passive and Aggressive Approaches to Coping with Anger passive 0 individuals often feel inadequate used exploited and demeaned by others 0 not good for selfschema 0 leads to gunnysacking individual explodes with aggression after harboring resentment and hostility aggression o aggression begets creates aggression counteraggression is expected 0 even if there is no counteraggression the receiver of the aggression often harbors resentment has bitter amp hostile feelings toward aggressor iCHcker o cognitive coping is changing the personal meaning of event by appraising event not active 0 an emotional reaction occurs before secondary appraisal takes place anger not frustration has a subjectiveexperiential component somatic component cognitive component and motivational component
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