Chapter 1 Book Notes
Chapter 1 Book Notes psy 240
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Rinaldi on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to psy 240 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Parlade in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see abnormal psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Chapter 1 Abnormal Psychology Past and Present Abnormal psychology the scienti c study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe predict explain and change abnormal patterns of functioning What is psychological abnormality A many de nitions have been proposed but none have won total acceptance B 4 D s 1 Deviance a Abnormal behavior thoughts and emotions that differ markedly from a society s ideas about proper functioning b Different societies have different values and the values of a single society can change over time so deviance depends on the time and place 2 Distress a Some people willfully do deviant activities and enjoy them b Therefore in order to be considered abnormal there must also be a certain level of distress always present from these activities 3 Dysfunction a Interferes with daily functioning to the point where it upsets distracts or confuses people so that they cannot care for themselves work or participate in social interactions b Dysfunction alone doesn t classify an abnormality because some people choose to deprive themselves of things they need to take a stand on an issue 4 Danger a Individuals that display careless hostile or confused behavior may be dangerous to themselves and others b Most people with anxiety depression or bizarre thinking pose no immediate danger C Elusive nature of abnormality 1 Thomas Szasz found the concept of mental illness to be a myth quotproblems in livingquot rather than something being wrong with a person 2 Some behaviors may be familiar but still abnormal or conversely eccentric but not so far as being abnormal D Agreedupon de nition of psychological abnormalities patterns of functioning that are deviant distressful dysfunctional and sometimes dangerous Treatment A a procedure designed to change abnormal behavior B 3 features of therapy 1 2 3 a sufferer who seeks relief from the healer a trained healer whose expertise is accepted by the sufferer a series of contacts between the healer and sufferer through which the healer tries to produce certain changes in the sufferer s emotional state attitudes and behaviors How was abnormality viewed and treated in the past A 30 of adults and 19 of childrenadolescents each year need clinical treatment B Every society has witnessed psychological abnormality 1 Ancient views and treatments a Abnormal behavior is the work of evil spirits b Cure is to force demons from victim s bodies exorcism c Trephination an operation in which a stone instrument was used to cut away a circular section of the skull to treat abnormal behavior might actually be for battle wounds Greek amp Roman views and treatments a Hippocrates taught that illnesses had natural causes and abnormal behavior was caused from internal physical problems b As treatment Hippocrates sought to correct the underlying physical pathology Europe in the middle ages demonology returns a Clergy had the power so they rejected science and focused on religious beliefs b War urban uprising plagues etc caused stress and anxiety leading to mental illness The renaissance and the rise of asylums a Flourishing cultural and scienti c activity caused demonological views of abnormality to decHne b Humane treatment was on the rise where people would take care of others c Asylums began with good intentions but then became prisonlike with lthy conditions and cruel workers 19th century reform and moral treatment a treatment began improving again becoming more moral b Benjamin Rush quotfather of psychiatryquot developed humane approaches to treatment c Dorothea Dix led campaigns for humane care and was the reason states developed state hospitals to offer moral treatment d Moral treatment eventually declined due to money and staff shortages declining recovery rates and overcrowding in the hospitals 6 Early 20th century somatogenic amp psychogenic perspectives a Somatogenic abnormal psychological function has physical causes i Emil Kraepelin developed rst modern system for classifying abnormal behavior ii New biological discoveries like syphilis which affects mind and body also led to this perspective iii Many medical treatment techniques failed to work b Psychogenic chief causes of abnormal functioning are psychological i Hypnotism was used to treat physiological disorders ii Freud developed psychoanalysis the theorytreatment of abnormal mental functioning that emphasizes unconscious psychological forces as the cause of psychopathology he believed unconscious psychological processes are at the root of such functioning IV Current trends A people still believe that mental disorders are brought upon by the sufferer and they are caused by sinful behavior B how are people with severe disturbances cared for 1 psychotropic medications drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning 2 deinstitutionalization releasing hundreds of thousands of patients from public mental hospitals 3 short term hospitalizations C how are people with less severe disturbances treated 1 Outpatient care 2 4 Private psychotherapy an arrangement by which an individual directly pays a psychotherapist for counseling services 16 adults in the US receives treatment for physiological disorders in the course of a year but most people last for fewer then 5 sessions centers developed for speci c types of problems ex suicide or anorexia D a growing emphasis on preventing disorders and promoting mental health 1 prevention rather than wait for psychological disorders to occur many of todays community programs try to correct the social conditions that underlie psychological problems positive psychology the study and enhancement of positive feelings such as optimism and happiness positive traits like hard work and wisdom positive abilities and groupdirected virtues E multicultural psychology seeks to understand how culture race ethnicity gender and similar factors affect behavior andthought F growing in uence of insurance coverage 1 2 3 managed care program program in which the insurance company determines such key issues as which therapists its clients may choose the cost of sessions and the number of sessions for which a client may be reimbursed therapists and patients fear that not enough therapy is covered new law passed requiring equal coverage for mental and medical problems G mental health professionals in the US include psychiatrists psychologists social workers and counselors
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