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Chapter 2 Book Notes

by: Alicia Rinaldi

Chapter 2 Book Notes psy 240

Marketplace > University of Miami > Psychlogy > psy 240 > Chapter 2 Book Notes
Alicia Rinaldi
GPA 3.7
abnormal psychology
Dr. Parlade

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About this Document

Book notes on chapter 2 of Abnormal Psychology by Ronald J. Comer, 8th edition.
abnormal psychology
Dr. Parlade
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Rinaldi on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to psy 240 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Parlade in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see abnormal psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 09/08/15
Chapter 2 Research in Abnormal Psychology What do clinical researchers do A try to discover universal laws or principles of abnormal psychological thinking B nomothetic general a general understanding of nature of abnormality C use the scienti c method to perform case studies and test hypotheses logic alone isn t enough The case study A case study a detailed description of a person s life and psychological problems B how are case studies helpful 1 2 3 source of new ideas about behavior and open the way for discoveries show the value of new therapeutic techniques or unique applications of existing techniques offer opportunities to study unusual problems that do not occur often enough to permit a large number of observations C What are the limitations of case studies 1 2 3 4 Reported by biased observers Rely on subjective evidence Internal validity the accuracy with which a study can pinpoint one of various possible factors as the cause of a phenomenon External validity the degree to which the results of a study may be generalized beyond that study D The Correlational Method 1 2 3 Correlation the degree to which events or characteristics vary with each other correlational method a research procedure used to determine this quotcorelationshipquot between variables describing a correlation a the line of best t is the line that is as close as possible to all data points b positive direction positive correlation c negative direction negative correlation d unrelated no consistent relationship between variables e magnitude or strength how closely two variables correspond f r correlation coefficient 1 to 1 4 when can correlations be trusted a Scientists test conclusions with statistical analysis of their data using principles of probability b If event is unlikely to occur by chance it is likely that their ndings re ect a real correlation c In order to be statistically signi cant p must be less than or equal to 05 5 What are the merits of the correlational method a Possesses high external validity b Easily replicable c Lacks internal validity d Correlations do not explain the relationship can t establish causation 6 Special forms of correlational research a Epidemiological study a study that measures the incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a given population i goal is to see that the disorder is present not to explain why it occurs b Incidence number of new cases of a disorder occurring in a population over a speci c period of time c Prevalence the total number of cases of a disorder occurring in a population over a speci c period of time d Longitudinal study a study that observes the same participants on many occasions over a long period of time E the experimental method 1 experiment a research procedure in which a variable is manipulated and the effect of the manipulation is observed 2 independent variable the variable in an experiment that is manipulated to determine whether it has an effect on another variable 3 dependent variable the variable in an experiment that is expected to change as the independent variable is manipulated 4 confound in an experiment a variable other than the independent variable that is also acting on the dependent variable 3rd party variable 5 control group in an experiment a group of participants who are not exposed to the independent variable a experimental group in an experiment the participants who are exposed to the independent variable under investigation b if experimental group has a different effect than that of the control group researchers can conclude that the independent variable affected the dependent variable c it is possible that the differences could have occurred by chance which is why researchers do statistical analysis to see if the results are statistically signi cant d statistical signi cance indicates whether a participant s condition changed because of the IV e clinical signi cance indicates whether the amount of improvement is meaningful in the individual s life only individuals and their clinicians can evaluate this 6 random assignment a selection procedure that ensures that participants are randomly placed either in the control group or in the experimental group a accounts for all confounding variables 7 blind design an experiment in which participants do not know whether they are in the experimental or the control condition a prevents against bias b placebo therapy a sham treatment that the participant in an experiment believes to be genuine c experimenter bias could occur when the experiment knows who is getting the treatment and who is getting the placebo and acts differently as a result d doubleblind design experimental procedure n which neither the participant nor the experimenter knows whether the participant has received the experimental treatment or a placebo e most medicinal experiments are double blind and use judges to assess the patients improvement F Alternative Experimental Designs 1 quasiexperimental design an experiment in which investigators make use of control and experimental groups that already exist in the world at large Also called a mixed design a for example when studying child abuse experimenters take children that have already been abused rather than abusing children to study them however this method introduces confounds into the study so experimenters try to match the experimental participants with control participants who are similar in age sex etc 2 natural experiment an experiment in which nature rather than an experimenter manipulates an independent variable a b a type of quasiexperiment used to study the psychological effects of unusual and unpredictable events such as natural disasters these experiments can t be repeated at will and since each event is unique broad generalizations made could be incorrect 3 analogue experiment a research method in which the experimenter produces abnormallike behavior in laboratory participants and then conducts experiments on the participants a b most often use animals but sometimes use humans example produce depressionlike symptoms in laboratory participants by showing them sad events that they have not control over drawback researchers can never be certain that the phenomena they see in the lab are the same as the real psychological disorder 4 singlesubject experiment a C a single participant is observed both before and after the manipulation of an independent variable baseline data serves as the basis of comparison for any data collected after manipulations ABAB or reversal design a participant s reactions are measured and compared not only during a baseline period A and after the introduction of the IV B but also after the IV has been removed A and after it has been reintroduced B


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