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Chapter 3 Book Notes

by: Alicia Rinaldi

Chapter 3 Book Notes psy 240

Marketplace > University of Miami > Psychlogy > psy 240 > Chapter 3 Book Notes
Alicia Rinaldi
GPA 3.7
abnormal psychology
Dr. Parlade

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About this Document

Book notes on chapter 3 of Abnormal Psychology by Ronald J. Comer, 8th edition.
abnormal psychology
Dr. Parlade
Class Notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Rinaldi on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to psy 240 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Parlade in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see abnormal psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 09/08/15
Chapter 3 Models of Abnormality l The Biological model A Model a set of assumptions and concepts that help scientists explain and interpret observations also called a paradigm B How do biological theorists explain abnormal behavior Biological theorists view abnormal behavior as an illness caused by malfunctioning parts of the organism 1 C Brain anatomy and abnormal behavior a b Neuron nerve cell glia is support cell Cerebrum includes cortex corpus callosum basal ganglia hippocampus and amygdala Huntington s disease is a disorder marked by violent emotional outbursts memory loss suicidal thinking involuntary body movements and absurd beliefs Brain chemistry and abnormal behavior a Psychological disorders can be related to problems in the transmission of messages from neuron to neuron Message received by dendrites end of neuron l neuron s axon l nerve ending l dendrites of other neurons Synapse the tiny space between the nerve ending of one neuron and the dendrite of another Neurotransmitter a chemical that released by one neuron crosses the synaptic space to be received at receptors on the dendrites of neighboring neurons Receptor a site on a neuron that receives a neurotransmitter Abnormal activities by certain neurotransmitters can lead to speci c mental disorders i Depression low activity of serotonin and norepinephrine Mental disorders are sometimes related to abnormal activity in the endocrine system i Endocrine system controls growth reproduction sexual activity heart rate body temp etc and also releases hormones ii Hormones the chemicals released by endocrine glands into the bloodstream iii Abnormal secretions of cortisol helps with stress have been tied to anxietymood disorders 4 Sources of biological abnormalities a Genetics and abnormal behavior i Each cell has 23 chromosomes each chromosome has genes segments that control the characteristics and traits we inherit ii Human genome project helped mapsequence all the genes so scientists could start seeing their link to mental disorders l still an emerging science b Evolution and abnormal behavior i Mutations abnormal forms of genes can be inherited and cause abnormalities ii Some theorists believe that many genes that contribute to abnormal functioning are the result of normal evolutionary principles iii In the past genes that made people more sensitive to danger were more likely to survive so now scientists think these same genes leave people more prone to anxiety disorders iv All these evolutionary ideas are controversial c Viral infections and abnormal behavior i Schizophrenia may be related to exposure to certain viruses during childhoodbefore birth ii Viruses enter fetus s brain and remain there until adolescence C Biological treatments 1 3 leading kinds of biological treatments used today are drug therapy electroconvulsive therapy and psychosurgery 2 psychotropic medications drugs that primarily affect the brain and reduce many symptoms of mental dysfunctioning a many people believe that these drugs are overused b 4 major psychotropic drugs i antianxiety minor tranquilizers that help reduce tension and anxiety ii antidepressant help improve the mood of people who are depressed iii antibipolar mood stabilizers that help steady the moods of those with bipolar disorder iv antipsychotic help reduce the confusion hallucinations and delusions of psychotic disorders 3 electroconvulsive therapy ECT a form of biological treatment used primarily on depressed patients in which a rain seizure is triggered as an electric current passes through electrodes attached to the patient s forehead given as 79 sessions spaced 23 days apart 4 psychosurgeryneurosurgery brain surgery for mental disorders a stem from obotomies but more precise b used only after no other treatment works after years of problems D assessing the biological model 1 this view is often very helpful but it can also limit our understanding of abnormal functioning because we need to understand the interplay between biological and nonbiological factors 2 many medicines produce undesirable side effects II The psychodynamic model A Theorists believe that a person s behavior is determined largely by underlying psychological forces of which he or she is not consciously aware B Formed by Freud amp Josef Breuer who conducted experiments on hypnosis and hysterical illnesses C Freud developed psychoanalysis to explain normal amp abnormal functioning as well as treatment for it also called psychoanalysis D How did freud explain normal and abnormal functioning 1 Unconscious level 2 The Id the psychological force that produces instinctual needs drives and impulses a Pleasure principle it always seeks grati cation b All id instincts are sexual c A person s libido or sexual energy fuels the id 3 The ego according to Freud the psychological force that employs reason and operates in accordance with the reality principle a Part of the id that separates off b Unconscioust seeks grati cation in accordance with the reality principle guides us to know when new can and cannot express our id impulses c Ego defense mechanisms strategies developed by the ego to control unacceptable id impulses and to avoid or reduce the anxiety they arouse i Repression prevents unacceptable impulse from reaching consciousness 4 The superego the psychological force that 5 represents a person s values and ideals a Conscience the guilt we feel when we go against our parents values b ld ego and superego are often in some degree of con ict too much con ict may be a sign of dysfunction Developmental stages a New stages in child development require changes in id ego and superego b Fixation a condition in which the id ego and superego do not mature properly and are frozen at an early stage of development c Remember 5 stages from psy110 oral anal phallic latency genital E How do other psychodynamic explanations differ from freud s 1 Ego theory the psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the role of the ego and considers it an independent force Self theory the psychodynamic theory that emphasizes the roll of the self our uni ed personality Object relations theory the psychodynamic theory that views the desire for relationships as the key motivating force in human behavior F Psychodynamic therapies 1 2 Seek to uncover past traumas and inner con icts that have resulted from them Free association a psychodynamic technique in which the patient describes any thought feeling or image that comes to mind even if it seems unimportant 3 Therapist interpretation Therapists listen draw conclusions and share their interpretations with the patient Resistance an unconscious refusal to participate fully in therapy changing the subject etc Transference according to psychodynamic theorists the redirection toward the psychotherapist of feelings associated with important gures in a patient s life now or in the past thinking you re falling in love with your therapist Dreams i Manifest content consciously remembered dream ii Latent content its symbolic meaning Catharsis a reliving of past repressed feelings to settle con icts and overcome problems goal of therapy Working through the psychoanalytic process of facing con icts reinterpreting feelings and overcoming one s problems Current trends in psychodymanic therapy I Short term psychodynamic therapy choose a single problem or quotdynamic focusquot to work on and work only on issues that relate to this problem ii Relational psychoanalytical therapy a form of psychodynamic therapy that considers therapists to be active participants in the formation of patients feelings and reactions and therefore calls for therapists to disclose their own experiences and feelings in discussions with patients therapists should also talk about themselves to build a stronger bond with their patients 4 Assessing the psychodynamic model a b Because of this model lots of researchers look beyond biological factors First to apply theory systematically to treatment Shortcomings i ld ego and superego are unconscious so there is no way to know if they are happening ii Therefore psychodynamic therapy has received limited research support over the years The Behavioral Model A B l39ll39l39lU G H Concentrates on behaviors the response an organism makes to its environment Behaviors can be 1 External doing something going somewhere 2 Internal thinking something feeling something Principles of learning the process by which these behaviors change in response to the environment applied to study and treatment of psychological problems to give rise to behavioral model Abnormal behaviors can be learned Conditioning simple forms of learning How do behaviorists explain abnormal functioning 1 Operant conditioning a process of learning in which behavior that leads to satisfying consequences is likely to be repeated 2 Modeling a process of learning in which an individual acquires responses by observing and imitating others 3 Classical conditioning a process of learning by temporal association in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in a person s mind and produce the same response Pavlov s dogs 4 Unconditioned stimulus US l Unconditioned response UR conditioned stimulus CS conditioned response CR Behavioral therapies 1 Aims to identify behaviors that are causing problems and tries to replace them with more appropriate ones with conditioning or modeling 2 Systematic desensitization a behavioral treatment in which clients with phobias speci c unreasonable fear learn to react calmly instead of with intense fear to the situations or objects they dread a Taught relaxation b Construct a fear hierarchy going from less scary to more scary and quotdesensitizequot throughout each step until fear is gone Assessing the behavioral model 1 Pro it can be tested in the lab psychodynamic theories can t 2 Cons improvements sometimes aren t seen outside therapy and they often don t last 3 Selfefficacy the belief that one can master and perform needed behaviors whenever necessary a This must be achieved in order for the behavioral model to work for a person 4 People started noticing that humans think more deeply than had been studied before which led to the cognitive model The cognitive model A Cognitive behavioral therapies therapy approaches that seek to help clients change both counterproductive behaviors and dysfunctional ways of thinking The cognitive modelAlbert Ellis amp Aaron Beck proposed that cognitive processes are at the center of behaviors thoughts emotions we can best understand abnormal functioning by looking into cognition How do cognitive theories explain abnormal functioning 1 Assumptions lead to inaccurate attitudes 2 lllogical thinking processes cause people to arrive at selfdefeating conclusions a ex Overgeneralization drawing broad conclusions based on unimportant event b ex couldn t remember a date in history thinking you re stupid for the rest of the day cognitive therapies therapies developed by Aaron Beck that help people recognize and change their faulty thinking process 1 people can overcome disorders by developing new more functional ways of thinking 2 clients are told to challenge their dysfunctional thoughts try new interpretations and apply the new ways of thinking in their daily lives assessing the cognitive model 1 many cognitive clinicians focus on client interpretations attitudes assumptions and other cognitive processes 2 unique to humans because it focuses on human thought 3 these therapies have proved effective for treating depression panic disorder social phobia and sexual dysfunction 4 drawbacks of cognitive therapies a cognitions could be a result of abnormality rather than a cause b they don t help everyone 5 6 c some proposed changes are not always possible to achieve d narrow cognition is only one part of human functioning new wave of cognitive therapists help clients accept problematic thoughts rather than judging them or trying to change them helps people be aware of these thoughts without being troubled by them mindfulnessbased techniques help people accept their own thoughts in a nonjudgmental way skipping humanisticexistential model the sociocultural model familysocial and multicultural perspectives A abnormal behavior is best understood in light of the broad forces that in uence an individual such as the norms of the individual s environment and cultural background B how do familysocial theorists explain abnormal functioning 1 argued that clinical theorists should focus on broad forces that operate directly on an individual family relationships social interactions and community events social labels and roles a people who function abnormally are often labeled quotdeviantquot and they learn to play that role b in a study 8 normal people were given the label schizophrenic and admitted into the hospital and even when their symptoms were gone they acted and were treated differently social connections and supports a communication is important in mental health b people with small social networkssupport systems are more likely to become depressed c some people who are unwilling to communicate in real life have tried to make up for this by using social networking sites family structure and communication a family systems theory a theory that views the family as a system of interacting parts whose interactions exhibit consistent patterns and unstated rules b some families with strange rules may produce abnormal functioning i enmeshed overinvolved family members ii disengagement rigid boundaries between members C familysocial treatments 1 group therapy a therapy format in which a group of people with similar problems meet together with a therapist to work on those problems a groups for the handicapped alcoholism divorce etc b research shows it s helpful c selfhelp group aka mutual help group a group made up of people with similar problems who help and support one another without the direct leadership of a clinician 2 family therapy a therapy format in which the therapist meets with all members of a family and helps them to change in therapeutic ways a in structural family therapy the therapist tries to change the power structure roles each person plays and the relationships between members b in conjoint family therapy therapists try to help members recognize and change harmful patterns of communication 3 couple therapy aka marital therapy a therapy format in which the therapist works with two people who share a longterm relationship a Focuses on structure and communication patterns of relationship b Therapists use cognitive behavioral therapy and integrative couple therapy where couples learn to accept what they cannot change 4 Community mental health treatment a treatment approach that emphasizes community care a Allows patients to receive help in familiar social surroundings b Prevention is an important focus in many communities i Primary prevention efforts to improve community attitudes and policies ii Secondary identifying and treating psychological disorders in the early stages iii Tertiary to provide effective treatment as soon as needed so that moderatesevere disorders do not become long term D How do multicultural theorists explain abnormal functioning 1 Culture the set of values attitudes beliefs history and behaviors shared by a group of people and communicated between generations 2 Modern view is more enlightened and realizes that somebody s cultural context may explain their abnormal behavior 3 Aside from culture there are also minority groups like homosexuals the poor women etc 4 Many prejudices against these groups exist that may also cause abnormalities E Multicultural treatments 1 These minority groups use less treatment amp show less improvement than those not in these groups 2 To increase effectiveness therapists must a Have greater sensitivity to cultural issues b Include cultural morals and models in treatment 3 Culturesensitive therapies approaches that seek to address the unique issues faced by members of minority groups including women gender sensitive therapies F Assessing the sociocultural model 1 Works well because therapists are more aware that cultural differences may cause abnormalities 2 Often difficult to interpret ndings and establish causation 3 Inability to predict abnormalities why don t all Indian people have depression 4 Multicultural explanation operates in conjunction with biologicalpsychological explanations G Putting it together 1 Biopsychosocial theories explanations that attribute the cause of abnormality to an interaction of genetic biological developmental emotional behavioral cognitive social and societal in uences 2 Diathesisstress explanation people must rst have a biological psychological or sociocultural predisposition to develop a disorder then be subjected to episodes of severe stress


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