Chapter 10 Book Notes
Chapter 10 Book Notes psy 240
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Rinaldi on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to psy 240 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Parlade in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see abnormal psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Chapter 10 Suicide I What is Suicide A Preface 1 2 3 Humans are the only organism who commit suicide intentionally One of the leading causes of death in the world and 10 in America with 36000 per year Numbers are often lower than the true number because of quotaccidentsquot or refusal to admit a loved one committed suicide because of the stigma that comes along with it Parasuicide a suicide attempt that does not result in death Suicidal behavior disorder may be added to DSM for people who have tried to kill themselves Suicide a selfin icted death in which the person acts intentionally directly and consciously Not every selfin icted death is a suicide ex accidents 4 kinds of people who intentionally end their lives a death seeker a person who clearly intends to end his or her life at the time of a suicide attempt b death initiator a person who attempts suicide believing that the process of death is already under way and that he or she is simply hastening the process c death ignorer a person who attempts suicide without recognizing the nality of death d death darer a person who is ambivalent about the wish to die even as he or she attempts suicide 9 subintentional death a death in which the victim 10 plays an indirect hidden partial or unconscious role nonsuicidal selfinjury may be added to the DSM for people who selfinjure or mutilate without the intention of death B How is Suicide Studied 1 2 It is hard to study suicide because those who are successful are no longer alive 2 strategies for studying suicide a Retrospective analysis a psychological autopsy in which clinicians and researchers piece together information about a person s suicide from the person s past i Not always reliableavailable b Studying people who survive their suicide attempts C Patterns and Statistics 1 Different across many countries 2 Religious affiliationsbeliefs may account for some differences 3 3x as many women attempt as men but men succeed 4x the rate of women a men use more violent methods shooting stabbing hanging b women use less violent methods such as drug overdose 4 suicide also related to social environment and marital status 5 varies with race in USA whites are twice as likely as blacks Hispanics and Asians but American Indians have the highest ll What Triggers a Suicide A Stressful Events and Situations 1 Preface a Combat stress makes someone 2x as likely b Immediate stress loss of a loved one divorce rejection loss of a job stress caused by natural disasters 2 Social lsolation a Individuals without social support are vulnerable to suicidal thinking 3 Serious lllness a May believe death is unavoidable and imminent b Believe they can t endure the pain and suffering caused by their problems 4 Abusive Environment a Victims of abuse often commit when they feel like they have little to no hope of escaping 5 Occupational stress a Some jobs create feelings of tension or dissatisfaction i Psychiatrists amp psychologists physicians nurses dentists lawyers police officers farmers unskilled laborers b May not be the job itself but the reason for taking the job ex farmers have little money or psychologists became psychologists because of their underlying problems B Mood and Thought Changes 1 3 Suicide attempts are preceded by a change in mood usually more sadness or increases in anxiety frustration anger etc Hopelessness a pessimistic belief that one s present circumstances problems or mood will not change a These people lose perspective and see suicide as the only solution Dichotomous thinking viewing problems and solutions in rigid eitheror terms C Alcohol and Other Drug Use 1 As many as 70 of people who attempt suicide 2 drink before Many others use drugs before their attempt D Mental Disorders 1 2 3 Not all people who attempt suicide have a mental disorder but most do 70 depressed 20 alcohol dependent 10 schizophrenic risk of suicide sometimes increases with improvements in mood because people have the energy to act on their wishes vicious cycle people who abuse substances might want to commit suicide to escape their addiction alternatively they may already feel suicidal so they turn to drugsalcohol E Modeling The Contagion of Suicide 1 2 One suicide act could serve as a model for others to CODY Family Members and Friends a Social contagion effect there is an increase in risk of suicide among relatives and friends of people who committed suicide 3 Celebrities a The national suicide rate often rises after the suicide of a celebrity 4 Other Highly Publicized Cases a Unusual suicides that make the news are likely to have copiers later on b Some programs intended to educate people about suicide might have opposite effects 5 Coworkers and Colleagues a Postvention a program put into place at a school or workplace after someone commits suicide education on suicide and therapy sessions are included Hi What are the Underlying Causes of Suicide A The Psychodynamic View 1 6 Psychodynamic theorists believe suicide results from depression and anger at others that is redirected towards themselves When people lose a loved one they quotintrojectquot the lost person or unconsciously incorporate that person into their own identity and feel towards themselves as they had felt toward the other Loss of a parent separation of parents or being neglected by parents is common among suicide attempters Thanatos is the quotdeath instinctquot all humans have Freud Societies with high rates of homicide have low rates of suicide amp vice versa directing anger toward enemy No research to support that suicidal people are angry people B Durkheim s Sociocultural View 1 2 3 4 The more thoroughly a person belongs to a social group the lower the risk of suicide Egoistic suicides committed by people over whom society has little or no control a Not concerned with rules of society isolated amp alienated Altruistic suicides committed by people who are so well integrated into the social structure that they intentionally sacri ce their lives for its wellbeing a Ex soldiers that throw themselves on top of a grenade to save others Anomic suicides committed by people whose social environment fails to provide stable structures to support and give meaning to life a Anomie without law b People have no sense of belonging c Different from egoistic because people who commit anomic suicides feel like they have been let down by a disorganized or inadequate society Suicide rates increase during economic depression or population change 6 Major change in an individual s surroundings can be a factor a Change of relationships or status b Ex inheriting a lot of money going to jail 7 Durkheim s conclusion interaction btw societal amp individual factors C The Biological View 1 Biological factors contribute to suicidal behavior 2 Twin studies support this view 3 Serotonin is low in people who commit suicide a Low levels also found in people with depression b But suicidal people can have low serotonin activity without having depression c low serotonin activity helps produce aggressive feelings amp impulsive behavior IV ls Suicide Linked to Age A Children 1 Rates have been increasing a 6 of all deaths b many children are hospitalized each year for selfdestructive behaviors 2 many common behavioral patterns running away aggressive acting out selfcriticism social withdrawal and loneliness dark fantasies etc 3 children who attempt suicide are quotdeath ignorersquot because they have limited thinkingreasoning B Adolescents 1 Preface a Suicide is the third leading cause of teenage death b 12 are depressed but others may have drug or alcohol problems and are impulsive c many teens commit because of stresspressure from relationships isolation nances medical needsorschoo d adolescence itself may be a cause 2 Teen Suicides Attempts Versus Completions a 2001 may be the ratio for attempts successes b some want to die while others want to make people understand their desperation or teach people a lesson c why is the attempt rate so high i Pressure through competition leading to shattered dreams ii Weakened ties in families iii Easy availability of alcoholdrugs amp pressure to use them iv Media coverage d Prosuicide sites on the internet have relatively low traffic compared to sites dedicated to suiciderelated information 3 Teen Suicides Multicultural Issues a White American teens are most likely but rates seem to be converging b American Indians have the highest rate extreme poverty limited educational amp employment opportunities alcohol abuse geographic isolation c Cluster suicides certain American Indian reservations have extreme suicide rates C The Elderly 1 2 3 People become ill lose friends and relatives lose control over their lives Many elderly people who have committed suicide are sick or have lost a spouse High success rate due to feeling more determined and showing less warning signs Suicide rate is lower in the elderly who feel like they have a purpose spreading their knowledge to others 13 as high in African Americans as opposed to whites because they are proud of the adversity they have overcome V Treatment and Suicide A What Treatments Are Used after Suicide Attempts 1 2 Most need medical care brain damage severe injuries other medical problems Psychotherapy or drug therapy may begin after injuries from attempt are treated 3 Some don t get any help after their attempt 4 Goals of therapy a Keep the individual alive b Reduce their psychological pain c Help them achieve nonsuicidal state d Provide hope e Guidance to develop better ways of handling stress Cognitivebehavioral therapy is particularly helpful Mindfulnessbased cognitive therapy is helping people accept their thoughts and feelings rather than eliminating them B What is Suicide Prevention 1 Suicide prevention program a program that tries to identify people who are at risk of killing themselves and to offer them crisis intervention There are suicide hotines where people talk to paraprofessionals who don t have a formal degree but provide services under supervision of a mental health professional Crisis intervention a treatment approach that tries to help people in a psychological crisis to view their situation more accurately make better decisions act more constructively and overcome the crisis Trevor Lifeline is for LGBTQs who are thinking about suicide People often confuse these with chat rooms and forums which don t help Prevention counselor has several tasks during initial contact a Establishing a positive relationship b Understanding and clarifying the problem c Assessing suicide potential d Assessing and mobilizing the caller s resources e Formulating a plan i Nosuicide contract a promise not to attempt suicide or to reestablish contact if the caller again considers suicide questionable usefulness f If callers are in the midst of an attempt counselors try to get them help asap Counselors will refer clients to long term therapy if needed Reducing the public s access to common means of suicide helps prevent suicide but people often nd alternative ways C Do Suicide Prevention Programs Work 1 2 3 Hard to tell if they re effective Suicidal people rarely contact prevention centers bc they don t want to discuss their feelings Many suicide education programs have emerged
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