Chapter 11 Book Notes
Chapter 11 Book Notes psy 240
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Rinaldi on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to psy 240 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Parlade in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see abnormal psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Chapter 11 Eating Disorders l Anorexia Nervosa A Preface 1 Anorexia nervosa a disorder marked by the pursuit of extreme thinness and by extreme loss of weight 2 Restrictingtype anorexia nervosa cutting out sweets amp fattening snacks rst then eventually eliminating other foods 3 9095 females and onset is 1418 years old 26 will eventually die 4 may begin after someone who already is dieting experiences a stressful event B The Clinical Picture 1 Motivation fear of becoming overweight 2 Many become preoccupied with food intake as a result of food deprivation a Experiment in 19405 con rms this 3 People with anorexia think in distorted ways and overestimate their size 4 Many have psychological problems depression anxiety low selfesteem insomnia substance abuse OCD C Medical Problems 1 Amenorrhea the absence of menstrual cycles 2 Lower body temp amp blood pressure swelling reduced bone density slow heart rate 3 Metabolic amp electrolyte imbalances heart failurecirculatory collapse 4 Dry skin brittle nails cold blue skin 5 Some grow lanugo the hair that covers newborns ll Bulimia Nervosa A Preface 1 Bulimia nervosabingepurge syndrome a disorder marked by frequent eating binges that are followed by forced vomiting or other extreme compensatory behaviors to avoid gaining weight a Compensatory behaviors forcing oneself to vomit misusing laxatives exercising excessively 2 Binge an episode of uncontrollable eating during which a person ingests a very large quantity of food 3 9095 females begins 1521 weight usually stays within a normal range B Binges 1 2 Usually secret eats massive amounts of food quickly 10000 calories usually sweet highcalorie foods Binge may feel pleasurable as if its relieving a tension but it is followed by feelings of blame shame guild and depression C Compensatory Behaviors 1 2 3 4 D Bulimi 1 2 3 Many people binge or use laxatives but still half the calories the person eats are absorbed repeated vomiting affects people s ability to feel satis ed so they have to eat more the next time people often fall into a bingeing and purging vicious cycle and realize they lost control many people begin this disorder after dieting a Nervosa Versus Anorexia Nervosa Both begin after a period of dieting with people driven to become thin who possibly suffer from a mental disorder Bulimia a Tend to be more concerned with pleasing others More sexually experienced amp active More likely to have histories of mood swings 13 have symptoms of a personality disorder damaged teethgums from stomach acid vomitingdiarrhea can lead to potassium de ciencies anorexia a more women have amenorrhea W090 Binge Eating Disorder A BED A disorder marked by frequent binges but not extreme compensatory behaviors B 23 become overweight or obese bc they don t compensate C most overweight people don t have BED D people have similar mental problems to those with anorexiabulimia E 27 of the population has this most don t start from dieting no large differences in gender What Causes Eating Disorders A Preface 1 Multidimensional risk perspective a theory that identi es several kinds of risk factors that are thought to combine to help cause a disorder The more factors present the greater the risk of developing the disorder a Includes biological psychological and sociocultural B Psychodynamic Factors Ego De ciencies 1 UN 6 Disturbed motherchild interactions led to ego de ciencies in the chid these led to disordered ea ng a Poor sense of independence and control b Severe perceptual disturbances Effective parents attend to their child s needs Ineffective parents fail to attend to their children s needs incorrectly interpreting their actions a Children with ineffective parents will grow up with a confused sense of need and inability to identify emotions b These children will watch others to know how to behave c This out of control feeling will make them want to control their eating Parents of teens with eating disorders tend to de ne their children s needs People with eating disorders are alexithymic they have great dif culty putting descriptive labels on their feelings so they might misinterpret anxiety as hunger and eat People with eating disorders rely excessively on the opinions wishes and views of others C Cognitive Factors 1 People with eating disorders improperly label their internal sensations and needs feel little control over their own lives so they desire to control their body size and eating habits People with eating disorders display cognitive de ciencies but these may not cause their eating disorders D Depression 1 Some theorists believe depressive disorders set the stage for eating disorders particularly bulimia a A higher age of people with eating disorders quali es for a diagnosis than the age of people that do in the normal population b Close relatives of people w eating disorders have higher age of depressive disorders than normal c Many people with eating disorders have low serotonin activity similar to depression 2 d People with eating disorders are helped by anti depressant drugs depression may help cause eating disorders but also eating disorders may help cause depression E Biological Factors 1 UN 4 Some genes may leave people susceptible to eating disorders backed up by evidence from familytwin studies Serotonin may or may not have a big role Hypothalamus a part of the brain that helps regulate various bodily functions including eating and hunger a Lateral hypothalamus a brain region that produces hunger when activated side areas b Ventromedial hypothalamus VMH a brain region that depresses hunger when activated lower amp middle c Cholecystokinin CCK and glucagonlike peptide1 are natural appetite suppressants d May work together to comprise a quotweight thermostatquot Weight set point the weight level that a person is predispositioned to maintain controlled in part by the hypothalamus a Theory when people diet and fall to a weight below their set point their brain starts trying to restore the lost weight b People who entirely control their eating after this become anorexic c Others may begin to binge and purge F Societal Pressures 1 2 3 4 5 Most common in western countries because of standards of female attractiveness Dancers models actors athletes are more prone to an eating disorder because of the nature of their profession Western society creates prejudice towards heavy people Many elementary and middle school girls are dieting Eating disorders have been linked to exposure to media G Family Environment 1 2 Eating disorders more likely in families who emphasize thinness and whose mothers diet Enmeshed family pattern a family system in which members are overinvolved with each other s affairs and overconcerned about each other s welfare a People in enmeshed families are more likely to develop an eating disorder H Multicultural Factors Racial and Ethnic Differences 1 Many differences found between African American and white American eating habits in 1995 a African Americans were healthier than whites b They de ned the perfect girl very differently 2 Eating disorder patterns are on the rise for minorities 3 Researchers disagree on certain racial differences I Multicultural Factors Gender Difference 1 Males make up 510 of people with eating disorders a Different beauty standards for men and women b Men are more likely to exercise to lose weight while women are more often to diet 2 Some men develop eating disorders because of requirements or pressures from a job or sport 3 Some men with eating disorders value their body image 4 Men can have reverse anorexia nervosa or muscle dysmorphia where they think they are scrawny and compensate with working out more and steroids V How Are Eating Disorders Treated A 2 goals 1 correct the dangerous eating pattern 2 address the factors that have led to the problem B Treatments for Anorexia Nervosa 1 How Are Proper Weight and Normal Eating Restored a b Treatment in longterm or outpatient hospital Tube amp intravenous feedings may be forced upon patients who refuse to eat c Rewards are used for those who eat properly d Supportive nursing care nutritional counseling highcalorie diet 2 How Are Lasting Changes Achieved a CognitiveBehavioral Therapy i Behavior requires clients to monitor their feelings hunger levels and food intake and ties between these ii Cognitive side taught to identify their quotcore pathologyquot or thoughts leading to eating disorder iii Taught alternative ways of coping with stress iv Helps change attitudes about eating amp weight b Changing Family Interactions i Meets with family as a whole points out troublesome family patterns and helps members change ii Helps people with anorexia separate her feelings amp needs from those of the family 3 What Is the Aftermath of Anorexia Nervosa 09069 h Treatment works for most Most females start menstruating again 25 remain troubled for years 13 will relapse 12 experience emotional problems esp if they didn t return to normal weight the sooner the treatment starts the better the results C Treatments for Bulimia Nervosa 1 CognitiveBehavioral Therapy a b Behavioral Techniques i Keep diaries of eating behavior amp how they relate to feelings ii Exposure and response prevention helps break the bingepurge cycle Cognitive Techniques i Identify and challenge negative thoughts that precede their urge to binge 2 Other Forms of Psychotherapy a b c d e 3 Antid a b CBT is tried rst Then Interpersonal psychotherapy which seeks to improve interpersonal functioning Psychodynamic therapy has been used research of effectiveness is unclear Often supplemented by family therapy Group forms of therapy are helpful epressant Medications Antid s have been used to treat bulimia nervosa Drug therapy works the best with other forms of therapy 4 What is the Aftermath of Bulimia Nervosa a b c 40 stop or greatly improve bingeing amp purging with therapy 75 fully or partially recovered after therapy relapse is a problem even from people who recovered the more intense one s bulimia was the more likely they were to relapse D Treatments for Binge Eating Disorder 1 Similar to those for bulimia CBT psychotherapy antidepressants Additional intervention to help if they re overweight Little is known about the aftermath because it s a relatively new disorder
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