Chapter 13 Book Notes
Chapter 13 Book Notes psy 240
Popular in abnormal psychology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Rinaldi on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to psy 240 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Parlade in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see abnormal psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Ch 13 pg 406421 I Paraphilic Disorders A Preface 1 UN 4 5 Paraphilias patterns in which individuals have recurrent and intense sexual urges fantasies or behaviors involving nonhuman objects children nonconsenting adults or experiences of suffering or humiliation Paraphilias are relatively common Paraphilic disorder a disorder in which an individual s paraphilia causes great distress interferes with social or occupational activities or places the individual or others at risk of harm either currently or in the past There has not been much research on the disorders or their treatments Antiandrogens drugs that lower the production of testosterone and reduce sex drive have been administered to help along with SSRls B Fetishistic Disorder a paraphilic disorder consisting of recurrent and intense sexual urges fantasies or behaviors that involve the use of a nonliving object or nongenital part often to the exclusion of all other stimuli 1 2 More common in men starts in adolescence Points of view a Psychodynamic view fetishes are a defense mechanism that help people avoid anxiety produced by normal sexual contact b Behaviorists fetishes are acquired through classical conditioning i Aversion therapy ex pairing arousing stimuli with shock ii Covert sensitization people imaging pleasurable object and pair it with imagined aversive stimulus iii Masturbatory satiation a behavioral treatment in which a client masturbates for a long period of time while fantasizing in detail about a paraphilic object The procedure is expected to produce a feeling of boredom that becomes linked to the object iv Orgasmic reorientation a procedure for treating certain paraphilias by teaching clients to respond to new more appropriate sources of sexual stimulation C Transvestic Disorder transvestismcrossdressing a paraphilic disorder consisting of repeated and intense sexual urges fantasies or behaviors that involve dressing in clothes of the opposite sex 1 Almost always heterosexual male begins in adolescence 2 Development of this disorder sometimes follows operant conditioning D Exhibitionistic Disorder a paraphilic disorder in which persons have repeated sexually arousing urges or fantasies about exposing their genitals to others and may act upon those urges 1 Person wants to provoke shock not actually engage in sexual behaviors 2 Most common in males begins before age 18 3 Individuals are immature in dealing with opposite sex amp have relationship difficulty 4 Treatments aversion therapy masturbatory satiation orgasmic reorientation social skills training CBT E Voyeuristic Disorder a paraphilic disorder in which a person has repeated and intense sexual desires to observe unsuspecting people in secret as they undress or to spy on couples having intercourse and may act upon these desires 1 Person is aroused by watching others sexual activity but usually doesn t want to have sex with those being spied on 2 Likes the thrill of being caught amp embarrassment of people being watched 3 Can play a role in normal sex it is only a disorder when it invades others privacy 4 Points of view a Psychodynamic people who feel inadequate or sexuallysocially shy seek to gain control over others b Behavioral learned behavior can be traced to chance and then a pattern may develop F Frotteuristic Disorder a paraphilic disorder consisting of repeated and intense sexual urges fantasies or behaviors that involve touching and rubbing against a nonconsenting person 1 Usually takes place in public almost always male begins in teens and lasts until mid 205 2 Male rubs genitals against victim or may fondle victim with his hands 3 Fantasizes about a caring relationship with victim G Pedophilic Disorder a paraphilic disorder in which a person has repeated and intense sexual urges or fantasies about watching touching or engaging in sexual acts with children and may carry out these urges or fantasies 1Types a Classic attracted to prepubescent children b Hebephilic attracted to early pubescent children c Pedohebephilic attracted to bothquotquot d Some are attracted to only children some also attracted to adu s 2 23 of victims are girls 3 disorder develops during adolescence people may have been victims themselves or deprived of close relationships and are now looking to control others some offenders see no problem with their behaviors most men with pedophilic disorder have at least one more psychological disorder related to biochemical or brain structure abnormalities many go to jail or are forced to seek therapy treatments a aversion therapy masturbatory satiation orgasmic reorientation CBT antiandrogen drugs b relapseprevention training clients identify situations that trigger pedophilic fantasies and learn coping strategies H Sexual Masochism Disorder a paraphilic disorder characterized by repeated and intense sexual urges fantasies or behaviors that involve being humiliated beaten bound or otherwise made to suffer 1 Only those who are distressedimpaired by their fantasies receive a diagnosis 2 Some in ict pain on themselves others have partner do it 3 Hypoxyphilia people are strangledsmothered in order to enhance sexual pleasure 4 Autoerotic asphyxia accidentally dying from act of hypoxyphilia 5 Fantasies begin in childhood and develop by early adulthood 6 Classical conditioning ex of boy with broken arm being comforted by attractive nurse Sexual Sadism Disorder a paraphilic disorder characterized by repeated and intense sexual urges fantasies or behaviors that involve in icting suffering on others 1 A sadist often pairs with a masochist but sometimes a nonconsenting victim 2 Sadist likes having total control over a terri ed sexual victim 3 Fantasies appear in childhood and acts develop by early adu hood 4 Points of view a Behaviorists classical conditioning and modeling b Psychodynamic amp cognitive sadists want a sense of power or control because they feel inadequate c Biological possible brain and hormonal abnormalities 5 Treatment aversion therapy amp relapseprevention training J A Word of Caution 1 Some clinicians argue that some paraphilic behaviors should not be considered disorders if they are not harming anyone 2 Homosexuality used to be considered a paraphilic disorder ll Gender Dysphoria U39IIgt lm A Preface 1 4 5 People often feel anxious or depressed from the disorder itself 6 Transgender experiences a sense that one s gender identity is different from the gender to which they were born physically or a sense that it lies outside the usual male versus female categories Some cope with these experiences but others those with gender dysphoria seek treatment Gender dysphoria transsexualism a disorder in which a person persistently feels extremely uncomfortable about his or her assigned sex and strongly wishes to be a member of the opposite sex Men outnumber women 2 to 1 or the stigmas that come along with it May start in childhood or adulthood but it disappears in most children when they reach adolescence B Explanations of Gender Dysphoria 1 2 3 Biological factors genetic or prenatal Runs in families Those with gender dysphoria have higher blood ow in insula and reduced blood ow in the anterior cingulate cortex both of which play roles in human sexuality amp consciousness Autopsy studies a men who became women had a smaller bed nucleus of stria terminalis BST when compared to normal men b women naturally have a smaller BST than men c regulates sexual behavior in rats not sure what it does in humans C Treatments for Gender Dysphoria 1 Client Patterns of Gender Dysphoria a FemaletoMale Gender Dysphoria i Born female but behave in a stereotypically masculine manner ii Become disgusted by their bodily changes during pube y iii Feel attracted to girls but still are unsatis ed because they want to be with heterosexual women who are attracted to men b MaletoFemale Gender Dysphoria Androphilic Type i Born male but behave in a stereotypically feminine manner ii Become sexually attracted to males androphilic iii Want to be with heterosexual men who are attracted to women c MaletoFemale Gender Dysphoria Augogynephilic Type Not sexually attracted to males attracted to the fantasy of themselves being females autogynephilic Become sexually aroused when they cross dress Have stronger and stronger fantasies of becoming female 2 Types of Treatment for Gender Dysphoria a Psychotherapy b Biological interventions Hormone treatments 1 Estrogen female sex hormone prescribed to male patients 2 Testosterone male sex hormone prescribed to female patients Sexchange sexual reassignment surgery a surgical procedure that changes a person s sex organs features and sexual identity Sex change surgery is controversial Some studies nd that patients are happy with their surgery while others may show more psychological disturbances or regret the surgery
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