Chapter 17 Book Notes
Chapter 17 Book Notes psy 240
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Rinaldi on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to psy 240 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Parlade in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see abnormal psychology in Psychlogy at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Chapter 17 pg 525535 539559 I Oppositional De ant Disorder and Conduct Disorder A Preface 1 Oppositional de ant disorder a childhood disorder in which children are repeatedly argumentative and de ant angry and irritable and in some cases vindictive a More common in boys before puberty then evens out 2 Conduct disorder a childhood disorder in which the child repeatedly violates the basic rights of others and displays aggression characterized by symptoms such as physical cruelty to people or animals the deliberate destruction of others property and the commission of various crimes a More severe than oppositional de ant disorder b Begins btw 7 and 15 c Many also have ODD or ADHD d Types of conduct disorder iv V Overtdestructive individuals display openly aggressive and confrontational behaviors Overtnondestructive openly offensive but nonconfrontational behaviors such as lying Covertdestructive secretive destructive behaviors such as breaking amp entering and setting re Covertnondestructive individuals secretly commit nonaggressive behaviors such as skipping school Relational aggression individuals are socially isolated and display social misdeeds such as slandering others spreading rumors and manipulating friendships e Children 818 who break the law are quotjuvenile delinquentsquot and become quotrecidivistsquot when they arrested more than once B What Are the Causes of Conduct Disorder 1 Genetic amp biological factors drug abuse poverty traumatic events exposure to violent peers or community violence 2 Most common troubled parentchild relationships inadequate parenting family con ict C How Do Clinicians Treat Conduct Disorder 1 Sociocultural Treatments a Parentchild interaction therapy therapists teach parents to work with their children positively to set appropriate limits to act consistently to be fair in their discipline decisions and to establish more appropriate expectations regarding the child b Teaching child better social skills c Video modeling works towards same goals with the help of a video A d Parent management training when kids reach school age parents are taught more effective ways to deal with their children and parents and children meet together in behaviororiented therapy e Treatment foster care delinquent children are placed in f alternate homes while children foster parents and biological parents receive treatment interventions Juvenile training centers are designed to help but they often make things worse 2 ChildFocused Treatments a Problemsolving skills training therapists combine modeling practice roleplaying and systematic rewards to help teach children constructive thinking and positive social behaviors b Anger coping and coping power program children learn to C manage their anger view situations in perspective solve problems become aware of emotions build social skills set goals etc Stimulant drugs are helpful in reducing aggressive behaviors 3 Prevention a Try to change unfavorable social conditions before a 1 4 5 Difficult to assess properly because kids are poor at describing conduct disorder is able to develop b Work best when they involve family treatment ll AttentionDeficitHyperactivity Disorder Preface ADHD a disorder marked by inability to focus attention or overactive and impulsive behavior or both 2 Often begins before a child starts school 3 Common for children with ADHD to have other problems like anxiety or difficulty interacting with other children More prevalent in boys symptoms and because diagnoses are inconsistent What Are the Causes of ADHD 1 Biological abnormal activity of dopamine amp abnormalities in the frontalstriatal region of brain 2 Stress and family dysfunctioning 3 Stigmalabels associated with ADHD How Is ADHD Treated 1 Drug Therapy a Methylphenidate a stimulant drug known better by the trade name Ritalin commonly used to treat ADHD b Doctors are concerned about Ritalin s longterm effects C ADHD is overdiagnosed and Ritalin is often misused d e Stimulant drugs are very helpful especially in combo with behavioral programs Stimulants are mostly safe but can lead to heart attack psychotic symptoms or can affect the growth of some 2 Behavior Therapy and Combination Therapies a b Rewarding attentiveness or selfcontrol in children People who receive combination of drug amp behavioral therapy need less of the drug D Multicultural Factors and ADHD 1 2 3 Minorities are less likely to be assessed or receive treatment Racial differences often linked to economic factors Different views among races disorder whites vs poor parenting Pg 539559 LongTerm Disorders that Begin in Childhood A Autism Spectrum Disorder 1 Preface a g h Autism spectrum disorder a developmental disorder marked by extreme unresponsiveness to others severe communication de cits and highly repetitive and rigid behaviors interests and activities 80 boys 90 continue into adulthood appear not to care what s going on around them may develop speechlanguage problems echolalia exact echoing of phrases spoken by others delayed echolalia repeating phrase days after they heard it pronominal reversal confusion of pronouns like repetitive behaviors and are upset by change perseveration of sameness unusual motor movements selfstimulatory behaviors or selfinjurious behaviors hyperreactivity individual seems overstimulated by sights and sounds and appear to be trying to block them out hyporeactivity seem understimulated and appear to be performing selfstimulatory actions 2 What Are the Causes of Autism Spectrum Disorder a i b Sociocultural Causes Originally thought to be bad parenting received no research support High degree of social and environmental stress no support Psychological Causes i People with autism fail to develop theory of mind awareness that other people base their behaviors on their own beliefs intentions and other mental states not on information they have no way of knowing c Biological Causes i Genetic factor ii Prenatal difficulties or birth complications if mom had rubella iii Abnormal development in the Cerebellum an area of the brain that coordinates movement in the body and perhaps helps control a person s ability to shift attention rapidly iv Increased brain volume white matter and structural abnormalities in limbic system brainstem nuclei and amygdala v Could be combination or a quotfinal common pathwayquot vi MMR vaccine theory vaccine for measles mumps and rubella might produce autistic symptoms in some children all research argues against this theory How Do Clinicians and Educators Treat Autism Spectrum Disorder a CognitiveBehavioral Therapy i Modeling amp operant conditioning ii Research shows intensive behavioral treatment works iii Learning ExperiencesAn Alternative Program LEAP is a program for preschoolers where 4 preschoolers are mixed with 10 normal children and taught to interact effective iv Early intervention is best v Some may go to special schools that combine education amp therapy b Communication Training i Often taught sign language and simultaneous communication combining sign language and speech ii Augmentative communication systems a method for enhancing the communication skills of individuals with autism spectrum disorder intellectual developmental disorder or cerebral palsy by teaching them to point to pictures symbols letters or words on a communication board or computer iii Childinitiated interactions teachers identify intrinsic reinforcers find something kid is interested in and make them ask questions c Parent Training i Behavioral training programs for parents come with instructions and home visits by professionals ii Individual therapy and support groups d Community Integration i Group homes and sheltered workshops help individuals become part of their community B Intellectual Developmental Disorder Intellectual Disability 1 Preface a Same thing as quotmentally retardedquot b 35 are male most display mild level of disorder c IDD a disorder marked by intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior that are well below average d Symptoms must appear before age 18 Assessing Intelligence a IQ a score derived from intelligence tests that theoretically represents a person s overall intellectual capacity b Still hard to assess people with extremely low intelligence c IQ tests appear to be socioculturally based d Some people are misdiagnosed because of faulty IQ tests Assessing Adaptive Functioning a Some people may have the same IQ but very different levels of functioning b Scales exist to assess adaptive behavior c Judgments are subjective and each case should be looked at individually What are the Features of Intellectual Development Disorder a Person learns very slowly b Attention short term memory planning language c 4 levels of IDD i mild IQ 5070 ii moderate IQ 3549 iii severe IQ 2034 iv profound IQ below 20 Mild IDD a De nition A level of IDD at which people can bene t from education and can support themselves as adults b 8085 of all people with IDD c Usually not diagnosed until school and people can quotgrow outquot of it d Linked to psychological and sociocultural causes e Biological causes mother s moderate drinking drug use or malnutrition during pregnancy Moderate Severe and Profound IDD a Moderate IDD 10 a level of IDD at which people can learn to care for themselves and can bene t from vocational training i Diagnosed earlier than moderate IDD because it is more clear that they have a disorder Can work semiunskilled jobs amp function well under supervision b Severe IDD 34 a level of IDD at which individuals require careful supervision and can learn to perform basic work in structured and sheltered settings Basic motor amp communication de cits amp increased risk of seizures Understanding of communication is better than their speech Require careful training and can bene t from living in group homes or with family c Profound IDD 12 a level of IDD at which individuals need a very structured environment with close supervision 1 on 1 training with supervisor some walking talking and feeding themselves 7 What Are the Biological Causes of Intellectual Development Disorder a Chromosomal Causes Down syndrome a form of IDD caused by an abnormality in the 21st chromosome Amniocentesis testing of the amniotic uid that surrounds fetus to identify downs or other chromosomal abnormalities Small head at face slanted eyes high cheekbones sometimes protruding tongue Trisomy 21 individual has 3 free oating 21st chromosomes instead of 2 Fragile X syndrome an X chromosome has a genetic abnormality that leaves it prone to breakage and loss people with this have some intellectual dysfunctioning language impairments and behavioral problems b Metabolic Causes Pairing of 2 defective recessive genes Phenylketonuria PKU 114000 appear normal at birth but cannot break down amino acid phenylalanine and it is converted into a poison that causes severe dysfunction TaySachs disease people progressively lose their mental functioning vision and motor ability over the course of 24 years and eventually die c Prenatal and BirthRelated Causes Cretinismsevere congenital hypothyroidism abnormal thyroid gland slow development intellectual developmental disorder dwar ike appearance rare Fetal alcohol syndrome a group of problems in a child including lower intellectual functioning low birth weight iii iv V and irregularities in the hands and face that result from excessive alcohol intake by the mother during pregnancy Rubella amp syphilis can cause IDD Anoxia prolonged period without oxygen during or after delivery that can cause brain damage Premature birth weight d 39Childhood Problems Injuries and accidents before age 6 can impact mental functioning Lead mercury radiation nitrite pesticide poisoning Meningitis amp encephalitis can lead to IDD if undiagnosed 8 Interventions for People with Intellectual Development Disorder a What is the Proper Residence V State school a state supported institution for people with IDD State schools were overcrowded and didn t give good care which led to deinstitutionalization Small institutionscommunity residences teach self sufficiency and devote more time to patient care Normalization the principal that institutions and community residences should expose people with IDD to living conditions and opportunities similar to those found in the rest of society Most people with IDD live at home but as they get older some may require community residences b Which Educational Programs Work Best Special education an approach to educating children with IDD in which they are grouped together and given a separate specially designed education Mainstreaming or inclusion the placement of children with IDD in regular school classes Debate between special ed and mainstreaming depends on the person Teacher preparedness is a concern Often use operant conditioning and token economy programs c When is Therapy Needed 30 have some other psychological disorder can be helped by group therapy or psychotropic meds d How Can Opportunities for Personal Social and Occupational Growth Be Increased People must feel effective and competent which is done by allowing people to make their own choices Dating skills programs contraceptives etc iii Some states restrict marriage for people with IDD iv Sheltered workshop a protected and supervised workplace that offers job opportunities and training at a pace and level tailored to people with various psychological disabilities
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