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Lecture 5- After Exam 1

by: Kelly Wetmore

Lecture 5- After Exam 1 Bio 242

Marketplace > University of Rhode Island > Bio 242 > Lecture 5 After Exam 1
Kelly Wetmore

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Lecture 5
Intro Human Physiology
Barbara Van Sciver
Class Notes
BIO 242, After Exam 1, Lecture, notes, Physiology, Biology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Wetmore on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 242 at University of Rhode Island taught by Barbara Van Sciver in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.

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Date Created: 02/29/16
Saturday, May 21, y After Exam 1: Lecture 5 Cytoskeleton ­ Meshwork throughout cytosol ­ Anchors organelles ­ Microtubules • Hollow • Protein­ tubulin • Largest tubule • Functions include: ­ Maintains shape by resisting pushing ­ Cell division ­ Moves cell • Microtubule track ——­> vesicle (within axon) ­ Actin Filaments (microfilaments) • Protein­ actin • Double helix • Smallest tubule  • Functions include moving organelles ­ Intermediate filaments • Protein­ keratin • Wound into thick cables 1 Saturday, May 21, y • Functions include ­ Anchors the nucleus ­ Resists tension Cell Membrane ­ Cytosol (ICF) ­ Plasma membrane • Hydrophilic phosphate head • Hydrophobic fatty acid tails ­ Extracellular fluid (ECF) ­ Concentration gradient between ICF and ECF ­ Membrane proteins • Many different membrane proteins • Help function the cell ­ Channels • Allows small polar molecules to go down concentration gradient • Specific channels­ allow only certain things to pass through (ex: calcium channels) • Regulated channels­ open and close ­ Carriers  • Means of transporting large polar molecules through concentration gradient • Specific carriers­ depends on shape ­ Passive transport 2 Saturday, May 21, y • Does not require ATP • Ex: Facilitated diffusion­ with aid ­ Active transport • Does require ATP ­ Enzymes • Biological catalyst • Chemical messengers ­ Hormones • Speeds up reactions ­ Anchors • Cytoskeleton to membrane  ­ Cell Adhesion molecules • Forms tissues • Attach cells together ­ Surface markers • Found on outer surface • Allows cells to recognize “like” cells • Forms tissues ­ Receptors Membrane Carbohydrates ­ Are attached to protein or lipid as glycoprotein or glycolipid 3 Saturday, May 21, y ­ Membrane sugars seem to be involved in identification and recognition  Post Receptor Binding Events ­ Channel regulation • Chemical messenger opens or closes channel • Change in activity of the cell ­ Activation of second messenger systems • Binding of chemical messenger to receptor • Activates adenylate cyclase • Second messenger ———> cyclic ATP • Adds phosphate group to specific protein • Altered protein shape and function brings about cellular response Intercellular Junctions ­ Desmosomes • Attach cells together • Adhering junction  • Things can get between • EX: Heart cells ­ Gap Junctions • Create gaps that connect animal cells  • Create tunnels (connexons) ­ Tight Junctions 4 Saturday, May 21, y • Impermeable junction 5


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