Week 2 Notes
Week 2 Notes BS 114-02
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaleigh Eastep on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BS 114-02 at Southeast Missouri State University taught by Denise Jacoby in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology II in Biological Sciences at Southeast Missouri State University.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Chapter 12 Review Neurons 0 Motor Efferent Input Feeling the hot stove PNS o Sensory Afferent allow to sense the environment Ex Processing that the stove is hotdangerous PNS o Interneurons CNSbrain and spinal cord Take in sensory information analyze amp process it and generate the motor response moving hand from stove Synapses 0 Where axons and dendrites meet 0 Can be 34 feet long ex dendrites from ngertipsljspineljbrain o 2 types Chemical 0 Uses neurotransmitters through the synaptic cleft Electrical 0 Use gap junctions Can quottalkquot directly to the next cell very close together no synaptic cleft Chapter 13 Central Nervous System 0 Brain amp Spinal cord 0 General functions 0 Receives information from your sensory neurons 0 Interneurons process sort amp analyze sensory information 0 Develop motor commands and send out via motor neurons to effectors muscle glands Parts of the Brain Composed of 4 parts 0 Cerebrum Biggest part of the brain 0 Diencephalon Composed of Thalamus Hypothalamus Pineal gland endocrine gland not nervous tissue Structurally connects the cerebrum to the brain stem Literally means quotthrough the brainquot 0 Brain Stem Midbrain Pons Medulla Oblongata Brain stem attaches below medulla oblongata o Cerebellum CNS protected by bones and meninges o Cranial bones amp vertebral bones Wall 0 Cranial amp Spinal meninges are deep to bones Mattress 0 3 layers of meninges from super cial to deep 1 Dura mater 2 Arachnoid mater 3 Pia mater o Dura Mater quotTough motherquot Attached to cranial bones outersuper cial meninges Made of thick dense irregular connective tissue CT 0 Arachnoid Mater Weblike Middle meninges Many collagen bers arranged like a spider web Subarachnoid space falls below arachnoid meninges Between arachnoid mater and pia mater Contains CSF Cerebrospinal uid 0 Surrounds brain and spinal cord to provide buoyancy and shock absorption 0 Pia Mater quotLittledelicate Surrounds and covers all folds like saran wrap Many blood vessels Blood in CNS Provides oxygen and glucose Brain is 2 body weight but consumes 20 of oxygen and glucose that is in our body Brain does not store glucose 0 Constant supply is necessary Neurons synthesize ATP exclusively from glucose 0 Glycolysis Krebs ETC Lack of oxygen for gt4 mins permanent damage stroke Bloodbrain barrier BBB Protects CNS from damaging materials in blood Continuous capillaries with tight junctions Prevents materials from passing aroundbetween cells Materials must move through Arteries capillaries in the brain Astrocytes Neuroglia Wrap around capillary walls further ltering substances BBB lters material from blood to interstitial uid of CNS o Interstitial uid uid outside of cells Cerebrospinal Fluid Fuid that surrounds the outside of the brain and spinal cord Foundstored in the subarachnoid space after it is made Functions 0 Protection from physical forces shock absorption 0 Chemical protection o Circulation oMade in ventricles of the brain o In ventricles are choroid plexuses quot Are capillaries surrounded by ependymal cells neuroglia Ependymal cells have 0 Tight junctions like cells IN capillaries Microvilli Fingerlike projections of plasma membrane 0 Add surface area Cilia hairs o Movement of particles BloodCSF Barrier o In choroid plexus lters material from blood into cerebrospinal uid o Around every neuron in the CNS Parts of the Brain Cerebrum 0 quotSeat of intelligencequot 0 Cerebral cortex Outer layer of gray matter Gray matter Dendrites cell bodies of neurons unmyelinated axons neuroglia o Develops more quickly than white matter creates folds and ssures during development 0 Longitudinal ssure Divides the cerebrum into left and right hemispheres 0 Connected by corpus callosum White matter of cerebrum is deep to cerebral cortex 0 Myelinated axons o Specialized astrocytes that allow BBB o Myelinated axons form tracts like nerves that send info to different parts of the CNS thalamus cerebellum other parts of cortex etc Lobes of cerebrum o Named for surrounding bones Different functions 0 Functional divisions of cerebral cortex Sensory areas 0 Allow us to perceive the world around us Motor areas Responsible for voluntary movements Association areas 0 Deal with complex integrative functions 0 Memory emotions reasoning Cerebrum Sensory areas receive sensory input 0 Primary somatosensory area ln each parietal lobe Touch pressure vibration tickle temperature pain Proprioception awareness of your body and space joint and muscle position 0 Primary visual area in each occipital lobe Vision 0 Primary olfactory area in each temporal lobe Smell 0 Primary gustatory area in each parietal lobe Taste 0 Primary auditory area in each temporal lobe Hearing Motor areas provide motor output 0 Primary motor area in frontal lobes Sends effectors to skeletal muscles 0 Broca s area Speech formation Association areas integrate sensory experiences 0 Generate meaningful patterns of recognition and awareness Determine an object by texture Recognize sound as music speech etc Body language tone of voice etc Hemispheric lateralization 0 Right and left hemispheres have anatomical amp physiological differences Left hemisphere controls right side of body and vice versa Left hemisphere reasoning numbers logic language Right hemisphere creativity musical ability facial recognition understanding emotions Diencephalon o Thalamus Sensory reception and regulating motor output 0 Hypothalamus Regulates homeostasis hormones involved in reproduction hunger amp thirst circadian rhythms o Pineal Gland Endocrine gland secretes melatonin Brain Stem o Responsible for involuntary processesmovement o Midbrain Contains masses of gray matter called basal nuclei Regulate movements Neurons release dopamine neurotransmitter 0 Die in people with Parkinson s o Pons Bridge between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain o Medulla Oblongata Continuation of the spinal cord Autonomic processes sneezing coughing diameter of blood vessels 0 Reticular Formation Composed of both gray and white matter netlike Filters out unnecessary input Reticular Activating System RAS Allows us to stay consciousawake during the day Inactivation causes sleep Relies on auditory amp somatosensory input not olfactory 0 Ex Smoke Detectors Cerebellum o Regulating your posture and balance 0 Comparing intended movements with actual movements 0 Makes tiny corrections as needed Limbic System Emotions behaviors memories Spinal Cord out of the brain 0 White matter made up of myelinated axons o lmpulse propagation Nervous impulses 0 Gray matter made up of neuroglia dendrites cell bodies unmyelinated axons etc 0 Information integration Deciding what to do with signals Chapter 15 Sensory Motor and Integrative Systems Sensations Conscious or subconscious awareness of change in internal or external environment Perceptions Are conscious awareness and interpretations of sensations Rely on association areas Senses General and Special 0 General Senses o Somatic Touch pain proprioception o Visceral Internal organs 0 Special Senses 0 Taste smell hearing vision and equilibrium Sensation requires 4 steps 1 Stimulus of appropriate sensory receptor within its receptive eld 2 Transduction of stimulus conversion of stimulus into graded potential 3 Assuming action potential is reached generation of impulse to CNS via rst order neurons a First order neurons send signals from PNSDCNS 4 Integration of sensory information in cerebral cortex a Takes place in the primary sensory areas Receptors can be classi ed based on structure location or type of stimulus detected 0 Based on structure Naked receptors 0 Have freenaked dendritic ends Encapsulated receptors Dendrites covered by connective tissue on capsule Complex receptors 0 Modi ed sensory receptor that synapses with another receptor sensory neuron Receptors can produce 2 types of graded potentials Generator potentials o Occur in naked amp encapsulated receptors 0 Dendrites of these receptors can generate their own graded potential which can generate an action potential 0 Receptor potentials o Occur in complex receptors 0 If complex receptor has an action potential neurotransmitters will be released into synapse with sensory neuron 0 Based on Location Exteroceptor interoceptors proprioceptors Exteroceptor Found near the external surface of our bodies Respond to external stimuli 0 Hearing touch sight taste smell etc lnteroceptors Found in blood vessels organs nervous system Responds to internal stimuli Usually not perceived Proprioceptors Found in muscles joints inner ear tendons ligaments etc 0 Provide information about location and position of body in space