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Psychology 101 (5/27-5-30)

by: Jomay Notetaker

Psychology 101 (5/27-5-30)

Marketplace > University of Washington > Psychlogy > Psychology 101 5 27 5 30
Jomay Notetaker

Jacqueline Pickrell

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About this Document

Lecture notes for week of 5/26-5/30
Jacqueline Pickrell
29 ?




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This 8 page Reader was uploaded by Jomay Notetaker on Sunday June 1, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Washington taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 76 views.


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Date Created: 06/01/14
29 T June 6 1230120 SMITH June 8 CLUE 630800 MGH June 9 1130 1220 GUTHRIE 57 Anxiety Disorders Obsessive Compulsive disorders 0 Obsession I Repetitive and unwelcome thoughts images or impulses o Compulsion I Repetitive behavioral response Posttraumatic Stress 0 Can occur in people who have been exposed to traumatic life events I Severe symptoms of anxiety and distress that were not present before the trauma I Reliving the trauma I Becoming numb to the world I Experiences intense survivor guilt Biological factors 0 Overactive autonomic nervous systems 0 Over reactive neurotransmitter systems involved in emotional response 0 Over reactive right hemisphere sites involved in emotions Psychological factors 0 Neurotic anxiety I Occurs when unacceptable impulses threated to overwhelm the ego39s defenses and explode into consciousness Cognitive facts 0 Maladaptive thought patterns and beliefs 0 Exaggerated misinterpretations of stimuli Role of learning 0 Classically conditioned fear responses after a traumatic experience o Observational learning 0 Operant conditioning I Motivation to reduce or escape anxiety Somatoform Disorders Physical complaints or disabilities that suggest a medical problem but have no known biological cause 0 Hypochondriasis I People become alarmed about any physical symptom they detect and are convinced that thy have or are about to have a serious illness 0 Pain disorder I Intense pain that is either out of proportion to whatever medical condition the person might have or which no physical basis can be found 0 Conversion disorder I Serious neurological symptoms such as paralysis loss of sensation or blindness suddenly occur III La belle indifference could care less El Ex Glove anesthesia psychogenic blindness Predisposition 0 May involve a combination of biological and psychological vulnerabilities I Genetics environmental learning and social reinforcement for bodily symptoms I Somatoform patients are very suggestible Psych 101 Page 1 May 27 2014 The humanistic perspective Phenomenology o Emphasis on the primacy of immediate experience 0 Humanists generally embrace a positive view of humanity 4 basic principles 0 Experiencing person is of primary interest 0 Choice creativity selfactualization 0 Meaningfulness must precede objectivity o Dignity of the person Abraham Maslow 0 Sef actuaization I The process of fulfilling our potential 0 Hierarchy of needs 0 Peak experiences Theory of the self carl rogers 0 Sef actuaization I The highest realization of human potential 0 The self I An organized consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneself I Object of perception sef concept I Internal entity that directs experiences Sef consistency 0 An absence of conflict among g sef perceptions Congruence 0 Consistency between sef perceptions and experiences Need for positive regard 0 An inborn need for acceptance sympathy and love from others Unconditional positive regard 0 Communicates the person is worthy of love regardless of accomplishments or behavior Sef esteem 0 How positively or negatively we feel about ourselves Higher selfesteem when parents 0 Show unconditional acceptance and love o Establish clear guidelines for behavior 0 Reinforce compliance while given the childe appropriate freedom Sef enhancement 0 A tendency to gain and preserve a positive sef image I People consistently rate themselves as better than average The trait perspective Personality traits 0 Relatively stable cognitive emotional and behavioral characteristics Goals of trait theorists o Describe the basic classes of behaviors that define personality o Devise way of measuring individual differences in personality traits 0 Use these measures to understand and predict behaviors Psych 101 Page 1 Lexical approach 0 Proposing traits on the basis of words form our everyday language Factor analysis 0 a statistical tool used to identify clusters of behaviors that are highly correlated with one another but not with behaviors Cattels 16 personality factors 0 Used factor analysis to uncover 16 behavior factors 5 factor model OCEAN o Extraversion I Social lively 0 Neuroticism I Tense moody 0 Conscientiousness I People who tend to be very careful responsible 0 Agreeableness I People who are friendly easy to get along with 0 Openness to experience I Intellectual curious Some traits are more stable than others 0 Introversion extraversion sef esteem emotionality and activity level remain relatively stable 0 Neuroticism openness and extraversion tend to decline with age 0 Agreable and conscientiousness tend to increase with age Cross situational consistency 0 Traits interact with other traits as well s characteristics of different situations 0 Consistency is influenced by how important a given trait is for a person o Difference in the tendency to tailor behavior to a given situation EVALUATION 0 Focuses attention on identifying classifying and measuring stable enduring personality dispositions 0 Needs to look at how traits interact with each other 0 Gives a description not an explanation Biological Foundations Eysenck39s extraversionstability model 0 Personality can be understood in terms of two basic dimensions I Introversionextraversion I Stabilityinstabilityneuroticism Social cognitive perspective 0 Combines the behavioral and cognitive and perspectives I Stresses the interaction of a thinking human with a social environment that provides learning experiences Julian rotter o Likelihood that we will engage in a particular behavior in a given situation is fluency by I Expectancy I Reinforcement value Locus of control o Expectancy concerning the degree of personal control we have in our lives I Internal I External o Locus of control is a generalized expectancy Social cognitive perspective e Selfefficacybandura 0 a person39s beliefs concernintheir ability to perform the behavior need to achieve desired Psych 101 Page 2 outcomes Interviews 0 Structure interview I Specific questions are administered to every participant I Interviewer look at what is said and how it is said Behavioralassessmentt 0 An explicit coding system that contains the behavioral categories of interest Remote behavior sampling 0 Collecting selfreported samples of behavior from respondents as they live their daily lives Personlaity assesment Personality scales 0 Objective measure standard sets of questions that are scored using and agreedon scoring key Z 0 Advantages Projective test 0 Present subjects with ambiguous stimuli and ask for some interpretation of them Roschach test 0 Series of 10 inkblots 0 Interpretations are based on what the responses seem to symbolize 0 Ambiuity Thematic Appercetion Test 0 Particiapts writes a story about what is happenign in the picture o 1020 pictuees are anazlyed Psych 101 Page 3 May 28 2014 Psychological Disorders What is abnormal 0 General assumption about human nature 0 Statistical deviation from the norm 0 Harmfulness suffering and impairment Abnormal behavior o Behavior that is personally distressing personally dysfunctional andor culturally deviant that other people judge it to be inappropriate or maladaptive Historical perspectives 0 Historical explanations for abnormal behavior I Supernatural forcesdemonic possessions 0 Trephination I Chiseling a hole in the skull to allow evil spirits to escape I Witchcraft 0 Vulnerabilitystress model I Each of us has some degree of vulnerability for developing a psychological disorder III Predisposition can be biological environmental or cultural I Disorder is created when triggered by a stressor Anxiety disorders 0 Anxiety I Tension and apprehension that is a natural response to a perceived threat Anxiety disorders I Frequently nd intensity of anxiety responses are out of proportion to the situations that trigger them I Anxiety interferes with daily life Four components I Subjectiveemotional I Cognitive I Physiological I Behavioral Stats I More frequent in females that males I 186 of population Phobias I Persistent strong and irrational fear of certain objects or situation III Agoraphobia 9 Fear of open or public places III Social phobia 9 Fear of social evaluation and embarrassment 9 anticipation of a public situation III Specific phobias 9 Fear of dogs snakes spiders heights etc response to specific type of objects or situations 0 Generalized anxiety disorder I Can markedly interfere with daily functioning III Difficult to concrete make decision and remember commitments O O O O Psych 101 Page 1 I Onset typically occurs in childhood and adolescence 0 Panic disorder I Sudden unpredictable and intense fear III Typically occurs without any identifiable stimulus III Many develop a persistent fear of future attacks andor agoraphobia III Tends to appear in late adolesces or early adulthood 0 Obsessive compusive disorder I Obsessions III Repetitive and unwelcome thorough images and impulses I Compulsions III Repetitive behavioral responses Psych 101 Page 2 May 30 2014 Friday May 3 y ZDML 1133 AM Munchausen syndrome 0 Named for Baron von Munchausen most severed toe of factitious disorder I Deliberately produce or exaggerate symptoms in several ways I Diagnosing is difficulty because of dishonesty Dissociative disorders Breakdown of normal personality integration Dissociation 0 A process by which a portion of one39s life becomes or detached from one39s identity or conscious 0 Three forms I Psychogenic amnesia III A person responds to a stressful even with extensive but selective memory loss I Psychogenic fugue III A person loses all sense of personal identity gives up his or her customary life wanders to a new faraway location and establishes a new identity I Dissociative identity disorder DID III Two or more separate personalities coexist in the same person Traumadissociation theory o Development of new personalities occurs in response to severe stress Sociocognitive theory o Development of new personalities occurs in response to people39s expectations and beliefs shaped by psychotherapy and culture Controversialdiagnosis o Large increase in cases in recent years rea or madeup 0 Faking 0 Increasing sensitivity to symptoms 0 Over diagnose Mood disorder Depression and mania 0 High comorbidity involving anxiety and mood disorders Depression 0 Most temporary depression at some point I Typically due to a traumatic or sad event I 2530 of college undergrads I Typically fades after the event has passed 0 Major depression I An intense depressed state that leaves the person unable to function effectively 0 Dysthymia I A less intense form of depression that has less dramatic effects on personal and occupational functioning o Emotional symptoms I Sadness I Hopelessness I Anxiety I Misery I Inability to enjoy 0 Cognitive symptoms 4 Psych 101 Page 1 I Negative cognitions about self world and future 0 Motivational symptoms I Loss of interest I Lack of drive I Difficulty starting anything 0 Somatic symptoms I Loss of appetite I Lack of energy I Sleep difficulties I Weight lossgain Bipolar disorder o Depression alternating with periods of mania I Mania III Highly excited mood and behavior III Symptoms O O O O 0 General euphoria Failure to consider negative consequences Hyperactive frantic behavior Irritable and aggressive when questioned Rapid speech lessened need for sleep SAD seasonal affective disorder 0 A depressive episodes that display a seasonal pattern 0 O O O I Symptoms III Weight gain III Lack of energy III Carbohydrate craving III Excessive sleep Prevalence of mood disorders Nearly 15 Americans will have a clinically depressive episodes at least one Depression is on the rise among young people 1519 Women are about twice as likely as men to experience unipolar depression I No diff in bipolar rates Three typical patterns I 40 will not experience another episode I 50 will experience a resource about 3 years after the initial episode I 10 will remain chronically depressed Biological factors 0 Underactivity of norepinephrine dopamine and serotonin o Bipolar disorder has a stronger genetic basis than unipolar disorder 0 Manic disorders may stem from an overproduction of the same neurotransmitters that are underactive in depression Psychological facrors 0 Personality based vulnerability can be created by early traumatic losses or rejections Psych 101 Page 2


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