New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

PSYC 1000 - Week 8 Notes

by: HaleyG

PSYC 1000 - Week 8 Notes Psyc 1000-04

Marketplace > Tulane University > Psychlogy > Psyc 1000-04 > PSYC 1000 Week 8 Notes
GPA 3.6

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Lecture and textbook notes
Introductory Psychology
Bethany Rollins
Class Notes
psych, Rollins
25 ?




Popular in Introductory Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


Reviews for PSYC 1000 - Week 8 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/29/16
PSYC 1000 Week 8 Notes March 2­4 Textbook Notes What is Intelligence? (p. 385­391) ­ Intelligence: the mental potential to learn from experience, to solve problems, and use  knowledge to adapt to new situations ­ General intelligence: underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore  measured by tasks on an intelligence test ­ Savant syndrome: a condition in which a person limited in mental ability has on  exception specific skill ­ Sternberg's triarchic theory: there are three distinct intelligences: analytical,  creative, and practical ­ Emotional intelligence: the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use  emotions Assessing Intelligence (p. 392­397) ­ Intelligence test: assesses an individual's mental aptitudes and uses numerical  scores to compare it with others ­ Achievement test: assesses what a person has learned ­ Aptitude test: predicts someone's future performance ­ Mental age: chronological age that corresponds to a given level of performance ­ IQ: the ratio of mental age to chronological age (or the test­taker's performance  relative to the average performance of others of the same age) ­ Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: most widely used intelligence tests; contain  verbal and nonverbal subtests ­ Principles of test construction ­ Standardization ­ Reliability ­ Validity Dynamics of Intelligence (p. 401­404) ­ Intellectual disability: limited mental ability, with difficulty adapting to the  demands of life ­ Down syndrome: a condition with mild to severe intellectual ability and  associate physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence (p. 405­417) ­ Studies suggest that genes influence intelligence ­ Stereotype threat: academic success can be lowered by self­doubt and self­ monitoring during exams Identical vs. Fraternal Twins (p. 135­136) ­ Identical twins: develop from a single egg that splits in two, creating genetically  identical organisms ­ Fraternal twins: develop from separate eggs ­ Identical twins are behaviorally more similar than fraternal twins Heritability (p. 140­141) ­ Heritability: the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute  to genes Our Genetic Legacy (p. 146) ­ 95% of genetic variation exists within populations ­ Some biological predispositions are mismatched with today's evolutionary  pressures Measures of Variation (p. 44­46) ­ Range: the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution ­ Standard deviation: a computed measure of how much scores vary around the  mean score ­ Normal curve: bell­shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean Culture and the Self (p. 157­161) ­ Individualism: priority of one's own goals over group goals, and defining  identity based on personal traits, not group identifications ­ Collectivism: priority of the goals of one's group over individual goals, and  defining identity based on group traits, not individual traits ­ Interaction between biology and culture Self Control (p. 503) ­ Self­control: the ability to control impulses and delay short­term gratification for longer­term rewards Lecture Notes IQ tests today ­ Stanford­Binet ­ Wechsler scales ­ Most widely used ­ Overall IQ score and specific domain tests ­ WAIS: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale ­ WISC: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (ages 6­16) ­ WPPSI: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (below 6) Test Construction ­ Calculating IQ ­ IQ determined by comparing one's performance to the performance of  others in the same age group ­ Test given to large representative samples to determine grading scales ­ The results establish norms: descriptions of frequency of scores ­ Graphed norms result in normal distribution (bell­shaped curve) ­ Giftedness: top 2% on the bell curve (IQ of 130 or greater) ­ Intellectual disability: IQ in bottom 2% *Also must have deficits in daily adaptive living skills  (difficulty living independently) ­ Not the same as learning disability ­ People with learning disabilities have problems  with some cognitive tasks but above average performance on other cognitive tasks ­ People with intellectual disability show poor  performance on most cognitive tasks ­ Average IQ: 100 ­ Score reflects relative standing compared ­ Reliability: stability/consistency of scores over time ­ Reliability increases with age for IQ tests ­ IQ tests start to become reliable at age 4, very reliable after age 7 ­ Validity: authenticity ­ Does test measure what it claims to measure? ­ Validity of IQ tests is questionable because we don't have a clear  definition of intelligence Genetic Influence on IQ ­ Correlation of IQs higher in closer relatives ­ Identical twins have more similar scores than do fraternal twins ­ Identical twins come from the same egg (genetically identical) ­ Fraternal twins develop from different eggs Environmental Influences ­ Environment influences IQ ­ Identical twins raised together have more similar scores than do identical twins raised apart ­ Fraternal twins have more similar scores than do non­twin siblings ­ Unrelated kids raised together have more similar IQs than do actual  siblings raised apart from each other ­ Kids taken from impoverished environment and placed in a better home  show increase in IQ ­ Heredity and environment interact with each other ­ Genes provide potential; environment determines development Group Differences ­ Genetic factors are not necessarily responsible for average IQ differences  between groups ­ Similar environments ­­> differences due more to genetics ­ Dissimilar environments ­­> differences due more to environment ­ Groups are much more similar to each other than they are different ­ Differences are often (falsely) assumed to be due to genetics ­ Ethnicity and IQ ­ Small differences in group averages of IQ, however you can't predict IQ  based on ethnicity (lots of overlap in performance ­ You can't assume that differences are innate ­ Race is a social construct ­ People with similar skin tone are not necessarily more genetically similar than people with different skin tones ­ There's more genetic variety within a population than between  populations ­ There's no relationship between degree of European genes and IQ ­ Most racial IQ difference is due to socioeconomic factors ­ Poverty has a negative impact on intellectual development ­ IQ gap is decreasing ­ High­income communities have higher IQs than low­ income communities of the same race ­ Privileged communities have higher IQs than  disadvantaged communities ­ A greater wealth gap in a community means a bigger IQ  gap ­ Poverty's negative impacts on IQ ­ Poor nutrition ­ Less healthcare access ­ Worse schools ­ Higher opportunity cost for being in school ­ Children in poverty have reduced growth of prefrontal cortex ­ IQ gap between ethnicities is decreasing as opportunities improve for  minorities ­ Gender comparisons ­ No difference in male/female average scores ­ Small difference in specific areas ­ Females: better at most verbal tasks (except verbal analogies) ­ Males: better at most nonverbal tasks (except math calculations,  spatial positions of objects) ­ Environmental factors ­ Differences disappear when comparing highly educated males  and females ­ Parents/society pressure different genders to participate in  different activities  ­ Boys do athletics and play video games, which both  involve nonverbal skills  ­ Girls are involved in activities that involve verbal skills,  such as playing with dolls ­ Differences between males and females have decreased over time (shows environmental influence) ­ Stereotype factors ­ Stereotypes influence performance, attitudes, and self­confidence ­ Stereotype threat: anxiety that one's performance on a task will  confirm a negative stereotype about a group to which one belongs ­­> leads to poor  performance (self­fulfilling prophecy) ­ You cannot predict an individual's performance based on group  membership ­ High IQs predict success but not special distinction ­ Success takes more than a high IQ ­ Well­connected, hard work, motivation ­ Self­discipline is a better predictor of success than IQ ­ IQ is not a measure of personal worth CHAPTER 11  Motivation: a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal ­ The study of "why" ­ Theories of motivation ­ Instinct theory: all motivation comes from instincts ­ Instincts: automatic, unlearned, and involuntary reactions  released in reaction to specific stimuli, and consistent within a species ­ Does not account for human behavior of learning ­ Drive reduction theory: physiological imbalance creates a need that leads to an aroused state/drive, which prompts behavior to reduce the need ­ Goal: homeostasis (steady internal state) ­ Our bodies work best within certain parameters ­ Arousal theory: we are motivated to maintain a personal, optimal level of arousal ­ Arousal: general activation level of the body and brain ­ Individuals differ in optimal arousal levels, genetically influenced ­ Incentive theory: motivated to gain positive incentives while avoiding  negative consequences ­ Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs ­ Needs lower on the hierarchy tend to take precedence over higher needs 6. Physiological needs 5. Safety  4. Belongingness/love  3. Esteem (achievement, usefulness, gain of recognition) 2. Self­actualization (fulfilling one's own unique potential) 1. Self­transcendence (helping others, religion) ­ Hunger and eating ­ Biological factors ­ Brain (esp. hypothalamus) receives signals from organs (stomach, intestines, and liver) regarding fullness, nutrient levels, and hormone levels (of blood)


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.