PSYC 1000 - Week 8 Notes
PSYC 1000 - Week 8 Notes Psyc 1000-04
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
PSYC 1000 Week 8 Notes March 24 Textbook Notes What is Intelligence? (p. 385391) Intelligence: the mental potential to learn from experience, to solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations General intelligence: underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by tasks on an intelligence test Savant syndrome: a condition in which a person limited in mental ability has on exception specific skill Sternberg's triarchic theory: there are three distinct intelligences: analytical, creative, and practical Emotional intelligence: the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions Assessing Intelligence (p. 392397) Intelligence test: assesses an individual's mental aptitudes and uses numerical scores to compare it with others Achievement test: assesses what a person has learned Aptitude test: predicts someone's future performance Mental age: chronological age that corresponds to a given level of performance IQ: the ratio of mental age to chronological age (or the testtaker's performance relative to the average performance of others of the same age) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale: most widely used intelligence tests; contain verbal and nonverbal subtests Principles of test construction Standardization Reliability Validity Dynamics of Intelligence (p. 401404) Intellectual disability: limited mental ability, with difficulty adapting to the demands of life Down syndrome: a condition with mild to severe intellectual ability and associate physical disorders caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence (p. 405417) Studies suggest that genes influence intelligence Stereotype threat: academic success can be lowered by selfdoubt and self monitoring during exams Identical vs. Fraternal Twins (p. 135136) Identical twins: develop from a single egg that splits in two, creating genetically identical organisms Fraternal twins: develop from separate eggs Identical twins are behaviorally more similar than fraternal twins Heritability (p. 140141) Heritability: the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes Our Genetic Legacy (p. 146) 95% of genetic variation exists within populations Some biological predispositions are mismatched with today's evolutionary pressures Measures of Variation (p. 4446) Range: the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution Standard deviation: a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score Normal curve: bellshaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean Culture and the Self (p. 157161) Individualism: priority of one's own goals over group goals, and defining identity based on personal traits, not group identifications Collectivism: priority of the goals of one's group over individual goals, and defining identity based on group traits, not individual traits Interaction between biology and culture Self Control (p. 503) Selfcontrol: the ability to control impulses and delay shortterm gratification for longerterm rewards Lecture Notes IQ tests today StanfordBinet Wechsler scales Most widely used Overall IQ score and specific domain tests WAIS: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WISC: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (ages 616) WPPSI: Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (below 6) Test Construction Calculating IQ IQ determined by comparing one's performance to the performance of others in the same age group Test given to large representative samples to determine grading scales The results establish norms: descriptions of frequency of scores Graphed norms result in normal distribution (bellshaped curve) Giftedness: top 2% on the bell curve (IQ of 130 or greater) Intellectual disability: IQ in bottom 2% *Also must have deficits in daily adaptive living skills (difficulty living independently) Not the same as learning disability People with learning disabilities have problems with some cognitive tasks but above average performance on other cognitive tasks People with intellectual disability show poor performance on most cognitive tasks Average IQ: 100 Score reflects relative standing compared Reliability: stability/consistency of scores over time Reliability increases with age for IQ tests IQ tests start to become reliable at age 4, very reliable after age 7 Validity: authenticity Does test measure what it claims to measure? Validity of IQ tests is questionable because we don't have a clear definition of intelligence Genetic Influence on IQ Correlation of IQs higher in closer relatives Identical twins have more similar scores than do fraternal twins Identical twins come from the same egg (genetically identical) Fraternal twins develop from different eggs Environmental Influences Environment influences IQ Identical twins raised together have more similar scores than do identical twins raised apart Fraternal twins have more similar scores than do nontwin siblings Unrelated kids raised together have more similar IQs than do actual siblings raised apart from each other Kids taken from impoverished environment and placed in a better home show increase in IQ Heredity and environment interact with each other Genes provide potential; environment determines development Group Differences Genetic factors are not necessarily responsible for average IQ differences between groups Similar environments > differences due more to genetics Dissimilar environments > differences due more to environment Groups are much more similar to each other than they are different Differences are often (falsely) assumed to be due to genetics Ethnicity and IQ Small differences in group averages of IQ, however you can't predict IQ based on ethnicity (lots of overlap in performance You can't assume that differences are innate Race is a social construct People with similar skin tone are not necessarily more genetically similar than people with different skin tones There's more genetic variety within a population than between populations There's no relationship between degree of European genes and IQ Most racial IQ difference is due to socioeconomic factors Poverty has a negative impact on intellectual development IQ gap is decreasing Highincome communities have higher IQs than low income communities of the same race Privileged communities have higher IQs than disadvantaged communities A greater wealth gap in a community means a bigger IQ gap Poverty's negative impacts on IQ Poor nutrition Less healthcare access Worse schools Higher opportunity cost for being in school Children in poverty have reduced growth of prefrontal cortex IQ gap between ethnicities is decreasing as opportunities improve for minorities Gender comparisons No difference in male/female average scores Small difference in specific areas Females: better at most verbal tasks (except verbal analogies) Males: better at most nonverbal tasks (except math calculations, spatial positions of objects) Environmental factors Differences disappear when comparing highly educated males and females Parents/society pressure different genders to participate in different activities Boys do athletics and play video games, which both involve nonverbal skills Girls are involved in activities that involve verbal skills, such as playing with dolls Differences between males and females have decreased over time (shows environmental influence) Stereotype factors Stereotypes influence performance, attitudes, and selfconfidence Stereotype threat: anxiety that one's performance on a task will confirm a negative stereotype about a group to which one belongs > leads to poor performance (selffulfilling prophecy) You cannot predict an individual's performance based on group membership High IQs predict success but not special distinction Success takes more than a high IQ Wellconnected, hard work, motivation Selfdiscipline is a better predictor of success than IQ IQ is not a measure of personal worth CHAPTER 11 Motivation: a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal The study of "why" Theories of motivation Instinct theory: all motivation comes from instincts Instincts: automatic, unlearned, and involuntary reactions released in reaction to specific stimuli, and consistent within a species Does not account for human behavior of learning Drive reduction theory: physiological imbalance creates a need that leads to an aroused state/drive, which prompts behavior to reduce the need Goal: homeostasis (steady internal state) Our bodies work best within certain parameters Arousal theory: we are motivated to maintain a personal, optimal level of arousal Arousal: general activation level of the body and brain Individuals differ in optimal arousal levels, genetically influenced Incentive theory: motivated to gain positive incentives while avoiding negative consequences Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Needs lower on the hierarchy tend to take precedence over higher needs 6. Physiological needs 5. Safety 4. Belongingness/love 3. Esteem (achievement, usefulness, gain of recognition) 2. Selfactualization (fulfilling one's own unique potential) 1. Selftranscendence (helping others, religion) Hunger and eating Biological factors Brain (esp. hypothalamus) receives signals from organs (stomach, intestines, and liver) regarding fullness, nutrient levels, and hormone levels (of blood)
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