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Lecture 9

by: Sierra

Lecture 9 FNR 251


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Genetics, Regional Variation, and Biogeography
Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds
Rod N. Williams
Class Notes
Ecology, systematics, amphibians, reptiles, forestry, Natural Resources
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNR 251 at Purdue University taught by Rod N. Williams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds in Agriculture and Forestry at Purdue University.

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Date Created: 02/29/16
LECTURE 9: GENETICS, REGIONAL VARIATION, AND BIOGEOGRAPHY I. Introduction Each population will adapt differently and will eventually diverge genetically (evolve) from other populations If this divergence continued, speciation would occur However, speciation is a rare outcome The rate of gene flow is a function of the closeness of the populations and the dispersal tendency of the species II. Classification Species : Today distinguished by differences in: Body function Biochemistry Behavior Genetic makeup Classical Biological Concept Definition: genetically distinctive populations of individuals isolated reproductively from FNR 251 02/05/2007tions II. Classification Alternative species concepts : Ecological species: defined in terms of its ecological niche Morphological species: defined by morphology (structure) Genealogical species: defined as a set of organisms with a common and unique genetic history as shown by molecular patterns II. Classification Subspecies : Def. 1: Taxonomic subdivision of a species Def. 2: A population of a particular region genetically distinguishable from other such populations and capable of interbreeding with them Def. 3: A grouping of organisms that differ from other members of their species by color, size or various morphological features II. Classification Prairie Racerunner Six-lined Racerunner (Aspidoscelis sexlineatus viridis(Aspidoscelis sexlineatus sexlineatus) II. Classification Cline : Gradual and continual change in a character by a series of populations or throughout the range of a species Usually along a line of geographic or environmental gradient, in which individuals at the two extremes differ markedly II. Classification Group of Populations Yellow Lines Each color: Zone of Clinal variation in Hybridization a species or Group of species II. Clinal Variation in Painted Turtles Plastral markings  Western forms –intricate  Hybrid – intermediate  Midwestern - single II. Classification How do you define a species when individuals do not interbreed? The case of the “ring species” Geographic Distribution and Clinal variation among the subspecies of Lungless Salamader: Ensatina eschscholtzi FNR 251 02/05/2007 III. Morphological Variation Latitudinal Changes Within a Species: a) Changes in Body Weight: Bergman’s Rule Animals have a tendency to be larger in polar regions, medium in temperate climates, and smallest in tropical ones Does not always apply to reptiles and amphibians b) Changes in body color IV. Biogeography Three major factors influence geographic distribution of amphibians and reptiles: a) Climate b) Availability and access to resources c) Dispersal abilities VI. Biogeography Amphibian Species VI. Biogeography Reptile Species Review of Terms: Lecture 9 Biogeography Clinal Variation Cline Intergradation Species Subspecies “Ring Species”


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