Lecture 12 FNR 251
Popular in Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds
Popular in Agriculture and Forestry
This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNR 251 at Purdue University taught by Rod N. Williams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds in Agriculture and Forestry at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
LECTURE 12: SOCIAL SYSTEMS, COMMUNICATION AND BEHAVIORS I. Introduction Concepts to be covered in this lecture: Communication Social systems and group behaviors II. Communication: Types Definition Four basic types of communication: a) Visual b) Acoustic c) Chemical d) Tactile II. Communication: Caecilians Chemical Cues: Have a specialized chemosensory organ: the tentacles Paired structures located anterior to the eyes and lumen of each connects to Jacobson’s organ II. Communication: Salamanders Chemical Cues: Salamanders use pherohormones These hormones are produced by courtship glands Tactile Cues: Mate location in Plethodontid salamanders is aided by nose-tapping Also bite, slap or rub part of their bodies against each other II. Communication: Salamanders Male Plethodon jordani Slapping his Courtship Gland on the Snout of the Female During Courtship FNR 251 02/14/2007ds of Plethodontid Salamanders II. Communication: Salamanders Courtship sequence in the Mole Salamander (Ambystoma talpoideum) FNR 251 02/14/2007 II. Communication: Salamanders Tail Straddling Walk During Courtship of a Plethodontid Salamander (Plethodon jordani) FNR 251 02/14/2007 II. Communication: Frogs Acoustic Cues: very important Four basic categories of calls: Advertisement Reciprocation Release Distress Frogs produce sound by passing air over their vocal cords found in vocal sacs II. Communication: Frogs Larynx Lung Vocal Sound Sac Sound Production of the Marine Toad (Bufo marinus) II. Communication: Frogs Visual Cues: Bright colorations Mostly in diurnal species II. Communication: Frogs Golden Frog (Brachycephalus ephippium) Harlequin Poison Arrow Frog Poison Arrow Frogs (Dendrobates histrionicus) FN(Dendrobates azureus) II. Communication: Turtles Visual Cues: Headbobs, Ram, Flip, Trailing, Biting (♂:♀ courtship and copulation; or ♂:♂ aggressive encounters) Encounters in Emydid turtles: Patterns and colors of limbs, shell, head Chemical Cues: Special glands on the bridge of their shells Cloacal secretions may also play a role II. Communication: T urtles Sequence of Behaviors During an Aggressive Encounter Between two Male Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) II. Communication: T urtles __________________ by a Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemtus) II. Communication: Crocodylians Visual Cues: Several stereotyped complex displays: e.g. “Head emergent-tail arched”, “inflated”, and “head-slaps” postures in ♂:♂ aggressive encounters Auditory Cues: Bellowing and “coughing” (adults); grunts (juveniles), and slapping sounds II. Communication: Crocodylians Head-slap Display (35”) Bellowing Display (5”) Visual and Acoustic Displays of the American Alligator FNR 251 02/14/2007 (Alligator mississippiensis) II. Communication: Lizards Visual Cues: Coloration of dewlaps, heads and sides of the body in males and bright coloration in females Chemical Cues: Pherohormones Tactile Cues: Tongue flicking Neck and body scratching II. Communication: Lizards SIMPLE DISPLAYS FNR 251 02Visual Displays in Anolis lizards II. Communication: Lizards COMPOUND DISPLAYS FNR 251 02Visual Displays in Anolis lizards II. Communication: Lizards COMPLEX DISPLAYS FNR 251 02Visual Displays in Anolis lizards II. Communication: Lizards Brown Anole (Anolis sagrei) Green anole (Anolis carolinensis) FNR 251 02/14Visual Displays in Anolis lizards II. Communication: Snakes Chemical Cues: Pherohormones are produced both by the skin (mating and courtship) and cloaca (defense and trailing) Tactile Cues: Courtship and mating Male combat II. Communication: Snakes Tactile Signals Used by Snakes During Courtship and Mating FNR 251 02/14/2007 III. Group Behavior: Competition Competition: 1. Interspecific: occasionally occurs among related species; frequently congregating species partition habitat temporally (especially during breeding) 2. Intraspecific: occasionally occurs when resources are limited; minimized in larval/juvenile forms III. Group Behavior: Cooperation Cooperation: Protocooperation better term for amphibians and reptiles Three forms of protocooperation: a) Crowding b) Hibernation c) Breeding Aggregations III. Group Behavior: Kinship Definition of Kinship: traits (behaviors) that do not benefit an individual’s survival and potential for reproductive success but do benefit survival and reproduction of kin III. Group Behavior: Kinship Rana cascadae (Cascades frog) tadpoles associate with familiar half-sibs and non-sibs; occur in cohesive aggregations Rana aurora (red-legged frog) recognize siblings if raised with them but not if raised away from them Rana pretiosa (spotted frog) lack ability to recognize kin at all Review of Terms: Lecture 12 Communication: Visual, Acoustic, Chemical, and Tactile Cues; Calls (advertisement, reciprocation, release, distress); Courtship glands; Nose-tapping; Pherohormones; Social behavior; Tentacle; Vocal sacs. Group Behavior: Competition (intra and interspecific); Cooperation; Kinship; Protocooperation (crowding, hibernation, breeding aggregations).
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