New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Lecture 12

by: Sierra

Lecture 12 FNR 251


Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Social Systems, Communication and Behaviors
Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds
Rod N. Williams
Class Notes
Ecology, systematics, amphibians, reptiles, forestry, Natural Resources
25 ?




Popular in Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds

Popular in Agriculture and Forestry

This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sierra on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FNR 251 at Purdue University taught by Rod N. Williams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds in Agriculture and Forestry at Purdue University.


Reviews for Lecture 12


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/29/16
LECTURE 12: SOCIAL SYSTEMS, COMMUNICATION AND BEHAVIORS I. Introduction Concepts to be covered in this lecture: Communication Social systems and group behaviors II. Communication: Types Definition Four basic types of communication: a) Visual b) Acoustic c) Chemical d) Tactile II. Communication: Caecilians Chemical Cues: Have a specialized chemosensory organ: the tentacles Paired structures located anterior to the eyes and lumen of each connects to Jacobson’s organ II. Communication: Salamanders Chemical Cues: Salamanders use pherohormones These hormones are produced by courtship glands Tactile Cues: Mate location in Plethodontid salamanders is aided by nose-tapping Also bite, slap or rub part of their bodies against each other II. Communication: Salamanders Male Plethodon jordani Slapping his Courtship Gland on the Snout of the Female During Courtship FNR 251 02/14/2007ds of Plethodontid Salamanders II. Communication: Salamanders Courtship sequence in the Mole Salamander (Ambystoma talpoideum) FNR 251 02/14/2007 II. Communication: Salamanders Tail Straddling Walk During Courtship of a Plethodontid Salamander (Plethodon jordani) FNR 251 02/14/2007 II. Communication: Frogs Acoustic Cues: very important Four basic categories of calls: Advertisement Reciprocation Release Distress Frogs produce sound by passing air over their vocal cords found in vocal sacs II. Communication: Frogs Larynx Lung Vocal Sound Sac Sound Production of the Marine Toad (Bufo marinus) II. Communication: Frogs Visual Cues: Bright colorations Mostly in diurnal species II. Communication: Frogs Golden Frog (Brachycephalus ephippium) Harlequin Poison Arrow Frog Poison Arrow Frogs (Dendrobates histrionicus) FN(Dendrobates azureus) II. Communication: Turtles Visual Cues: Headbobs, Ram, Flip, Trailing, Biting (♂:♀  courtship and copulation; or ♂:♂ aggressive encounters) Encounters in Emydid turtles: Patterns and colors of limbs, shell, head Chemical Cues: Special glands on the bridge of their shells Cloacal secretions may also play a role II. Communication: T urtles Sequence of Behaviors During an Aggressive Encounter Between two Male Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) II. Communication: T urtles __________________ by a Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemtus) II. Communication: Crocodylians Visual Cues: Several stereotyped complex displays: e.g. “Head emergent-tail arched”, “inflated”, and “head-slaps” postures in ♂:♂ aggressive encounters Auditory Cues: Bellowing and “coughing” (adults); grunts (juveniles), and slapping sounds II. Communication: Crocodylians Head-slap Display (35”) Bellowing Display (5”) Visual and Acoustic Displays of the American Alligator FNR 251 02/14/2007 (Alligator mississippiensis) II. Communication: Lizards Visual Cues: Coloration of dewlaps, heads and sides of the body in males and bright coloration in females Chemical Cues: Pherohormones Tactile Cues: Tongue flicking Neck and body scratching II. Communication: Lizards SIMPLE DISPLAYS FNR 251 02Visual Displays in Anolis lizards II. Communication: Lizards COMPOUND DISPLAYS FNR 251 02Visual Displays in Anolis lizards II. Communication: Lizards COMPLEX DISPLAYS FNR 251 02Visual Displays in Anolis lizards II. Communication: Lizards Brown Anole (Anolis sagrei) Green anole (Anolis carolinensis) FNR 251 02/14Visual Displays in Anolis lizards II. Communication: Snakes Chemical Cues: Pherohormones are produced both by the skin (mating and courtship) and cloaca (defense and trailing) Tactile Cues: Courtship and mating Male combat II. Communication: Snakes Tactile Signals Used by Snakes During Courtship and Mating FNR 251 02/14/2007 III. Group Behavior: Competition Competition: 1. Interspecific: occasionally occurs among related species; frequently congregating species partition habitat temporally (especially during breeding) 2. Intraspecific: occasionally occurs when resources are limited; minimized in larval/juvenile forms III. Group Behavior: Cooperation Cooperation: Protocooperation better term for amphibians and reptiles Three forms of protocooperation: a) Crowding b) Hibernation c) Breeding Aggregations III. Group Behavior: Kinship Definition of Kinship: traits (behaviors) that do not benefit an individual’s survival and potential for reproductive success but do benefit survival and reproduction of kin III. Group Behavior: Kinship Rana cascadae (Cascades frog) tadpoles associate with familiar half-sibs and non-sibs; occur in cohesive aggregations Rana aurora (red-legged frog) recognize siblings if raised with them but not if raised away from them Rana pretiosa (spotted frog) lack ability to recognize kin at all Review of Terms: Lecture 12 Communication: Visual, Acoustic, Chemical, and Tactile Cues; Calls (advertisement, reciprocation, release, distress); Courtship glands; Nose-tapping; Pherohormones; Social behavior; Tentacle; Vocal sacs. Group Behavior: Competition (intra and interspecific); Cooperation; Kinship; Protocooperation (crowding, hibernation, breeding aggregations).


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.