Week 9 AMH2097
Popular in Nationality, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States
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Popular in History
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by JennaEliteNotetaker on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AMH2097 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Amundson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Nationality, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States in History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
2/29/16& Civil War and Reconstruction -! Civil War was expensive for North o! Caused significant changes in US in the way the federal gov operated -! Introduction of income tax o! 3% tax levy o! Fed government direct taxes on states !! Every possible item or service !! Borrowed money o! Northern government borrowed 2.2 billion for war expenses o! Yellow back money vs. green back money -! Manufacturers, railroads, and farming benefited from the war -! Some democrats remained in congress during this time and criticized Abraham Lincoln -! Radical Republicans began to gain more power o! Divided among themselves on issues outside of war o! 1861 Charles Sumner was the most radical republican !! Full of scorn for south and slave holders o! Thaddeus Stevens o! Wanted to see full equality among the races in law and society in the north and south o! Radical Democrats disagreed -! The Copperheads (democrats) o! Supported peace with the confederate states of America !! Wanted a peace treaty to end the war o! Did not want to continue to fight the war o! Many of them voted repeatedly to not support the Civil War -! Lincoln applied marshal law freely -! Clemet Vanlandingham o! Sent to prison during the war for his anti war political beliefs o! Believed there were two rebellions !! Secession rebellion !! Abolition rebellion o! Lincoln ordered him released from prison and to be banished to the confederate states of America !! He chose to go to Canada instead •! Attempted to run for governor here but failed !! Campaigned against Lincoln after his return -! 1862 British ship yard finished building two ships for US -! Radical Republicans got slavery outright banned in Columbia then in every western territory -! Conscription Act (1863) o! Set up war draft o! Applied to all white men between 20 – 45 o! Could purchase your way out of draft or find substitutes o! Represented increase in federal authority during the civil war o! Caused Irish led demonstration against union war draft -! NYC Draft Riot o! Orphanage looted and burned to the ground o! Centers of black business activity/social activities were attacked 2/29/16& o! Lasted for 4 days o! More than 100 people had died (mostly rioters but some blacks) o! Black residents of NYC fled to Brooklyn, New Jersey, and other nearby locations o! Sometimes interracial neighborhoods fought off rioters together -! Emancipation Proclamation -! By end of war in 1865 2.5% of the population died during the civil war o! 20% of white men of military age died in the south, 1 of every 5 black man that fought in the war died -! The South insisted on immediate entry back into the Union while the North said they should have to be readmitted over time o! Radical republicans said the southern states committed suicide and they should have to be treated as new territory o! Once 10% of southern white men in each state pledged their loyalty to the Union then the state could be readmitted o! Wade-Davis Bill !! Half of southern men would have to pledge their loyalty to the Union for the state to be readmitted -! Andrew Johnson became president o! Was only member of southern seceding state that remained at his post o! Railed against aristocrats o! Supported public education and social equality o! Instituted a new policy of southern states to reenter the Union -! Ratified 13 amendment which banned slavery everywhere in the US and it’s territories -! Black Codes o! All white legislators began to pass in southern states o! Gave newly freed black people the right to freely marry, own property, and have limited access to the court o! Said it was illegal for African Americans to testify against whites in courts, serve in juries, and vote o! In North Carolina black men who raped a white woman were to be put to death o! Many southern states used black codes to ban interracial marriage o! Mississippi denied African Americans the right to own fire arms or knives and drink alcohol -! Radical Republicans said it was the federal governments job to make sure that everyone was treated equally o! Passage of new civil rights acts -! Fourteenth Amendment o! Amendment states that everyone born in the US is a citizen of the US o! Meant to guarantee that formerly enslaved people were citizens of the US o! Reconstruction Acts in South !! Lasted from 1867-1877 -! Fifteenth Amendment o! Said the right to vote could not be limited based on race -! 13 -15 amendment was interpreted to give the federal government authority/power -! KKK emerged during this time o! Created to terrorize reconstruction government and their supporters 3/4/16& -! Years after civil war laws were passed to limit Chinese immigrants -! Tens of thousands of Chinese men lived and worked in the US at this point -! Continued to work in mines in California -! Some Chinese immigrants were business owners o! Bought property and built country estates -! Most men could not afford to go home often o! Very few could go home permanently -! Those that returned to China became elites and had money to build huge estates and send their kids to school and ultimately University -! These Chinese immigrants adopted some ways of American life such as drinking coffee, speaking some English words, and wearing American clothes o! Their families judged them for being so different and changed o! Did not believe in shaking hands or kissing -! In the 1870s the transcontinental railroad was completed putting a lot of Chinese immigrants out of work -! Chinese workers began to farm o! They had to provide their own foods and tents o! In 1886 90% of California farm workers were Chinese o! Produce shipments out of California sored -! In 1870s California was growing more wheat -! San Joaquin River Delta o! These two rivers flooded a delta depositing rich soil o! Chinese workers worked in ankle deep mud to clear land for farming o! Many Chinese workers died during this process o! Tule shoe was invented by Chinese !! Allowed them to bring horses into the delta for use in clearing delta o! Chinese workers were paid 10 cents per cubic yard of soil that they cleared -! Chinese immigrants began to move toward Alaska o! Hired by Chinese immigrants o! Worked in salmon canning factories o! 3,000 Chinese immigrants in the 1880s worked in the salmon caning industry o! This was dangerous and people would die o! As new machines were created less Chinese workers were needing in the caning industry -! Chinese workers began to work at laundry mats -! San Francisco’s China Town o! Epicenter of Chinese population o! Was completely transformed by the gold rush o! Became a manufacturing center after transcontinental rain road was completed o! Chinese immigrants made up most of the work force here o! In traditional Chinese society business owners were not held in high regard !! In the US after the civil war financial success was worshiped o! Workers often worked multiple jobs o! Chinese workers often lived in tenement environments !! They could not afford furniture •! Would use crates they found on the streets and would nail bunks to the walls to sleep in 3/4/16& -! “The Heathen Chinese” o! Chinese became the focus of anger of white workers o! After mining and railroad work dried up, Chinese had to turn other places to find work and money o! Irish men called the Chinese scabs and they did not like them because they worked for cheaper pay o! September 1870 a magazine published a humorous poem by Bret Harte !! Was about the growing animosity between the Irish and Chinese workers !! Explained the anxiety people felt about Irish and Chinese workers !! Tells a story of a card game •! The Chinese player is called Ah Sin o! Portrayed as crafty cheaters •! The Irish player has cards up his sleep cheating and kills the Chinese character o! Portrayed as inept cheater •! This poem was made into a play called Ah Sin o! Whites began to believe Chinese workers were part of a conspiracy to undermine white American workers !! Complained that Chinese immigrants imported things from China and sent their money back home out of America draining its wealth -! San Francisco continued to pass ordinances to drive the Chinese out o! Limited how much space a Chinese could dwell in o! Banned Chinese from walking in public with pole and baskets on the ends !! Required to use a horse and buggy o! Naturalization Act of 1870 !! Federal ordinance !! Created a process for people to become naturalized citizens of the US !! Extended this to people of African extent !! Excluded Chinese from the ability to become citizens •! Left them with no way to vote !! Anti Chinese clubs began to form •! Led to violence toward Chinese -! The Chinese Massacre -! By end of 1870s Chinese people began to arm themselves and began to regret their immigration but could not afford to return to China -! The stock market crashed -! Denis Kearney o! Unemployed workers began to gather at the sand lots o! Corporations, railroads, and Chinese workers were blamed for this o! Wanted to exterminate Chinese population by dropping balloons filled with dynamite on China towns o! Wanted to burn the current law and write a new one for the working man o! A rage broke out and Chinese were killed !! Military militia was sent but could not control them o! Attacked firemen who tried to fight the fires that rioters started o! US navy had to intervene to help end the riot -! Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) 3/4/16& o! Federal exclusion act that banned Chinese people fro immigrating to the US lasting from 1882 until after the second world war -! The Page Law o! Required Chinese woman who were migrating to the US to prove they were not immigrating to participate in prostitution 3/2/16& '! Radical&Reconstruction&(1867'1877)& o! Came&about&from&people&refusing&to&ratifying&the&14 &amendment& o! To&get&rid&of&military&rule&states&adopted&constitution&tothllow&black&voting&rights& !! If&this&was&done&along&with&the&ratification&o&the&14 &amendment&military&presence& in&the&states&would&end& !! South&didn’t&care&they&chose&to&live&under&military&district&rule&rather&than&a& legislature&and&judicial&system& o! White&southerners&refused&to&participate&in&ratification&of&the&constitution& o! June&1868,&Arkansas&became&the&first&state&to&satisfy&the&requirements&and&be& readmitted&into&the&Union& o! 1870&Georgia&was&the&final&state&to&be&readmitted&into&the&federal&union& o! Congress&continues&to&pass&legislation&that&gave&them&more&power&and&less&power&to& state&governments&and&the&president& !! They&increased&their&power&over&supreme&court&and&cabinet&& !! Attempted&to&remove&Andrew&Johnson&from&presidency& !! 10&Year&of&Office&Act&–&said&Johnson&couldn’t&let&go&of&his&cabinet&members&and&if&he& wanted&to&it&had&to&be&approved&by&the&senate& '! Andrew&Johnson:&Impeachment&Trial& o! Stood&trial&in&front&of&the&senate& o! Radical&republicans&pushed&the&impeachment&proceeding& o! He&vetoed&the&reconstruction&act&because&he&didn’t&believe&in&black&people&being& involved&in&the&process&of&states&being&readmitted&to&the&union& '! 1868&election& o! Ulysses&S.&Grant&vs.&Seymour& o! Grant&won& o! Southern&freedmen&voted&for&the&first&time&in&this&election& o! Only&7&northern&states&allowed&black&people&to&vote& th o! 15 &Amendment&prohibited&limiting&certain&citizens&from&voting& !! Heated&debates&over&this&in&the&North& !! March&of&1870&this&amendment&became&part&of&the&constitution& !! Some&people&said&the&double&standard&of&African&Americans&being&allowed&to&vote&in& the&south&but¬&in&the&north&was&unfair& '! Black&office&holders&were&conscientious&and&able&and&wanted&to&prove&the&ability&of&African& American’s&to&govern& '! Black&politicians&were&generally¬&vindictive&and&they&didn’t&want&to&restrict&anyone’s& rights& '! The&Freedmen’s&Bureau& o! Agency&created&by&congress&to&oversee&the&process&of&reconstruction&in&the&south& o! Established&schools,&settled&disputes&between&the&races&and&made&sure&they&were& treated&equally&under&the&law& o! Helped&northern&groups&that&were&interested&in&educating&freed&peope& o! Help&in&hospitals&and&medical&care& o! Wanted&to&improve&wages&and&working&conditions&that&they&thought&would&help&African& Americans& 3/2/16& o! Had&the&power&to&redistribute&land&to&former&slaves&in&the&early&years& !! Black&community&in&the&south&wanted&political&and&social&equality¬&just&better& working&conditions& o! Johnson&scaled&back&the&power&of&the&Freedman’s&Bureau& !! This&removed&black&people&from&land&that&had&already&been&granted&to&them&from& the&government& !! Resulted&in&sharecropping& •! Began&as&a&compromise&of&desire&of&planters&to&have&workers&and&blacks&to&have& their&own&land& •! Saw&this&as&a&solution&to&jumpstart&a& •! System&would&rent&a&portion&of&land&from&an&owner&to&renter&and&grow&crops&on& it& •! Became&an&oppressive&system& •! Land&owners&took&advantage&of&tenants&charging&them&ridiculous&prices&and& putting&them&in&debt& •! Whites&in&the&south&became&share&croppers& o! Grew&cotton&in&hopes&of&rebuilding& o! Would&borrow&money&to&pay&for&equipment&and&seeds& o! Eventually&had&to&give&up&farms&from&debt&and&become&share&croppers& o! Freedmen&and&woman&attended&schools&established&by&the&freedman’s&bureau& !! Property&taxes&funded&these&educations& '! The&Union&League&of&America& o! Encouraged&political&participation&among&newly&freed&people& o! Supported&black&voting& o! Brought&freedmen&together& '! White&southerners&responded&to&this&by&establishing&their&own&secret&societies& o! KKK&–&terrorized&reconstruction&government&and&their&supporters& o! Klan’s&men&turned&to&bruit&force&killing&hundreds&of&people& o! 3/4ths&act&places&elections&in&south&under&political&control& o! Federal&troops&sent&to&handle&the&Klan& o! Intimidation&tactics&spread&all&among&the&south& '! White&people&lost&their&interest&in&civil&rights&and&equality& '! 1874&federal&government&said&they&weren’t&going&to&become&involved&in&intimidation&of& black&voters&in&the&south& '! Grants&administration&was&corrupt& '! 1872&Elections& o! Republicans&nominated&Grant& o! Democrats&nominated&Greeley& o! Grant&was&reelected& '! Election&1876& o! Hayes&vs.&Tilden& o! Neutral&15&person&commission&to&decide&outcome&of&election& o! Republicans&had&tried&to&manipulate&the&results&by&throwing&out&ballets&of&three&states& 3/2/16& o! Democrats&suppressed&black&voters& o! Hayes&won& o! Both&sides&were&ready&for&another&civil&war& '! Compromise&of&1876& o! Ended&reconstruction& & Carpetbaggers Redeemers &