Business Info Systems
Business Info Systems DSC 340
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This 50 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camren Kiehn on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to DSC 340 at University of Oregon taught by Michael Pangburn in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see /class/187202/dsc-340-university-of-oregon in Decision Sciences at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Using Management Information Systems Hardware and Software Chapter 3 DSC 340 Professor Mike Pangburn The 80000 question It is not possible to become a good thinker and be a poor questioner Thinking is not driven by answers but rather by questions from Critical Thinking by Richard Paul and Linda Elder The 80000 question a Is 80000 enough a How do you respond 0 You need to respond by the day after tomorrow 0 Most of tomorrow you are booked solid with meetings a What if you tell your boss that it s not enough Q Why not just say it s fine The 80000 question a Does this seem like the kind of question a department manager might get Q Why might your boss ask you this question rather than the IT department Learning about hardware and software in sufficient depth to answer this question is a skill you need in order to be successful in most managerial positions in business We will learn terminology and frameworks that can guide hardware and software purchasing decisions To answer the Is 80000 enough question you need a way to categorize the hundreds of different computerrelated purchases your department might need One easy way to categorize hardware is by its primary function Input hardware Processing hardware Output hardware Storage hardware Communication hardware Input Process Output and Storage Hardware Storage l Magnetic disk Optical disk Magnetic tape Process CPU Main memory Specialfunction cards Microphone The brain Video display Printer 39 Speakers Slide projector Plotter Computers use bits fortwo purposes 1 and Both are encoded via binary but the same binary code will not run any type of computer The collection of instructions that a computer can process is called the computer s instruction set Instruction set depends on CPU make eg Intel Pentium vs PowerPC Apple computers Therefore hardware choices limit software options Within the past month 42006 Apple announced that its latest computers with Intel processors can run l Microsoft Windows and Apple OSX software quot H 39 s or l Bit Representations in Hardware QQEtEi 1 1 0 1 a Light switches representing 1101 b Direction of magnetism representing 1101 OO O 1 1 D 1 c Holesno holes representing 1101 A given CPU instruction say to add two numbers together is represented by a string of digits It is not possible to determine the type of computer data just by looking at the data The bit string 01000001 can be interpreted as the decimal number 65 as the character A or as part of a picture or a sound file Or it could be part of a computer instruction The CPU determines how to interpret a bit string from the g in which it encounters it in the context of reading instructions it will be interpreted as a computer instruction in the context of reading letters it will be interpreted as the character A If it occurs during arithmetic operations it will be interpreted as the number 65 How does this relate this to file extensions Eg consider saving your name in Notepad txt versus Word doc Suppose that your IS department states that you can buy three different computer configurations for three different pnces The computers are described by expressions like Intel Pentium 4 Processor at 28 GHz with 533MHz Data Bus and 512K cache 256MB RAM Intel Pentium 4 Processor at 28 GHz with 533MHz Data Bus and 512K cache 512 MB RAM Intel Pentium 4 Processor at 36 GHz with 533MHz Data Bus and 1MB cache 256 MB RAM OK so you don t want to be a techie but you to choose appropriately for your department without unnecessary overspending CPU Loading amp Processing Programs Data Magnetic More Adobe Channel Operating are Acrobat or Bus Disk System IEice Excel Paint Data Junk Shop Pro 0 eratin S stem Pro rams OpticalDlsk p g y g Motherboard Excel Acrobat Keyboard Mouse Monitor Click on Excel Acrobat The w is a circuit board upon which the processing main and other components are mounted andor connected The i3 L iiquot CPU reads instructions and data from 39 and it writes data tofrom main memory using the T s Tofrom transfer rate depends on the memory clock speed and the width of the data bus The wider a data bus the more data it can carry in a given cycle a short interval of time A bus that is 16 bits wide can carry 16 bits at a time one that is 64 bits wide can carry 64 bits at a time The brain of the computer responsible for processing all those 1 s and 0 s A CPU is on a chip called a i It continuously follows the V 3904 5170 UTDS EW 39 quotfgt fetch Ll execute decode The CPU contains Av iih TDC ii i Unit A vquot n 7 39 an ngnswv CPU speed 9 Each CPU has a clock speed that is measured in cycles per second or hertz a A fast modern computer has a clock speed of 30 gigahertz abbreviated GHz or 3 billion cycles per second 0 By the time you read this CPU speeds will be greater 9 In general the faster the clock speed the faster work will get done Name 8080 8088 80286 80386 80486 Pentium Pentium II Pentium III Pentium 4 Pentium 4 quotPrescottquot Transistors 6000 29000 134000 275000 1200000 3100000 7500000 9500000 42000000 125000000 Microns Clock speed 2 MHZ 5 MHZ 6 MHZ 16 MHZ 25 MHZ 60 MHZ 233 MHZ 450 MHZ Data width 8 bits 16 bits 8bit bus 16 bits 32 bits 32 bits 32 bits 64bit bus 32 bits 64bit bus 32 bits 64bit bus 32 bits 64bit bus 32 bits 64bit bus Microprocessor Trends a 64bit processors are now available from Intel AMD and MAC 0 32bit chips were constrained to 2quot32 4 billion memory addresses implying 4 gigabytes of RAM a 4GB of RAM is constraining for large servers and databases but new 64bit CPU s remove that limitation o 2quot64 bytes of RAM is something on the orderof a quadrillion gigabytes of RAM 0 It s hard to imagine how large that is but it s a lot of memory 9 Sixtyfour bit processors have 64bit ALUs 64bit registers and 64bit buses thus increasing system performance all otherthings being equaD CPU speed a Doubling of CPU speed does not provide full doubling of system performance CPU speed MultiCPU systems 9 Similarly adding CPUs to a computer does not yield the ideal linear scaling System performance 5 Gflops 4 Gflops Notice increasing from 1 3 Gflops to 7 bpu b yielded less than a 5x performance 2 Gflops increase 1 Gflops 1 Gfop 1 billion oating point operations per second gt Number of CPU s 21 2 3 4 5 6 Main memory is arranged in cells typically of size 1 These are arranged in consecutive order each cell having its own The computer can access these cells in any order to perform a operation or a operation Memory is used for three purposes 39 It holds instructions of the operating system It holds instructions for application programs such as Excel or Acrobat It holds data 9278 9279 9280 9281 9282 9283 9284 9285 9286 Main Memory 10011010 Each memory cell stores a set number of bits usually 8 bits or one byte Large values are stored in consecutive memory locations is also called 1 2 memory orjust RAM Uses semiconductor chips solid state storage no moving parts capacity lt1GB typically is less than a hard disk But it is an access takes 2 nanoseconds 1x109 seconds RAM stands for random access memory The user can read and write to RAM The similar acronym stands for Read Only Memory The term random is used to indicate that the computer can access memory cells in any order The term 1 is used to indicate that data will be lost when the computer is not powered Main memory is volatile Secondary Storage 9 Magnetic and optical disks provided high capacity secondary storage a Slower than main memory 9 Advantages cheaper per GB and nonvolatile c you can turn the computer off and back on and the contents of both magnetic and optical disks will be unchanged Memory also called 539 113 occurs when there is a request to the operating system to store data in memory and the data will not fit because there is not enough free memory to store the requested data How does the operating system make space ie what does it swap Why is this bad Little swapping occurs when Your computer has a very large main memory You use only one or a few programs at a time You use small data files Two key performance factors for main memory are speed and size Normally a particular computer make and model is designed to use a given memory type and the speed for that type is fixed There is nothing you can do to increase memory speed You can however increase the amount of main memory up to the maximum size of memory that your computer brand and model can hold the maximum amount of memory for new personal computers is now around 4GB 05GB is typical Impact of RAM size e With too little a computer resorts to swapping c On the other hand excess memory has no value 0 Implies S shaped curve System perform anc gt Memory capacity Cache Memory 9 Some data are accessed very frequently 0 So we can keep the CPU more efficiently utilized by giving it even a small amount of nearby and fast memory 0 called cache memory 0 the CPU stores intermediate results and the most frequently used computer instructions in the cache lfthe applications that you or your employees involve millions of calculations or manipulations on data in main memory then buying a fast CPU may be worthwhile Eg with a large spreadsheet a fast CPU can rapidly perform complicated formulabased whatif analyses Eg with a large graphics file a fast CPU can rapidly manipulate the brightness of the elements of a large picture If your computer is constantly swapping files installing more memory will dramatically improve performance Memory is cheap and is often the best way to get more performance out of a computer Your operating system has tools and utilities that measure main memory utilization and file swapping Common mass storage options a Mass storage devices are nonvolatile ie permanent not lost While power is off and slow access times of milliseconds or larger and typically requiring mechanical motion to access memory consider hard drives and CDDVD players 9 Common examples 0 Hard drives 0 Optical disks 0 Magnetic Tape 0 typically used for backing up systems Disk storage systems can be either hard disk or floppy disk Typically hard disks have multiple hard 39 arranged in a stack each with its own readwrite head Magnetized circular metallic disks Bits are written along a circular by a readwrite head which is a mechanical arm When a new track is written the head moves to a new is Each track is divided into arcs called Typically a sector is 512 bytes When we define where the cylinders tracks and sectors are the disk is said to be r fiy i T Magnetic Disk Components Disk rotates Tracks of data Read Write head moves in and out Data are recorded as a sequence of Signal tofrom channel magne cspom ontracks Disk performance 9 A disk s performance is measured in terms of 1 seek time the time required to move the head from one track to another 2 rotation delay or latency time half the time required for the disk to make a complete rotation 3 access time the sum of seek time and rotation delay and 4 transfer rate the rate at which data can be transferred to or from the disk Optical Disks c There are two kinds of optical disks CDs compact disks and DVD digital versatile disks 0 Both are made of plastic and coated with a photosensitive material 9 Bits are recorded by burning a pit into the photosensitive material using a lowpower laser a The presence of a pit causes light to reflect and signifies a one the absence of reflection signifies a zero Focus on CDROM 9 A CDROM is portable readonly memory 9 Laser scans disc in circuar motion inside out expanding radlus unIIke record player a A CDRecordable CDR drive can be used to write information to a CD once a A CDRewritable CDRW can be erased and reused Focus on DVD or A DVD is the same size as a CD but can store much more information o The format of a DVD has more pits bits per square inch 9 There are currently 5 major recordable DVD technologies DVDR DVDRW DVDRAM DVDR and DVDRWthe market will determine which will dominate Like magnetic disks optical disks are nonvolatile they maintain their contents even when not powered The practical differences between CDs and DVDs are capacity and speed A typical CD has a maximum capacity of 700 MB whereas a DVD disk can store up to 47GB DVD transfer rates about 10 times faster than those for CDs Monitor resolution defines a grid of pixels eg 1024 x 768 Eg a resolution of 1024 x 768 corresponds to a grid of 1024 rows and 768 columns The amount of memory used to represent the color of each pixel depends on the number of possible colors For a black and white image the cells can consist of a single bit zero for white and one for black To represent 16 colors each pixel is represented by four bits Operating Systems a The operating system 08 is a computer program that controls all of the computer s resources o It manages main memory It processes key strokes and mouse movements It sends signals to the display monitor It reads and writes disk files It controls the processing of other programs Contemporary Operating Systems Windows Business users Servers Microsoft Intel Macintosh Graphic artists Arts community Apple Power PC as of 2006 also Intel Scientists Engineers Sun Microsystems and others Many Servers Scientists Engineers IBM Many Mac OS c Apple Computer Inc developed its own operating system for the Macintosh Mac 08 c Macintosh computers are used primarily by graphic artists and workers in the arts community a As of 2006 Macintosh computers are available with PowerPC and Intel CPUs o A Macintosh with an Intel processor is able to run both Windows and the MAC OS Unix OS Unix is an operating system that was developed at Bell Labs in the 1970s It has been the workhorse of the scientific and engineering communities since then Unix is generally regarded as being more difficult to use than either Windows or the Macintosh Many Unix users know and employ an arcane language for manipulating files and data In general Unix is not for the business user Linux OS Linux is a version of Unix that was developed by the opensource community This community is a loosely coupled group of programmers who mostly volunteer their time to contribute code to develop and maintain Linux The open source community owns Linux and there is no fee to use it Linux is a popular operating system for Web servers Application software consists of programs that perform a business function Some application programs are general purpose such as Excel or Word 39 Other application programs are specific QuickBooks for example is an application program that provides general ledger and other accounting func ons Sources You can buy computer software several ways Offtheshelf Offtheshelf with alterations Tailor made HorizontalMarket Applications Software Horizontalmarket application software provides capabilities common across all organizations and industries Word processor graphics programs spreadsheets and all presentation programs are all horizontalmarket application software VerticalMarket Applications Software Verticalmarket application software serves the needs of a specific industry Examples of such programs are Those used by dental offices to schedule appointments and bill patients Those used by auto mechanics to keep track of customer data and customers automobile repairs Those used by parts warehouses to track inventory purchases and sales CustomDeveloped Software Sometimes organizations develop custom application software They develop such programs themselves or hire a development vendor Custom development is difficult and risky Every application program needs to be adapted to changing needs and changing technologies Software Sources and Types Software Source D theshelf and OH the Shelf then customized Tailormade Horizontal applications Vertical applications Custom applications Firmware Firmware is computer software that is installed into devices like printers print servers and various types of communication devices The software is coded just like other software but it is installed into special readonly memory of the printer or other device Users do not need to load firmware into device s memory Firmware can be changed or upgraded but this is normally a task for IS professionals
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