Week 1 lecture Notes
Week 1 lecture Notes CHMY 121N - 10
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shania Notetaker on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHMY 121N - 10 at University of Montana taught by Daniel J. Dwyer (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to General Chemistry in Chemistry at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Wednesday September 2 2015 Chem 121 Lecture 2 How do scientists make report and work with quantitative measurements How is Uncertainty in Measurement Expressed httpslogincengagebraincomcourseE24YE3HY7LL5YB Measurement determination of a property of an object we use instruments to measure properties of matter Frequently expressed as a quantity Quantity value x measurement Precision is when you take your tool and take different measurements Accuracy how close you are to the real value Uncertainty depends of the tool being used Uncertain digit is the last digit written even if it is 0 210 L if volume is known to or 01 L not 21 L Between 211L and 209L 22L20L Why and How are the results of calculations rounded off 1 If the first digit to be dropped is 01 23 or 4 leave unchanged the last digit to be rationed 2 if the first digit to be dropped is 56789 increase by 1 Rule for addition and Subtraction Round the answer to the highest valued column ones tenths hundredths etc that has an uncertain digit Rule for multiplication and division Round the answer to the number of sig figs in the factor with the least number of sig figs 23 X 287 2543 round down to 26 Wednesday September 2 2015 IF you do addition and subtraction combined with multiplication and division apply each rule separately 1 sig fig would be 4 What is the relationship between the metric system and ours All other countries in the world use the metric system We are only going to be using metric in this class Mass vs weight Mass is a measure of quantity of matter Weight is a measure of the force of gravitational attraction Mass and wight are directly proportional to each other Weight is mass times acceleration due to gravity Metric Units The SI unit of mass is the kilogram kg It is defined as the mass of a platinumiridium cylinder stored in a vault in france Kilogram weight 22 lbs Using weight to measure mass The acceleration due to gravity is not constant across the surface of the earth Double pan balance Mader anaytica balace the balance is calibrated for a given location Most lab work the basic metric mass until is the gram 1kg1000g Wednesday September 2 2015 Metric Untis length SI unti of length is the meter 937 inches or 3281 feet 1m100cm 1cm 001 m Volume SI unit of blue is the cubic meter A more practivle cubic centimenter 1 1000cm 1cmquot3 00011ml Metric Prefixes 39 tera 39 giga mega kilo Temperature Farenheit us Boiling 212 fretted 32 Celsius 100 O Kelvis F 180 degrees between freezing and boiling C 100 degrees between freezing and boiling Tf 180100 times t C32 Wednesday September 2 2015 TF18 times TC32 Kelvin absolute temperature The degree 273 degrees oeloius is the temperature at which all movement is stopped It is the lowest possible temperature Tk TC273 What is the Celsius equivalent of 78 degrees Fahrenheit Tf 18 times TC32 Tf3218 times to TC25555 260 Express 454 K on the oelsius and fahrenheit soales Tk TC273 4542731810 Tf18 times 18132 Thursday September 3 2015 CHEM 121 Lecture 3 Conversion Factors 1kg 1000 g Conversion factors are mathematical identities 1kg1000g 1 1000g1 kg We can use these fraction to convert g to kg or kg to g A patient is receiving an antibiotic IV at a drip rate of 50 mLhr The IV solution contains 15 g of antibiotic per 1000 mL Calculate the mgmin of the drip 15g antibiotic1000mL 1hr60min 1000mg antibiotic1g antibiotic 50 ml1hr X 15g antibiotic1000mL X 1000mg antibiotic1g antibiotic X 1hr60min 125 13 mgmin Factor Label method A problem solving procedure that features algebraic States of matter Gas Liquid Solid Kinetic molecular theory all matter consists of extremely tiny particles that are in constant motion Kinetic refers to motion Molecule is the smallest asset particle that can exist independently THe speed a which particle move is faster and higher temperatures and slower at lower temperatures There is an attraction among particles in all samples of matter Thursday September 3 2015 The state of matter of any substance depends on temperatures and the attractions of these molectules stickyness Matter exists in three phases or states of matter BY using kinetic molecular theory we can produce a particulate level model of matter in each state Solid particles vibration in fixed position Liquid particles touch one another and move around one another Gas move independently very widely spaced they have very little attraction towards one another Gas has no definite shape or volume expands to fill whatever container it is put into highly compressible Lkund has no definite shape but a definite volume only slightly compressible SoHd has a definite shape and volume Not compressible DensHy mass is directly proportional to volume if theres no mass there is no volume TO change a proportionality into an equation insert a proportionality constant 39 MV mDxV Thursday September 3 2015 Rearragne and solve for D D mv Density is defined as mass per unit volume Generally gcmquot3 lf 732mL of a liquid has a mass of 615 g what is its density in gmL DmN D 61 5g732 mL 84 Density is similar to a conversion factor The density of iron is 786gcmA3 786g Fe1cmA3Fe 1cmA3Fe 786g Fe What is the volume of 122 g of pure iron 122g Fe X 1comquot3Fe786gFe Density of pure water will change with temperature and vice versa 1gmL is the density of water ALWAYS for this course Specific Gravity not used very often Density has units gmL Specific gravity density of a substance compared to water as a standard SG Density of material A Density of water Dimensionless Used in wine making beer brewing and some health care applications where the density of a liquid Hydrometer measures specific gravity AN injection of 4 mg of valium has been prescribed for patient suffering from muscle spasms If the density of Walium is 4 mgmL how many mL should be injected 5mg valium1ml 1mL 5 mg valium 4mg valium
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