Chapter 1 Lecture Notes
Chapter 1 Lecture Notes BIOL 151
Popular in Cell Function and Inheritance General Biology Lab I
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Philippi on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 151 at St. Cloud State University taught by Dr. Gazal, Dr. Jullius in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Cell Function and Inheritance General Biology Lab I in Biology at St. Cloud State University.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Biology the science of life bios life logos knowledge of 0 Biology unifies much of natural science 0 Life defies simple definition 0 Living systems are the most complex chemical systems on earth 0 Life is constrained by the properties of chemistry and physics 0 Scince I more interdisciplinary 7 characteristics of all living organisms Cellular organization one or more cells come from different cells Ordered complexity Sensitivity Growth development reproduction Energy utilization Homeostasis keeps the internal environment normal Evolutionary adaptation change over time NQP PWPE Internal environment of the cell substance the cell is in Living systems show hierarchical organization 0 Cellular level 0 Atoms molecules organelles cells 0 Cell basic unit of life on avg human has 75 trillion 0 Organismal level 0 Tissues organs organ systems I Tissues epithelium connective tissue muscles nervous Levels of biological organization 0 Molecule I atom I cell I tissue I organ I organ system I organism I population I community I ecosystem I biosphere 0 Population level 0 Population community 0 Ecosystem level 0 Biosphere 0 Earth is an ecosystem Each level has emergent properties 0 Result from interaction of components 0 Cannot be deduced by looking at parts themselves 0 life is an emergent property What is a species 0 The smallest unit of classification of organisms 0 One or more populations of organisms with similar physical and functional characteristics that interbreed and produce fertile offspring under natural conditions Science aims to understand the natural world through observation and reasoning Science begins with observation Deductive and inductive reasoning I Deductive uses general principles to make specific predictions 0 General I specific I deductive I Special observations I inductive Scientists use systematic approach to gain understanding of the natural world Scientific method 1 Observation observe generalize 2 Hypothesis formation 3 Prediction developed before conducting experiment test validity of hypothesis 4 Experimentation 5 Conclusion Components of an experiment 1 Control 2 Replication more than one experiment group 3 Randomization 4 Dependent variable a Stay constant b Graphed on x axis 5 Independent variable a Changes b Graphed on y axis Philosophical approaches to science I Reductionism 0 To break a complex process down to its simpler parts I Systems biology 0 Focus on emergent properties Models in science I Ways to organize thought I Parts provided by reductionist approach I Model shows how they fit together Scientific theory I Is a body of interconnected concepts I Supported by much experimental evidence and scientific reasoning I Expresses ideas of which we are most certain Compare to general meaning of theory I Implies a lack of knowledge or a guess Darwin and Evolution I Example of how a scientist develops a hypothesis and a theory gains acceptance I Charles Darwin serves as a naturalist on a mapping expedition around coastal south America I 30 years of observations and study before publishing on The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection I Was not the first to propose evolution 0 Living things have changed over time I Darwin s contribution was a mechanism 0 Natural selection I Characteristics of similar species varied from place to place I Galapagos Finches 0 14 related species differ only slightly 0 descent with modification or evolution I Although every organism has the potential to produce more offspring only a limited number do survive and reproduce themselves I Evidence supporting darwins theory has only grown 0 Fossil record I Transitional forms have been found at predicted positions in time 0 Earth s age I Physicists of Darwin s time were wrong I Earth is very old 45 billion years old 0 Mechanism for heredity I Mendel s laws of inheritance were unknown to Darwin 0 Comparative anatomy I Vertebrate forelimbs all share the same basic array of bones I Homologous same evolutionary origin I Analogous structures of different origin 0 Molecular evidence I Compare genomes or proteins of different origins I Phylogenetic trees based on tracing origin of particular nucleotide changes to reconstruct and evolutionary history Unifying themes in bio I Cell theory 0 All organisms composed of cells O 0 Cells are life s basic units All cells come from preexisting cells Molecular basis of inheritance O O O O 0 DNA DNA makes RNA called transcription RNA makes proteins called translation Sequence of 4 nucleotides encode cells information Gene discrete unit of information Genome entire set of DNA instructions Continuity of life depends on faithful copying of DNA into daughter cells 2001 The human genome 3 billion nucleotides 20000 gens Structure and function 0 O 0 Study structure to learn function Know a function look for that structure in other organisms Example I Receptor on human cell for insulin known I Find similar molecule in worm I Might conclude this molecule functions the same in the worm