Unit 2, week 2 unit notes, Being a Plant
Unit 2, week 2 unit notes, Being a Plant BIO 311D
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Liam Murphy on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 311D at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Mark Bierner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Being a Plant 02242016 Vocab Sporangium an enclosure in which spores are formed It can be composed of a single cell or can be multicellular Archegonia a multicellular structure or organ of the gametophyte phase of certain plants producing and containing the ovum or female gamete sex organs l eggs Antheridia a haploid structure or organ producing and containing male gametes called antherozoids or sperm Apical meristem at the tip of a plant shoot or root that produces auxin and causes the shoot or root to increase in length Growth that originates in the apical meristem is called primary growth Tissue distinct type of material group of specialized cells that are involved with one function in making one product Organ self contained that has one speci c vital function Taproot the long root of the plant that is a main central root that originated from the main root that was pulled off the seed Lateral roots the smaller roots branching out from the taproot Root hairs small roots that grow off the tips of the roots and they help increase the plants underground surface area Prop roots involved with stabilization found in corn plants Storage roots store things like carbohydrates in the form of starch ex beets Pneumatophores plants that grow in water so their roots come up and out of the water to obtain oxygen Buttress roots due to lack of light in the ground the tree s roots draw minerals out of ground and up to canopy and the root system is shallow do they have the roots grow out of ground Main Points 0 Plants have a hierarchical organization consisting of organs tissues and cells Questions What does all of this have to do with adaptations for surviving on land 0 Water proo ng o Epidermis l contains water 0 Oilswaxy surface water proof Reproduction o Gametophyten l gametes n l 2n by fertilization Sperm swim o Sporophyte 2n l meiosis l spores n What do you think humans would be like if we had alternation of generations o If we are sporophytes we are making spores so we wouldn t be producing gametes 0 Would not have gametangia organs to make gametes to make organs like ovaries and gonads 0 Instead we make male sporangia and female sporangia and by meiosis we would make the spores Then the spores would develop into gametophytes quotlittle dumplingsquot that are haploid 0 Females ovaries making eggs 0 Males testes making sperm o If this was like us there would be normal humans and then also little humanoids running around a different phase of our species What is a sporangium and where are sporangia found What does the spore wall do 0 Part of the sporophyte where the spores are being made 0 Spore wall pretty hard and water proof inside are cells that undergo meiosis s and get cut off into spurs o A barrier that keeps it protected and lique ed until released Where does fertilization take place 0 Inside of the archegonia the egg producing location sperm movies to this location by rain that splashes it over to the female gametophyte l needs to happen in a fairly moist area with a decent amount of rainfall Where does the embryo develop 0 In the archegonia l a nice protected place What does this have to do with adaptation on land Contained and keeps things wetmoist l similar to our reproductive system How does a plant get food Where does that happen How does a plant get its water and mineral nutrients Where does that happen 0 Photosynthesis and on top of the plant 0 Root system in the ground What are apical meristems What is growth like in plants compared to animals How are growing tips protected 0 Plants grow their whole lives and never stop growing they grown from their tip ends 0 Protected root cap dead cells protects the root as they are going into the dirt the tips are protected from drying out this is done by the shoot and developing leaves Adaptation on land do NOT let parts dry out What are the functions of roots 0 To get watermineralsoxygen anchors the plants and to store carbohydrates in the form of starch What is the function of root hairs Grown on the tips of their roots in order to increase surface area underground which allows for the plant to absorb more water and nutrient Vocab Nodes leaves attached to the stem lnternodes in between the nodes Axillary bud bud on top of the plant Apical bud bud in between the stem and the branching off leaves Apical dominance he phenomenon whereby the main central stem of the plant is dominant over ie grows more strongly than other side stems on a branch the main stem of the branch is further dominant over its own side branchlets Blade the leaf looking part the broad portion Petiole part of the plant that connects the leaf to the stem of the plant Tendrils plants that have weak stems so things that need to reach more light have this climbing stuff Spines protection cactus have Storage leaves storage product Dermal tissue Main Points All three basic plant organs roots stems and leaves are composed of dermal vascular and ground tissues Questions What are the functions of the stem 0 support for and the elevation of leaves owers and fruits 0 keep the leaves in the light and provide a place for the plant to keep its owers and fruits 0 Transport of uids between the roots and the shoots in the xylem and phloem Store carbohydrates What are the functions of the leaves 0 Location of photosynthesis 0 Protection 0 Projections from the epidermis Gas exchange through the stomata Composed of the 0 Blade and petiole There are reproductive leaves