Week 5/6 Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenzie Busick on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BZ 214 at Colorado State University taught by Shane Kanatous in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Animal Biology- Vertebrates in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Week 5/6 Notes 02/23/2016 Bony Fish characteristics First appearance of endochondral bone Calcified skeleton-> more dense Pectoral fins move up the side of the body and pelvic fins move up the body Appearance of the rays: thin bony projections that extend out into the fins for support Lobed-finned fish are ancestors to tetrapods (separate lineage from ray-finned fish) ▯ Fish scales There are four main kinds of scales and numerous variations of each kind Placoid o Found in chondrichthyes o Tooth-like Cosmoid o Found in lung fish o Adaptation from placoid scales o Form an outer armor over the fish’s body o Two layers that make them very hard Ganoid o Found in basal ray-finned fishes (paddlefish, gars, sturgeons) o Also form an outer armor on fish’s body Cycloid and Ctenoid o Found in modern ray-finned fish (majority of bony fish) o Ctenoid- have a brush-like edge to them o Cycloid- smooth edge o Allows for greater flexibility than cosmoid and ganoid Age of fish scale o Visible growth rings as scales increase in size o Annulus: a band that allow one to estimate the age of the fish Can have more than one type of scale, and can vary with sex ▯ Class Osteichthyes 30,000 species (largest extant group of vertebrates) adapted to live ANYWHERE there is water (depths to water surface, and pole to pole) include the ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii) and lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygii) many different forms of locomotion: swimmers, gliders, jump, walk, climb fish do not: run or fly Subclass Actinopterygii (sturgeon, paddlefish, bichir) operculum (gill cover) nape (transition from cranium ▯ to the rest of the body) breast (chest muscles) lateral line (incredibly well developed) caudal peduncle (area of body directly in front of the caudal fin) o thick peduncle= more power (muscle is white in color) o thin= endurance swimmers (muscle is red in color) Characteristics of Ray-finned fish o Internal nostrils are absent o Large eyes (primitive) o Scales ganoid, cycloid or none o Fins with multiple parallel endochondral supports o Fish controlled muscles in body wall o Caudal fin primitively heterocercal with no epaxial lobe o Hysostylic jaw support o Middle Devonian period to recent o Have higher metabolic rates than chondrichthyes New morphological forms that give rise to the bulk of modern bony fish (Neopterygii) o Increase in locomotion (reduction in bony armor- size & thickness of scales) o Increase in the suction generated when the mouth opens o Increase size of gape and opening of the mouth is more circular o An increase the force of contraction when closing the mouth o All accomplished by loosening attachment of the maxilla o Appearance of pharyngeal jaws o Changes in the fins, caudal fin becomes more symmetrical (homocercal) o Weberian apparatus (series of bones that transmit vibrations from the swim bladder to the inner ear) ▯ ▯ Subclass Sarcopterygii (lobed-finned fish) Relatively older group of organisms (lung fish) Ancient scale types (more armor like appearance) Have different anatomical placement of the fins ▯ than bony fish Ancestors to the amphibians Characteristics o Paired fins that are fleshy, with muscular lobes at base an with only a single element articulating with girdles o Forearm with a single proximal element (humerus), followed by the homologs of the radius and ulna o Cosmine on scales and skull roof bones (cosmoid scales support a complex electrosensory system) o True enamel on teeth ▯ Types of locomotion Anguilliform o Eel like motion, majority of the body is moving in an undulating sine-wave - generates a lot of drag Carangiform and subacarangiform o Trout, moving the back part of the body o Less than half of the body is used in motion, generates maximum thrust with minimum drag o Hydrodynamic- torpedo shaped Ostraciiform o Boxfish, very little of the fish moves o Not a high speed swimmer o Head generates a lot of drag o Caudal fin can only move at the Caudal peduncle Aspect ration o AR= (caudal fin height)^2 Caudal fin area o Inverse relationship o Broad surface area powerful thrust: but high frictional drag o High aspect ration (narrow caudal peduncle): rapid sustained propulsion Body design for high speed swimming o Minimize surface area exposed to fluid: sphere o Minimize cross-sectional area pencil shape o Minimize retarding force: teardrop (torpedo) shaped = tuna o Inset eyes and slime reduce friction o Small scales or scale-less Rapidly swimming fish o Proportionately shorter and less flexible o Force from anterior muscle segments is transferred from anterior muscle segments to caudal peduncle and tail o More power= more anaerobic muscle Locomotor strategies Cruising o High aspect ratio: elongate torpedo shape; high beat frequency; tuna cover large territory o Red muscle; myoglobin, sustained activity Maneuverability o Slow moving; low aspect ratio; use paired fins for locomotion; pelvic anterior to pectoral Acceleration o Moderately low aspect; use undulatory motion for rapid starts; torpedo shape; few prey available o White muscle; rapid contraction, easily fatigued, lungers Generalist o Range of locomotive style o Majority of fish ▯ Life histories (extremely varied) Desert pupfish o Live in isolated permanent springs in Western US deserts Migrators o Reproduction and food finding: cod swim up-current to deposit eggs Anadromous (salmon): spawns in streams; spend most of their life in marine Catadromous (aguilla eels): adults in freshwater, breed in the Sargasso sea Schooling o Common in many species o Vision and lateral line system; reproduction, safety from predators Deep sea species of bony fish o Mid-water (mesopelagic) fish Small size, large mouths and teeth, large eyes, bioluminescence o Bathyl & abyssalpellagic 75% of ocean, many blind, mainly small predaceous fish, bizarre fish with warning devices, long teeth, expandable stomachs Antarctic ice fish o lives in water so cold that it does not need hemoglobin to bind oxygen ▯ ▯ ▯
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