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ARCH 2243 - 001, Week #6

by: Ashley

ARCH 2243 - 001, Week #6 ARCH 2243 - 001


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About this Document

Here are the notes on the monuments we studied for the week covering Michelangelo and Baroque architecture.
History of Architecture II
Kim Sexton
Class Notes
History of Architecture, Michelangelo, sangello, Baroque, Renaissance, Architecture
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 2243 - 001 at University of Arkansas taught by Kim Sexton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see History of Architecture II in Architecture at University of Arkansas.


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Date Created: 02/29/16
2-22-16 Impinging Appeal: The Baroque City I. Rome Master Plan of Sixtus V – Rome, Italy – 16 cent – unknown architect – Baroque  Urbanistic Principles oTrivium or goosefoot  Looks like a webbed foot with three extending streets coming out of the Piazza del Popolo  Context oBasilicas of the saints who were martyred for Christianity oWanted Catholics and other pilgrims to come visit these places and this design was the easiest way to get people straight to them  Theatricality oObelisk  creates an axis for the streets and creating an exciting theatrical climax to the streets oEmperors brought them over from Egypt to put them for the sun gods = the pope put them for saints and for the theatrical climax II. Piazza San Pietro – Rome, Italy – 17 cent – Bernini – Baroque 2-22-16  Program oWhere and when did the program start  Original position of the Vatican obelisk – on the side  Now in front of the Vatican therefore you can connect streets to the Vatican oOlder spaces that are being replaced  Started as a piazza and a separate atrium  Now there is the Piazza San Pietro = atrium + piazza  Entrance square – filled with a huge staircase pretty much  Oval Piazza – getting orientated with the grand beauty around you and prepare you  Vestibule – crossing from the preparation to the real deal  Context oEmbracing the Catholic faithful – the oval piazza oCommission  to show the mother church “embracing Catholics in order to reinforce their belief, heretics to reunite them with her and agnostics to reveal to them the true faith” oReaching out to reinforce the peoples integrity of the church oReach out to protestants and bring them back to Christianity oEmphasizing the cult of saints – martyred them, testification, tombs, alters  Urbanistic Prinicples oGeometry and subjectivity  OVAL  Baroque subjectivity – awareness of self (the subject) upon entering at an oblique angle oSweeping scenographic vista  The view of cross axis  Two fountains on the sides of the obelisk oClassicism overwhelmed by force and drama  Tuscan (doric looking) columns – Tuscan cause it has a base  Things are so so large  Colosseum can fit in here FOUR times  Movement oColumns seem to move as you walk (4 layers - light to dark) oAll the columns line up if you are standing at the obelisk where all the rows of columns become one oDramatized backdrop – arrests mothment – challenges direction III. Sant’Andrea al Quirinale - Rome, Italy – 17 Cent – Bernini – Baroque 2-22-16  Context oReach out to the catholic faithful oEmphasize the cult of the saints oHighlight the alter (sacraments)  Painted, back window to light it up oThe church façade curves back from the street line to create a sort of piazza in front of it and to pull people in  Façade oContrasting elements oSemi circular windows with a porch that looks like it just fell out of window oIt looks like a giant doorway but that’s the whole façade oGiving an impression of creating movement oThe entrance is a public door with a curved “arm like” entrance  There is a Jesuit novitiate monastery in the back part of the church but the door to the church is still public oExpressive geometry and subjectivity  Theatricality oSmaller and more compressed side of the oval is the axis from the door to the alter – ritual axis  When you wake in the space it pulls you into the alter right away  Half way through you stop and notice that the space is in fact and oval and the long axis of the oval is going parallel to the alter  At the two ends of the long axis of the oval there are two very thick and big and solid piers (unlike Pantheon where the main axis’s have the largest niches) BUT this highlights the alter oEmphasize the cult of saints oPainting of how Saint Andrew was martyred at the alter and then there is a statue of his soul breaking through the pediment heading up to heaven through the oculus of the dome oSynthesis of arts and painting oPilasters and engaged columns oBernini is making a Baroque Pantheon pretty much  Signature Style oLighting  dramatic and hidden lighting  Not interested in even lighting  There is an oculus in the alter space that lights it but it seems like heaven might be lighting it since you cannot see the oculus unless you are in it oColor palette  Fleshy pinky colors  Gold for the dome oEmbrace of Illusionistic devices oCombination of coffers and ribs  On an exaggerated perspectival view 2-22-16 oRibs are just for decoration  Help zoom your eye to the center  Center = heaven  Little white angel statues surrounding the center of the dome 2-24-16 Streching the Classical Canon: The Italian Baroque Church I. S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane – Rome, Italy – 17 cent – Borromini – Baroque  Context oInterior was made from 1638-41 and the exterior was from 1665-67 oOn the same street as S. Andrea al Quirinale  People could compare and contrast the two all the time oReach out to the Catholic faithful oEmphasize the rewards to the faithful oThe building is taller than other buildings on the street line and has an undulating façade to catch your eye even more oThe long axis is now used for the ritual axis (door to alter)  This lets the people coming in relax a little more  Reminds people of a basilica oThe effect is to lead them to the alter but contemplate the surroundings a little more than zoom straight to the alter  Drama oClassical orders  The use of almost full engaged columns to go around the undulating walls of the whole church  The columns are not all the same distance apart to make them seem like they have a certain movement or rhythm also emphasizing the undulating walls  The looks a little irregular oFormal evolution  Exciting lower level to a more calm upper level  Lower part is the earthly realm and the upper part is the heavenly realm  The cornice does a good job at separating the space with its curved in areas that accentuate the coffers as well  Pendentives add to the design with their rondels 2-24-16  Early Renaissance  classical repose and about being  Baroque  about becoming and perception of moving  Signature Style oBermini and Boromini do things in almost exact opposites oNot very interested in combining the arts oEnjoys just using the white tones of color oBasic geometry of plan  Uses circles and ovals and triangles to create his plan  Starts with two triangles – something Bernini doesn’t do  Triangle references the holy trinity  Geometrical rigor – that you don’t see when you walk in because of how the walls undulate because he wants you to think more of the movement than of the geometry oRole of light  Overall light – you can see the light sources as well (there is no hidden oculus’s like Bernini)  He wants you to appreciate all the architectural forms therefore you have to light the whole space  Color palette = all white  Used cheaper material such as brick and stucco and painted it all white  Façade oConvex and concave forces oInterior exterior correspondences  Façade  Lower and upper half have large engaged columns  Both have minor orders as well  A very large cornice separates the two halfs  Convex concave undulating form that is very smooth  Interior  Convex concave undulating form is choppy and each change in direction resolves in some sharp corner oPrecedents  Petra, Jordan  He does not look at the typical precedents of Rome  But also … Michelangelo’s Capitoline Palace – Minor Order of Columns


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