Discov & Concepts
Discov & Concepts NUT 010
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amie Ullrich on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NUT 010 at University of California - Davis taught by Elizabeth Applegate in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/187301/nut-010-university-of-california-davis in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Nutrition 10 Final Review PS Page 1 of 10 Essential Nutrition those nutrients that body cannot make or make in sufficient quantities to meet need therefore they are required in the diet Those nutrients are Protein Carbohydrate Fat Vitamins Minerals and Water Homeostasis maintain a relatively constant internal body environment with narrow limits in order to ensure normal functioning of body process The body maintains blood calcium levels within a narrow range by kidney bone intestine and vitamin D Digestion the process by which food is broken down into a form that can be absorbed in the intestine Recommended Dietary Allowances RDA Daily amount of nutrient considered enough to meet the needs of nearly all healthy people Not a minimum and is averaged over several days Some factors may taken into account including age gender bioavailability physiological status diet quality loses due to food preparation Protein a Basic unit amino acid including nonessential amino acid and essential amino acid b Function energy 4 kcalgram structure muscle skin regulatory fluid balance hormones c Storage none d Excess protein nitrogen excreted in urine or used for NEAA Carbon skeleton is transformed into fat stores e RDA 08 gramkg body weightday f DV 50gday g Complete protein contain all 9 EAA example fish milk eggs h Incomplete protein low in one or more of the 9 EAA relative to need Example beans rice wheat 6 Carbohydrates 7 a Basic Unit monosaccharide b Function energy 4 kcalgram c Storage glycogen in animal no food source starch and cellulose in plant rice grain d RDA 50 60 of calories diet e DV 300 gramsday Fiber a Water insoluble fiber in cellulose and hemicelluloses example vegetables whole grains i Function holds water speed the passage of waste decrease cancer risk and the incidence of intestinal disease b Water soluble fiber in pectin and gum example fruit legumes i Function forms gel in stomachintestine decrease heart disease risk by lowering blood cholesterol level c DV 25 gramday Fat a Basic unit triglyceride fatty acids and glycerol b Function energy 9 kcalgram structure cell membrane regulatory EFA s for hormone and prostaglandin synthesis c Saturated fatty acid no double bonds palmitic C16 stearic C18 example beef corn oil d Unsaturated fatty acid contain one or more double bonds example fish oil e Essential fatty acid i Linoleic 182 corn oil sunflower oil ii Linolenic 183 fish flaxseed meal f RDA 30 of total calories diet only 10 of total calories come from Sat Fat Nutrition 10 Final Review Page 2 of 10 9 Cholesterol not recommended in diet since body can produce enough cholesterol a RDA none b DV 300 gramday 10 Obesity excess body fat that cause negative impact toward body health a Body weight gt 20 of desirable OR Body fat gt 2025 for man gt30 for woman b Body mass index body weightheightquot2 gt 30 c Increase fat cell number fat cell number can only increase not decrease i 3rd trimester to 1 year ii Age 12 14 iii Sudden weight gain in adulthood 53 When weight loss only decrease fat call size but not cell number Obesity health risk 39 Heart disease cardiovascular disease Hypercholesterolemia high cholesterol blood level m g l gi g Cancer certain type 5 iv Hypertension high blood pressure v Diabetes ERWE vi Osteoarthritis E39ESEEQJE vii Emotional disturbances discrimination issue f Cause of obesity Calorie imbalance kcal in gt kcal out Inactivity decrease calorie expenditure lower BMR Genetic influence 4060 of obesity caused by genetics iv Thrifty metabolism decrease BMR v Set point body try to maintain fat cell size vi Meal pattern skipping meals encourage fat storage vii Meal composition high fat diet makes body to store fat easier g Obesity treatment i Reduce energy diet kcal out gt kcal in ii Behavior modification constant meal pattern low fat diet iii Physical activity increase calories expenditure 11 Coronary artery disease risk factors a Cigarette smoking f Increasing age b Hypertension g Obesity c Hypercholesterolemia high LDL low h Male sex HDL i Inactivity d Diabetes j Dietary factors e Heredity genetic 12 Dietary guidelines for prevent heart disease a lt30 of calories from fat lt10 of calories from saturated fat lt300 mgday of dietary cholesterol lt6grams of salt 509957 Limit alcohol Nutrition 10 Final Review Page 3 of 10 f Stay healthy weight 13 Eating disorders a Anorexia Nervosa fear to become fat usually 15 below body expected body weight caused low calorie intake and nutrient deficiency protein calcium iron zinc and vitamins b Bulimia eat large amount of food in a short period of time feeling quotloss control and guilty after eating concern body weight and shape Caused inconsistent calorie intake potassium lose teeth erosion due to stomach acid and heart or other organ failure c 14 Minerals bioavailability is the portion of the mineral content in food that is absorbed and utilized by the body a Factors that affect bioavailability physiological condition medication meal composition food factor and status for the mineral 15 Calcium a Function structural mineralization E S of bones and teeth b Food source cheese yogurt salmon c Effecting bioavailability 30 for adults d Factors alters bioavailability for Calcium pregnancy 50 teen age 50 Vitamin D decrease phytic acid found in whole grains Decrease and ozalic acid found in leafy green veggie decrease e RDA age 13 500mg age 48 800mg age 918 1300mg age 1950 1000mg age 51 1200mg f Deficiency i Children poor growth and bone mineralization ii Adult osteoporosis long time calcium deficiency which resulted to porous weak bones due to loss of mineral Risk increase also due to 1 inactivity 2 low estrogen l i 3 increase age 4 smoking 5 heavy alcohol consumption 6 genetics 7 female sex 16 Sodium and potassium both minerals has a regulation role and is present in extracellular sodiumintracellular potassium fluids The concentration of both minerals in the body is controlled by regulation of its excretion by the kidney along with hormones a Function fluid balance homeostasis nerve impulse transmission Deficiency sudden loss of body fluids example heavy sweating Effecting bioavailability over 6080 Requirement sodium 1500 2400mgday potassium 35004700 mgday Food sources sodium soy sauce cheese f Food sources potassium banana orange juice 17 Trace mineral present in body in small amount lt001 of body weight and require lt50mgday Those minerals include Fluoride not include in exam Iron Zinc and Iodine 18 Iron the most common nutrient deficiency worldwide a Function regulation oxygen transport and energy metabolism b Deficiency higher risk for infants children and women Caused anemia am and spooned nails i Body helps to prevent iron deficiency 1 Recycling iron from dead blood cells 09957 Nutrition 10 Final Review Page 4 of 10 2 Stored iron in bone and spleen 3 Increase absorption in intestine Bioavailability Iron statues i High iron stores good iron status iron absorption decrease Equot ii Poor iron stores poor iron status iron absorption increase d Two form of iron in food heme and nonheme iron i Heme iron high bioavailability 2030 example liver red meats blood not milk ii Nonheme iron low bioavailability 510 example beans grain breakfast cereals e Factors alter bioavailability of iron i Vitamin C increase from 10 to 20 ii Meat increase nonheme iron bioavailability iii Oxalate EMEE found in green such as spinach and phytates in whole grains reduce iron bioavailability by binding with the iron in the intestine and preventing its absorption iv Extreme intakes of fiber over 50 grams decrease iron bioavailability v Tannins EVE found in coffee tea red wines decrease iron bioavailability f Requirement assume 10 bioavailability in RDA i Male 8mg female 18mg pregnant 27mg typical American diet supplies 6mg1000 calories g Toxicity hemochromatosis ml id g i Cause liver cancer or failure since iron stored in liver ii Very serious problem to young children with ingest overdose of iron supplement 19 Zinc the quotmalequot mineral a Function regulatory i act as cofactor enzyme helper involved in cell replication 1 Growthsexual 3 Immune function maturation 4 Taste perception 2 Wound function 5 Reproduction b Deficiency i Delay sexual development iii Decrease taste perception ii Impaired immune function iv Reduce sperm count c Requirement RDA male 11mg female 8mg d Food sources oysters beef turkey milk e Factors alter Zinc bioavailability i Unleavened bread high in phytates decrease Zinc bioavailability 20 Iodine excellence example of mineral whose deficiency is linked to geographical location a Functions i Incorporated into thyroid E i hormones ii Regulate oxygen utilization iii Maintain BMR b Deficiency i Goiter E il ii Cretinism k c Requirement RDA 150mg d Food sources iodized salt fish 21 Fluoride SKIPPED Not covered in the exam 22 Vitamins organic substance contain carbon which do not provide energy a Function regulation Nutrition 10 Final Review Page 5 of 10 Each vitamin has unique structure which different from protein and CH0 Only required in small amount compare to protein and CH0 Different animals required different amount of vitamins Water soluble vitamins Vitamins C and B s 39 Found in watery parts of cells No storage excess will go to urine i Fast turnover rate require in regular basis iv Deficiency signal develop in 68 weeks v Main function is coenzymes they facilityate enzyme action f Progression of watersoluble vitamin deficiency 39 Vitamin deficient diet tissue levels of vitamin decline steadily Biochemical lesion about 34 weeks enzyme activity decreases Clinical lesion about 68 weeks outward sign of de ciency skin disorders sore mouth tongue and intestinal problem muscle fatigue anemia g Fat soluble vitamins vitamins A D E K 39 Found in fatty tissue Excess will store won t excreted in the urine iii Slow turnover rate less frequent requirement iv Function in more general role no coenzyme tend to quotoverseequot a system v Can be toxic if excess in some fatsoluble vitamins vi Deficiency signal take years to develop 23 Vitamin Bl Thiamin ll a Function regulatory coenzyme in CH0 and energy metabolism b Deficiency beriberi Mimi dysfunction muscle fatigue heart failure c Requirement RDA male 19 12mgday female 19 11mgday pregnancy 14mgday lactation 14mgday cl Food sources pork liver legumes 24 Vitamin B2 Riboflavin 92 a Function regulatory coenzyme in CH0 and energy metabolism b Deficiency Ariboflavinosis skin disorder smooth purple tongue c Requirement male 19 13mgday female 19 11mgday pregnancy 14mgday lactation 16mgday d Food sources milk egg dark green veggies 25 Vitamin B3 Niacin 51 a Function regulatory coenzyme in fat CH0 and protein metabolism Deficiency pellagra Part of the body s niacin can be made from a EAA called tryptophan 509957 51057 Requirement male 19 16mgday female 19 14mgday pregnancy 18mgday lactation l7mgday e Food sources Beans meat fish 26 Vitamin B6 SKIPPED Not covered in the exam 27 Vitamin B12 amp Folate a Function regulatory replication of genetic material DNA or RNA help grow and turnover new cells maintain covering of nerve fibers b Deficiency Anemia Nutrition 10 Final Review Page 6 of 10 c Requirement for vitamin 316 male 19 24 ugday female 19 24 ugday pregnancy 26 ugday lactation 28 ugday cl Requirement for Folate male 19 400 ugday female 19 400 ugday pregnancy 600 ugday lactation 500 ugday e Special points about 312 Requires intrinsic factor for absorption Cobalt is part of Bl2 s structure i The liver stores 312 iv It only found in animal or fermented foods f Food sources for folate orange juice spinach orange 28 Vitamin C ascorbic acid iEJEE a Function regulatory formation of collagen increase iron absorption and antioxidant f b b Deficiency scurvy gm loose teeth painful joints swollen bleeding gums death c Requirement not require by all species Adult men 90mgday adult women 75mgday smokers 35mgday d Food sources kiwi orange strawberry 29 Whole grain refined grain amp enrichments a Germ ofa whole grain contains minerals vitamins Bs and vitamin E b Refined grain loses fiber vitamins Bs iron Zinc and magnesium c Enrichments add back vitamin Bl 32 B3 folate and iron 30 Vitamin A a Function regulatory maintain of epithelial cells new born growth vision cycle night vision b Deficiency 39 Night blindness Xeropthalmia Bone growth stop iv Keratinization c Requirement Male 900 Retinol activity equivalents Female 700 RAE d Food sources half from milk liver eggs half from carotenes E gg j plants e Toxicity 25 times above RDA bone decalcification birth defects death 31 Vitamin D body can make vitamin D from cholesterol a Functions regulatory oversees the homeostasis of calcium metabolism b Deficiency i Child ricket may ii Adult bone softfragile c Requirement age 050 5 micrograms age 5170 10 micrograms age 70 15 micrograms d Food sources salmon liver eggs e Toxicity gt300 of Requirement toxic in children bone malformation 32 Vitamin E a Function regulatory antioxidant protects membrane fats b Deficiency i Hemolytic anemic i l ii Fragile red blood cells c Requirement RDA manwoman 15 milligrams lactation 19 milligrams Nutrition 10 Final Review 33 34 U2 U1 04 9 40 41 Page 7 of 10 d Food sources vegetable oils whole grains avocado e Toxicity gt1000 milligramsday i Bleeding the blood does not clot ii Flulike symptoms Vitamin K SKIPPED Not covered in the exam Alcohol and its metabolism a Two carbon molecule that is made from the fermentation of CHO It s a simple small molecule which can easily absorb through the stomach no digestion required b With the same amount of alcohol woman would have a greater blood alcohol level compare to an equalsized man because alcohol is water soluble which quotdissolvesquot in the blood or body water and man has more body water than woman c Alcohol contains 7 calories of gram d The liver is the primary site to breakdown of alcohol Most people can process 15 grams of alcoholhour Impact of alcohol on liver function a Decrease ability to convert amino acids to glucose b Decrease ability to produce proteins c Fat quotstuckquot in the liver which further disrupts liver function Alcohol s influence on nutritional status a Decreases ingestion of vitamins b Decreases absorption of Thiamin folic acid 312 and iron c Interferes with metabolism of niacin vitamin D vitamin 36 and vitamin A d Increase excretion of 36 calcium zinc folic acid and magnesium Empty calories food foods that supply little eor none in the way of essential nutrients relative to the caloric content of the food itself Example alcohol candy soda Nutrient dense food foods that provide one or more essential nutrients in fair or good amount relative to the number of calories that food provides Example fruits vegetables lean meats Recommendation to reduce cancer risk Control weightobesity prevention Eat lt30 of calories as fat Eat 2535 grams of fiber daily Include a variety of fruits and vegetables orangeyellow and leafy type cruciferous sup0575 Consume saltcured smoked and charbroiled food in moderation f Consume alcoholic beverages in moderation Nutrition amp athletic performance a Increase energy requirement b During exercise reduce storage of muscle glycogen High CHO diet can restore glycogen c Slightly increase in protein d Sodium and water loss due to sweating increase water intake Nine focus areas for consumers to follow a Adequate nutrients with calorie needs i Guidelines 1 Consume different nutrientdense food and beverages with variety type of nutrient while limit intake of saturated fat cholesterol added sugars salt and alcohol Nutrition 10 Final Review Page 8 of 10 2 Meet recommended intakes within energy needs by adopting a balanced eating pattern such as the USDA Food Guide ii Rationale 1 Promotion of general health supply essential nutrients for good health 2 Prevention of chronic disease reduces risks of heart disease and sudden death b Weight management i Guidelines 1 To maintain body weight in a health range balance calories from food and beverages with calories expended 2 To prevent gradual weight gain over time make small decreases in food and beverage calories and increase physical activity ii Rationale 1 Promotion of general health reduce the likelihood of diabetes and live happier 2 Prevention of chronic disease reduce variety of disease associated with obesity such as heart disease cancer high blood pressure c Physical activity i Guidelines 1 Engage in regular physical activity 2 Adult at least 6090 minutes daily for moderate intensity physical activity 3 Children at least 60 minutes of physical activity daily ii Rationale 1 Promotion of general health builds endurance and strength and enhances wellbeing making it possible to function better during the day increase task performances 2 Prevention of chronic disease reduce variety of disease associated with obesity such as heart disease cancer high blood pressure d Food groups to encourage i Guidelines 1 Eat 2 cups of fruits and 25 cups of veggies per day 2 Choose variety of fruits and vegetables 3 Consume 3 or more once of whole grain products per day 4 Consume 3 cups per day of fat free or lowfat milk or equivalent milk products ii rationale 1 Promotion of general health ensure receive various essential nutrients needed for good health 2 Prevention of chronic disease reduce variety of disease associated with obesity such as heart disease cancer high blood pressure e Fats i Guideline 1 Consume less than 10 of calories from saturated fatty acids 2 Consume less than 300 mgday of cholesterol 3 Keep total fat intake between 2035 of calories 4 Most fat should come from sources of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids ii Rationale Nutrition 10 Final Review Page 9 of 10 1 Promotion of general health help make room for more fruits and vegetable intake 2 Prevention of chronic disease reduce variety of disease associated with obesity such as heart disease cancer high blood pressure f Carbohydrates i Guideline 1 Choose fiberrich fruit vegetables and whole grains often 2 Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little added sugars or caloric sweeteners 3 Practicing good oral hygiene 4 Consuming less sugar and starch containing food and beverages ii Rationale 1 Promotion of general health help make room for more fruits and vegetable intake 2 Prevention of chronic disease reduce variety of disease associated with obesity such as heart disease cancer high blood pressure g Sodium and potassium i Guideline 1 Consume less than 2300 mg of sodium per day 2 Choose and prepare foods with little salt 3 Consume potassiumrich foods such as fruits and vegetables ii Rationale 1 Promotion of general health help make room for more fruits and vegetable intake 2 Prevention of chronic disease reduce variety of disease associated with obesity such as heart disease cancer high blood pressure h Alcoholic beverages i Guideline 1 The consumption of up to one drink per day for women and up to two drink per day for man 2 Some individual should not consume alcoholic beverages Including pregnant and lactating woman ii Rationale 1 Promotion of general health lowering risk for injury at work and while driving help make room for more fruits and vegetable intake 2 Prevention of chronic disease reduce variety of disease associated with obesity such as heart disease cancer high blood pressure i Food safety i Guideline 1 Clean hands food contact surfaces and fruits and vegetables 2 Do not wash or rinse meat and poultry 3 Separate raw cooked and readytoeat foods while shopping Preparing or storing foods 4 Cook foods to safe temperature ii Rationale 1 Promotion of general health stay free of foodborne illnesses and other related problems 2 Prevention of chronic disease reduce variety of disease associated with obesity such as heart disease cancer high blood pressure Nutrition 10 Final Review Page 10 of 10
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