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Intro Int Ag Dev

by: Ana Kris

Intro Int Ag Dev IAD 010

Ana Kris
GPA 3.81

Stephen Brush

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Stephen Brush
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ana Kris on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IAD 010 at University of California - Davis taught by Stephen Brush in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see /class/187310/iad-010-university-of-california-davis in International Agricultural Dev at University of California - Davis.

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Date Created: 09/08/15
IAD 10 Prof Brush IAD 10 Midterm Exam Review 1 39 39 39Evolutionand 39 39 39r 39 Domestication Paleolithic Neolithic Centers of Origin Centered vs noncentered domestication Vavilov Wild crop relatives eg Teosinte Landrace Colombian exchange Old World lt gt New World gt1500 AD Components of Agricultural Systems Agricultural systems are made up of three complex sub systems that are organized by humans according to different goals Subsystems PHYSICAL soils and plant nutrients water limiting physical elements eg acidity aluminum BIOLOGICALGENETIC crops animals pests pathogens weeds beneficial organisms HUMAN customs and rules eg land tenure attitudes toward risk taking social organization eg social class and gender rules economic organization eg markets for land and labor forms of capital Goals for organizing agricultural systems 1 maximize production 2 maximize efficiency of use of land and labor 3 minimize risk 4 achieve equity 2 Evolution and 39 39 of 39 39 39 Agricultural development involves increasing both production and productivity of land and labor KEY TERMS IN AGRICULTURAL EVOLUTION Forms Of Capital In Agriculture infrastructure eg irrigation tools and traction eg oxen tractors Substitution of land and labor by capital 1 productivity of area may be increased by greater input of labor 2 productivity of area may be increased by enhancing soil fertility 3 productivity of labor may be increased by substituting animal or mechanical traction 4 productivity of labor may be increased by using higher yielding crops Agricultural Intensification shortened fallow increased frequency of cropping a given piece of land increased input and output and 1 spatial integration dominates farmers decline as a portion of the population 2Commoditization 3 Market allocation of land labor and capital Environmental determinism tropical soils adverse environments eg mountains disease Demise of village culture equality kinordered relations subsistence orientation for povertv and Overpopulation Malthusian explanation Modernization failure to progress through normal development process and steps Sachs Dependency exploitation and domination from Imperialism and Colonialism created underdevelopment Prerequisites for development Accumulation of capital savings investment including foreign investment Replacement of land and labor by capital Production for exchange rather than subsistence commoditization Shift of population away from agriculture urbanization industrialization 4 TheoriesofSocialf 39 39 Relatinqto 39 39 39r 39 4 A Modernization Theory development is a natural process of social economic and technological change Development is accomplished through planning and policy Stress put on increasing production and productivity 4A1 Evolution of agricultural production see Evans and below 4A2 Stages of Economic Development a Traditional society localized subsistence economies Village Society isolation face to face relations Shared Poverty redistribution of surplus Economy Based on Reciprocity equity as organizing goal Forms of reciprocity general balanced negative Risk Aversion marginal Environments technological limitations subsistence orientation Underemployment Poor but Efficient Closed corporate communities Communal land tenure b Transitional or intermediate stage increased savings social cultural and economic integration of rural populations c Development stage accumulation of savings new technologies shift to commercial production development of land and labor markets ruralurban integration Commoditization Market allocation of land and labor Specialization and integration Comparative advantage 4A3 Criticisms of Modernization Theor a Ethnocentrism Eurocentric assumes that the path to development is to follow Europe and North American path b lgnores history of colonialism and domination that weakened strong and viable pre European societies c Stress on production and productivity overlooks the need for distribution of wealth and resources 48 Dependency Theory underdevelopment is caused by colonialism and imperialism Development consists in overcoming the legacy of domination and exploitation This is accomplished by such means as revolution and striving for economic independence Stress put on distribution and achieving economic and political independence 4B1 Evolution of Capitalism Modes of Production Colonialism Merchant Capitalism Colonialism Imperialism NeoColonialism See ThomasSlayter Chapter 2 482 Dual economy centerperiphery metropolissatellite Surplus Extraction land tenure terms of trade decapitalization forced taxation Siphon economy Structural distortions derived from imperialism grossly uneven access to land credit technological bias Examples of structural distortion highly unequal land tenure latifundio hacienda minifundio subfamily farm Peripheries underdeveloped regions experience development when ties to the center are weakened 483 Criticisms of Dependency Theory 4B3a Ignores historic and contemporary examples of development under strong external economic influence poorest countries are the most isolated and least integrated into the world economy Historic cases US Australia Japan German Contemporary Taiwan S Korea Malaysia Singapore 4B3b Difficulty in defining dependency and exploitation what is a fair wage or price for raw materials 4B3c Tends to view poor countries as static and unresponsive victims to exploitation Overlooks resistance and diversity within and between underdeveloped countries eg Africa vs Asia 4B3d Stresses a single simple cause to multiple and complex problems 4B3e Only viable path to development is to sever ties to wealthy capitalist countries Doesn t offer way to increase production or productivity or the other prerequisites to development 4C Globalization 1 According to modernization theory latest example of specialization comparative advantage and spatial integration that leads to greater economic development 2 According to dependency theory lastest example of domination exploitation and unequal development Terms Export led growth Trade agreements WTO NAFTA 5 Population issues MALTHUSIAN THEORY Growth rates for population geometric and food arithmetic Population is a dependent variable in relation to agricultural production independent variable ie agricultural growth limits population Carrying capacity biological limits of productivity population a dependent variable Overpopulation poverty link ANTIMALTHUSAN THEORY Boserup population is an independent variable in relation to agricultural Production dependent variable ie population increase promotes agricultural growth lntensification eg forest fallow gt bush fallow gt permanent field cultivation Malthus proven wrong in history by two phenomena 1 Agricultural growth has followed a geometric hyperbolic path like population 2 Population does not continue to growto meet increased production rather it slows down as production increases and people gain wealth demographic transition 3 Demographic transition changing value of children and women employment opportunity educational opportunity Fertility declines to near or below replacement level lt2 childrenmother Demographic Profiles predemographictransition vs postdemographic transition life expectancy lt50 gt70 total fertility rate gt5 lt2 infant mortality rate gt100 lt15 Keyterms and concepts from readings SACHS IAD 10 READER Chapter 1 Three degrees of poverty extreme moderate relative Ladder of development Chapter 2 Modern period of economic growth gt1800AD Highly uneven economic growth Explaining Britain s rise to economic prosperity why was Britain first open society scientific and technological progress institutions of political liberty geographic advantage military security coal energy The Great Transformation industrial revolution Urbanization changes in family structure social mobility division of labor Spread of economic growth Diffusion of industrialization Transmission of technology steam power transportation electricity Creation of Post World War II global economy International trading system US dominated The Three Worlds approach to economic development Chapter 3 Means to increase family income savings trade technology relocation to new farms Failure to increase family income lack of saving absence of trade technology reversal natural resource decline adverse productivity shock population growth Why countries fail Sachs continued Poverty trap too poor to save need to overexploit resources Physical geographic obstacles Fiscal trap lack of financial services Governance failures graft corruption Cultural barriers obstacles to social mobility Geopolitics trade barriers Lack of innovation technolo Demographic trap rapid population growth doesn t allow savings NS U14gtC N THOMASSLAYTER SOUTHERN EXPOSURE Chapter 1 Common characteristics of developing nations insecure livelihoods high rate of population growth high rate of unemployment and underemployment domination of agriculture in econom vulnerability in international political and economic relations f ambivalence toward the West Theories of Development a neoclassicalmodernization b political economydependenc c alternative views postmodernist and feminist 59995 Chapter 2 ThomasSlayter continued Legacies of European expansion and domination Imperialism Colonialism and its legacies a structural inequality b weakened nation states c domination by elites often defined by ethnicity external dependence Nationalism struggle for independence and national identity Chapter 3 Paradox of simultaneity dual economies Ethnic exclusion Dependence Porous political boundaries Patrimony and clientelism Development prerequisites state building growth and distribution of resources nation building using but controlling globalization participation Chapter 4 Religious nationalism Crisis of legitimacy Terrorism Chapter 5 Globalization vulnerability to rich nations states vs markets inequality transborder problems Key actors a international financial institutions eg World Bank IMF WTO b multinational corporations c regional trade organizations eg NAFTA Trade issues a dependence of commodity exports b subsidies and terms of trade Population Reference Bureau 2004 Population Bulletin Demographic transition model 1 Decline in death rate 2 Decline in birth rate 3 Decline in natural increase Momentum for population change


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