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General Psychology Week 6 Notes

by: JessyB

General Psychology Week 6 Notes PSY 1410

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About this Document

Terminology Operant conditioning Reinforcement Punishment Reinforcement Schedules Cognitive learning key concepts and applied learning practice for all points in notes
General Psychology
Dr Catherine Crooks
Class Notes
General Psychology, PSY 1410, psych, Dr. Crooks
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by JessyB on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1410 at a university taught by Dr Catherine Crooks in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.


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Date Created: 02/29/16
Week 6 Notes Thursday, February 25, 2016 (Professor Dr. Catherine Crooks) Terminology Shaping- reinforces behaviors that lead up to the desired behavior (key concept) -ex. dog learning to roll over, step by step, sit, lay, slight roll, etc. reward at each step Extinction: behavior decreases because of ignorance or lack of response Key Lecture Concepts  Operant conditioning- kind of learning in which the consequences that follow a behavior increase or decrease the likelihood of that behavior occurring in the future. -Skinner (rats and food), Watson (conditioned child for fear of white rats & generalization)  Reinforcement: increases the likelihood of a behavior occurring again -first thing that is tried (punishment in major circumstances or if nothing else is working) -reinforcement only affects those behaviors that are actually performed  Positive: presentation of a pleasant stimulus that increases the likelihood of a behavior occurring again (must be important to person, animal ex. dogs and treats)  Negative: removal or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus that increases the likelihood of a behavior occurring in the future (ex. remove headache with aspirin, likely to use again. Ex. park in legal spaces on campus to avoid ticket, and are successful, you are likely to keep doing that.)  Punishment: consequence that decreases the likelihood of a behavior occurring in the future -short lived, ex. fines or speeding tickets, will fall into old habits positive: applying something that weakens a response (squirt bottle to cat) negative: taking something positive away (getting phone taken away) Problems with Punishment: -Does not teach promote alternative, acceptable behavior -May produce undesirable results such as hostility, passivity, fear -Likely to be temporary (ex. speeding ticket, almost always) -May model aggression Operant turns into Classical- the cat and the food- squirt the cat with water to stop behavior of swatting the food, then when she sees the water bottle near she associates it with the previous experience and does not swat the food. For applied practice of concepts: Ch 5. Handout 2. Reinforcement and Punishment practice scenarios Problems with Punishment: -Does not teach promote alternative, acceptable behavior -May produce undesirable results such as hostility, passivity, fear -Likely to be temporary (ex. speeding ticket, almost always) -May model aggression Reinforcement Schedules Continuous: every time behavior (for a new behavior) occurs, reinforcement also occurs Partial: helps maintain desired behavior long term Fixed interval (FI): reinforce is delivered for the first response after a fixed period of time has elapsed Variable interval (VI): reinforce is delivered for the first response after an average time has elapsed, differs between trials -Interval schedules are based on time Cognitive Learning: -also called observational or vicarious learning (social cognitive learning) -learning by simply observing the behaviors of another person -fears can also be learned vicariously (ex. watched how parent responded to a snake, and respond the same way) key concept: -model (role model)- the person whose behavior we[subject] are observing or imitating. Must be someone whom they respect and know well (parent, sibling, friends). -Bandura & the Bobo doll: children watch an adult model interact with a bobo doll, (either aggressively or peacefully) the result was the child mirroring the adults aggression or peacefulness, especially when the model was the same sex.  Learning occurs when a person simply observes another’s behavior. 4 key processes. 1. Attention-observation 2. Retention- storing mental representation of observation 3. Reproduction- reproducing modeled behavior 4. Motivation -Important to point out that people may learn a behavior or response but may not perform them (motivation)


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