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Holocaust (Week 7)

by: Molly McMullen

Holocaust (Week 7) HIST3081

Molly McMullen

GPA 4.0

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About this Document

These notes cover last weeks class.
The Holocaust
Frederic Krome
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Molly McMullen on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST3081 at University of Cincinnati Clermont College taught by Frederic Krome in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see The Holocaust in History at University of Cincinnati Clermont College.


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Date Created: 02/29/16
The Holocaust (Week 7) Jewish responses in Lodz ghetto  Fight – this was hard because most of the Jews were weak, they had no weapons, and no  training  Flight – hard to escape ghetto  Wait it out: wai time = ally  Hide – most successful strategy to survive Operation Reinhard  Named in honor of Reinhard Heydrich  Mid­March 1942 – 75­80% of victims of Holocaust still alive  March 1943 – 80% of victims dead  Worst year of the Holocaust in terms of sheer numbers  Pretty much destroyed Jewry  Massive offensive  Death camps established for this o Sobibor o Treblinka o Chelmno  For this operation, you need trains, RR lines, men, and food  Battle of Stalingrad going on at the same time o September 1942 – January 1943  Every train, gun, and man used for Reinhart, it took away from what they could’ve used  during Stalingrad  You could only send 5,000 Jews to camps a day  Wehrmacht  SS/Kripo/Gestapo (all under Himmler’s command)  Order police/ active and reserve police  Collaborators o SS Ukraine o SS Estonia o SS Latvia o SS Lithuania  By operation Reinhart, there was a man power crisis o Men dying at Stalingrad and couldn’t kill Jews  Largest German man power 1936  Himmler gained authority of all security police  Regular police and order/ reserve police organized in battalions  500 men in order/ reserve police  2/3 men considered too old or not physically fit to be in order police  Reserve police battalion 101 – city of Hamburg, in Lublin district of Poland  Out of the 500 men, 200 were still alive post war when they were questioned by Germans  Commander: Trapp, 53 year old policeman  Was not in SS rank, not considered to be ruthless enough ______________________________________________________________________________ Operation Reinhard continued  Reserve Police Battalion 101 o From Hamburg o Age 33­48 o These men knew a world before Hitler and the Holocaust o 500 men total o They were dock, construction, and warehouse workers, waiters, office workers o Rankin file  Average age 39 o Killed more Jews than any unit in Operation Reinhard o Only 25% of men joined the Nazi party o Major Trapp  Took 300 Jews to Lublin to work, the rest were shot  Someone refused to shoot Jews and he was not punished  Trapp made an arrangement: any man that didn’t feel comfortable  shooting Jews, they could step out  Out of 500 men, 12 stepped out with no punishment ______________________________________________________________________________ Auschwitz (camp experience)  Symbol of the Holocaust o 3 reasons for this:  Sheer numbers – 1/6 victims died here  Geography – The victims came from every corner of the Nazi world  Time – first death camp to continue operation and last  Were multiple Auschwitz  Merely a concentration camp in the beginning  Fall 1939  Primarily camp for Polish P.O.W.’s, Polish army, and political prisoners  It was isolated yet accepted – railroad  Hoss o Experienced Nazi o Not of high rank o The camp he rain was not important at first  General government  1940 – I.G. Farben (chemical company) o Built plant “Bunna” o Bunna works made explosives o “Cheap” o Was a deal between SS and Farben o All money goes to SS o All the workers get is enough money to live for 6 months o Winter 1941  SS officials visited Auschwitz  Ordered it to be expanded to hold 30,000 prisoners  Soviet POW’s  Auschwitz 2 – Birkenau o Hold 100,000 prisoners  Summer 1941 – thousands of Soviet POWs shipped to Auschwitz o Were so many, they changed it to 200,000 o Ended up changing it to over 300,000 POWS o Within 1 year, 95% of them died o They were starved, killed by guards, or died of neglect  Holocaust – Germans called it “the final solution”  Shootings  Gas vans  Zyklon B (used for delousing)  Auschwitz 1 – concentration camp  Auschwitz 2 (Birkenau) – death camp  Auschwitz 3 (Monowitz) – place for people who worked at Bunna works  50 satellite camps  Selection: distribution to Auschwitz 2 or 3, or satellite camp (for Jews)  Children under 12, pregnant women, elderly, and mothers sent to Birkenau – most died  within a day/week  Canada  Hair of women shaved off and spun for industrial use o Socks, scarves, sweaters for troops  Gold teeth taken after gassing  Those registered for work got a tattoo number  Twins and pregnant women didn’t get gas. They got experimented on.  Kapo  80­95% of people in Auschwitz were Jews o Were treated more harshly  Rest were Pols or Gypsies o They got to receive letters and packages. Jews did not  For every Jew to escape – 10 more were killed  Some Jews committed suicide by running into electric fence


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