Chapter 3 of Notes
Chapter 3 of Notes 80203 - GEOL 1010-003
Popular in Physical Geology
Popular in Geology
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Casale on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 80203 - GEOL 1010-003 at Clemson University taught by Mine Dogan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Physical Geology in Geology at Clemson University.
Reviews for Chapter 3 of Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/08/15
Geology 828 904 Chapter 3 Matter amp Minerals 0 Minerals 0 A mineral is a homogeneous naturally occurring solid inorganic substance with a definable chemical composition and an internal structure characterized by an orderly arrangement of atoms ions or molecules in a lattice I In short A mineral is a homogenous natural inorganic substance with definable structure and a chemical composition 0 A Lck is any solid mass of mineral or minerallike matter that occurs naturally as part of our planet 0 Atoms o Atoms are the smallest particles that cannot be chemically split Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus center of the atom and the electrons surround the nucleus 0 Atomic Number is the number of protons in the nucleus of the atom 0 Chemical Bonding o m Electrons are transferred the electrons are either donating or receiving Strongest bonds 0 Covalent electrons are shared between atoms Metallic Electrons are free to move Form between AU AG CU 0 Van der Waals Positive and negative charged electrons stick together 0 Hydrogen Bond attraction between polar molecules 0 Properties of a Mineral used for Identification o Luster the appearance or quality of light re ected from the surface of a mineral I Appearance of metals regardless of color is metallic luster I Dull coating or tarnish looking minerals are submetallic luster I Gleaming or glassy look are known as nonmetallic luster o Transmit Light no light is transmitted is known as opaque When light can transmit through a mineral it s translucent When light and an image can transmit through it s transparent O C010r O CO 000 O Streak the color of a mineral in powdered form This is done by rubbing the mineral across a piece of unglazed porcelain and looking at the color of the streak mark Crystal Shape or Habit common shape of individual crystals Hardness a measure of the resistance of a mineral to abrasion or scratching Mohs scale is used to measure hardness Cleavage when the mineral breaks upon places of weak bonding Fracture minerals that have chemical bonds that are equally strong in all directions Tenacity a mineral s resistance to breaking bending cutting Density mass per unit volume Specific Gravity a number representing the ration of a mineral s weight to the weight of an equal volume of water m Feel Magnetism Radioactivity 0 Internal Order of Minerals O O 0 3D network of atoms Repeatable units make up structure Symmetry of Structure 0 Evidence of Internal Order O 0 Crystal Form Cleavage Planes I Sheet Silicate Structure I Planes are repeated and reproducible 1 2 or 3 dimensional planes Xray diffraction I Atomic force microscopy 0 Mineral Groups O Silicates I Most common group I Most form when molten rock cools and crystallizes I OSi Al Fe Ca Na K and Mg make up the Earth s crust I Olivine pyroxene amphibole micas muscovite and biotite feldsparspotassium and plagioclase quartz I Light Silicates Nonferromagnesian Generally light in color and have a specific gravity of 27 less of the dark Feldspar Group Most common mineral group Can form under a wide range of temperatures and pressures They have 2 planes of cleavage meeting near 90 degree angles hard minerals glassy to pearly look 0 Potassium Feldspar contain potassium ions in its structure Light cream salmon pink or blue green in color 0 Plagioclase Feldspar contains sodium and calcium ions that freely substitute for one another Color ranges from white to medium gray Quartz Group consists entirely of silicon and oxygen Hard resistant to weathering no cleavage Pyramid shaped Milky white smoky gray rose pink amethyst purple and crystal clear rock colors Muscovite Subgroup Light in color and has glassy or pearly luster Cleavage in one direction Very shiny often can be identified by the sparkle it gives Dark Silicates ferromagnesian Dark in color and have greater specific gravity between 32 and 36 Olivine Group high temperature Black to olive green in color and have a glassy luster and a conchoidal fracture Commonly forms small rounded crystals Pyroxene Group 2 directional cleavage opaque dark dominant mineral in basalt Amphibole Group dark green to black in color cleavage Biotite Group dark iron rich one directional cleavage shiny black appearance o Nonsilicates Used for economic reasons Iron and aluminum to build cars Gypsum for plaster and drywall construction Copper wire that carries electricity and connects us to the internet Carbonates Halides Sulfates Oxide and Sulfide Carbonate Group Other names are calcite and dolomite Halides Group Other names are halite uorite sylvite Oxide Group Other names are hematite magnetite corundum ice Sulfide Group other names are galena sphalerite pyrite chalocopyrite cinnabar Sulfate Group gypsum anhydrite barite Native elements other names are gold copper diamond sulfur graphite silver and platinum 0 Formation of New Minerals o Solidification from melting point 0 Participation from a solution separate from water 0 Solid state Diffusion 0000 0 Mineral growth Nucleation Chance occurrence One seed exists other seeds attach forming a bond and the mineral grows Growth maintains orientation and internal structure Develop outward from seed Crystal shape based on geometry of lattice Anhedral crystals Growth is limited Grow into the space available Cool from lava or magma Evaporate Biomineralization Hydrothermalcrystalize from solution Alteration and metamorphism 0 Minerals are Altered or Destroyed O O O O Melting due to the melting temperature or thermal vibration Dissolving due to the mineral being immersed into a solvent or the atoms separating from the mineral surface Mineral may come in contact with reactive materials Oxygen may cause Iron materials to rust 0 Natural Resources 0 Renewable materials that can be replenished over relatively short time spans Corn used for food and for making ethanol Natural fibers such as cotton Forest products for lumber and paper I Energy from owing water wind and the sun 0 Nonrenewable materials that cannot be replenished I Iron I Aluminum I Copper I Oil I Natural gas I Coal