Sociology Week 7 Notes
Sociology Week 7 Notes SOCI 241
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Popular in Social Problems
Popular in Sociology
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nadeera Mohamed on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 241 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Dr. Candace May in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Social Problems in Sociology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Chapter 13: Education Women: A Majority – Minority Numerically, women are a slight majority of the US population Women meet the test of being both a physically distinctive and disadvantaged category Women have less income, wealth, and power than men Minority Women: Intersection Theory Minority women are doubly disadvantaged They earn less than white women Minority women earn less than minority men In 2010, African American women earned 62% as much as white men And Hispanic women earned 54% as much as white men Structural-Functional Analysis: Gender and Complementarity Functionalists contend that differences between men and women help build families and integrate society as a whole (instrumental and expressive roles) The structural-functional analysis of gender was quite influential 50 years ago but is far less today Critics contend that: Functionalism ignores how men and women can and do relate to one another in a variety of ways that do not fit any norm Functionalism fails to take into account the personal strains and social conflicts produced by rigid gender patterns Symbolic-Interaction Analysis: Gender in Everyday Life The symbolic-interaction paradigm provides a micro-level analysis of gender at work on the everyday lives of individual people Personal behavior Use of space Language Gender directly affects personal behavior, the use of space, and the language we use Social-Conflict Analysis: Gender and Inequality Friedrich Engels expanded Marx’s theory to include gender, arguing that the same process that allows a ruling class to dominate a worker places men in a dominant position over women Patriarchy is a system by which wealthy men transmit their wealth to their sons The double problem of capitalism lies in exploiting men in the factories and women in the home Critics of this perspective point out: Families perform vital tasks of raising children Feminism Feminism – the study of gender with the goal of changing society to make women and men equal Involves both theory action Does not mean diminishing masculinity Types of feminism Liberal feminists Socialist feminists Feminists The State of Education: a Global Perspective Education – social institution by which society transmits knowledge including Basic facts, job skills, and cultural norms and values to its members Schooling – formal instruction carried out by specially trained teachers Schooling is more available in some parts of the world than others Low-Income Countries: Too Little Schooling All nations provide for primary education of at least some children In the poorest nations many children do not go to school Secondary education of children is even less common Poor nations are agrarian and rural Families take primary responsibility for education Children work at an early age Governments in poor nations are trying to increase literacy Genders al is related to education in poor countries Patriarchy and education High In Countries: Unequal education Higher rates of schooling and literacy Education is a necessity for jobs Post-secondary education Education in history Thomas Jefferson: Literacy and democracy By 1918 all state laws made education mandatory Requiring children to go to school until 16 20 Century saw the expansion of education Academic performance of US School A larger share of the US population earns a college degree than any other nation Except Norway Scholastic assessment test scores Below the 1967 average for both men and women The Effects of Race, Ethnicity and Class Testing: SAT African American students score about 300 points below the average white student Hispanics 200 points below white students Children living in a single parent family Racial stereotypes and educational bias Hispanic children and language barrier Native American children and cultural alienation Poverty Dropping out Completing high school is a major problem About 8.1% of the population aged 16-24 have left school before graduating Dropping out is related to being socially disadvantaged Economically and culturally Dropping out puts one at risk for other social problems Functional Illiteracy Not being able to read and write or do basic arithmetic Well enough to carry out daily responsibilities About 14% or more of the population lack the necessary skills to function in society Affects job opportunities Source of embarrassing and shame Segregated Schools and Busing Segregated schools post slavery through the 20 century Supreme Court Ruling: Plessy Vs. Ferguson - 1865 Separate but equal Supreme Court Ruling: Brown Vs Board of Education - 1954 Separate but no longer equal (not that it ever was) Residential segregation and continued educational segregation Busing to achieve integration White flight Blacks reacted to busing with mixed opinions Continued segregation today School Funding Inequality in educational resources between states and within states Public schools funded by state/local taxes Economic disparities between rich and poor communities Sources of income and educational spending for students Concentrated poverty and hyper segregation Cultural Capitol Differences in the home life of rich and poor children is a major factor in education Families with more income are able to give their children more cultural capitol More conductive environment Parental education Local taxes, with additions from state and federal government Great variance $17,500/student in LI - $8,000/student in TX Vermont – Act 60 (1998) State pooling of local taxes and redistribution across all schools Segregation Red Lining Block Busting Racial Steering Tracking A policy of assigning students to different educational programs Supporters of tracking argue that tests will be used to assign students to tracks best suited to address each child’s abilities Critics argue that tracking is a form of institutional discrimination Tracking transforms a social advantage into an educational advantage Self-fulfilling prophecy Gender Inequality: Reproduction of gender inequality in schools Gender and educational steering by teachers, counselors, and curriculum based on cultural prescriptions of gender in society Congress (1972) and Title IX of the Educational Amendments to the Civil Rights Act Increase in the number of women going on to college Immigration: Increasing Diversity Educating the more than one million immigrants that enter the US annually English Immersion versus Bilingualism English immersion – teaching immigrants using English Bilingual education – policy by which schools offer classes in most subject areas in a student’s native language while also teaching them English Schooling People with Disabilities In 1975, Congress passes the Education of All Handicapped Children Act Mainstreaming – integrating special students into the overall educational program Special education – schooling children with physical or mental disabilities in separate classes with specially trained teachers The Teacher Shortage 400,000 teaching jobs remain unfilled Causes larger classes and greater burden on staff Low salaries a factor Excessive bureaucracy and school violence are also a factor School Violence School violence has been a growing concern Homicides; Aggravated assaults; rape Type of school and violence Larger schools Urban schools Poverty African American and Latina students express greatest fear Sandy Hook? Reactions to school violence by schools and communities Zero-tolerance policies Dress codes Conflict resolution programs Structural – Functional Analysis: The Functions of Schoolings The focus is on the role of education in society Education leads to transmitting knowledge and skills Education leads to occupational roles Education integrates someone into the larger society Latent functions? Child care Higher education – would cause problems if everyone actually got jobs Symbolic Interaction Analysis: Labels in the Schools The focus is on how individuals experience education Education labels shape the student’s future Labels and the self-fulfilling prophecy People who are defined in one way eventually think and act as if the definition were true thereby recreating the circumstances that were defined for them Social – Conflict Analysis: Schooling and Inequality How education results in the reproduction of inequality: Class Gender Race Education and the hidden curriculum and the teaching of conformity: Obedience rather than critical thinking Patriotism rather than past mistakes Memorization rather than creativity
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