Chapter 3 Notes
Chapter 3 Notes BIO 120
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haleigh Siple on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 120 at Grand Valley State University taught by Rybczynski in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Biological Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Bio 120 Sept 8 Chapter 3 Notes Chapter 3 Water and Life Section 31 Water is held together with polar covalent bonds meaning the electrons are shared unequally Polar Molecule molecule in which its charge is not evenly distributed Water is a polar molecule Waters unique properties occur due to its hydrogen bonding which causes waters molecules to stay close together Section 32 Water Molecules have four mai or properties 1 Cohesion Cohesion occurrence in which hydrogen bonding causes molecules to remain closely packed together Adhesion when one substance clings to another This property of water helps counteract the pull of gravity allowing plants to pull up water from their roots Surface Tension related to cohesion this is the measurement of how difficult it is to break stretch the surface of a liquid Water has an unusually high surface tension 2 Ability to Moderate Temperature Water regulates temperature by absorbing heat from warmer air and then releasing that heat to cooler air Water can absorb and release large quantities of heat energy without significantly changing its own temperature Kinetic Energy energy caused by motion Thermal Energy the kinetic energy linked with the random movement of atoms or molecules Temperature the measurement of heat energy given off by an object based on the kinetic energy movement of molecules Heat transferring thermal energy from one thing to another Calorie the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of water 1 degree Celsius Kilocalorie the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1000g of water ldegree Celsius Speci c Heat the amount of heat that must be gained or lost of a substance to change 1 g of its temperature by 1 degree Celsius Water has a high specific heat Water s high speci c can be attributed to it hydrogen bonding Bio 120 Sept 8 Chapter 3 Notes Heat of Vaporization the amount of heat a liquid must gain in order to change 1g of its liquid state into a gaseous state Water has a high heat of vaporization due to the strength of its hydrogen bonds Evaporation Cooling as a liquid evaporates the surface of the substance that is still in liquid form cools down This happens because the molecules with the most kinetic energy or temperature are more likely to become a gas 3 Expansion of Water upon freezing Water is one of few substances that are less dense in solid form This is why ice oats in water Most liquids contract when they freeze water on the other hand expands The hydrogen bonds in water keep the molecules at arm s length as the water freezes Because of this water in solid state is 10 less dense that liquids at the same temperature 4 Water s versatility as a Solvent Solution a liquid combination of two or more substances Solvent the dissolving agent in a solution water other liquids Solute the substance that dissolves sugar salt ect Aqueous Solution a solution where water is the solvent Water is a versatile solvent due to the polarity of its molecules Hydration Shell the sphere of water that surrounds each solute moleculeion Hydrophilic any substance with an attraction to water molecules Hydroponic substances that repel water e g Oil Molecular Mass the sum of that masses of atoms that make up a molecule Mole mol Avogadro s number number used to represent an exact number of objects 602 X 102339 There are this many daltons in 1g Molarity the number of moles of solute in a liter of a solution This is used to measure the concentration of a solution Section 33 Hydrogen Ion H occurs when a hydrogen atom shifts from one water molecule to another it gives up its electron leaving a positively charged ion behind Hydroxide Ion OH39 The water molecule that losses the hydrogen ion after it breaks away from its hydrogen bond becomes a negatively charged HydrogenOxygen molecule Bio 120 Sept 8 Chapter 3 Notes Hydronium ion the water molecule to which the positively charged ion binds becomes H3O Acid a substance that increases the number of hydrogen ions of a solution Base a substance that reduces the number of hydrogen ions of a solution On the pH scale 7 is neutral Numbers lower than 7 are acidic and numbers above 7 are basic pH declines as Hydrogen Ions increase pH increases as Hydrogen Ions decrease Buffer a substance that controls the pH of a substance and stabilizes the concentrations of Hydrogen Ions Ocean Acidi cation the process of CO2 carbon dioxide dissolving in sea water causing the pH of the ocean to decrease the ocean becomes more acidic
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