HIS 100 Week 6 notes
HIS 100 Week 6 notes HIST 100
Popular in Western Civilization Pre Mod
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This 39 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikaila Arao on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 100 at Colorado State University taught by Kristin Heineman in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Western Civilization Pre Mod in History at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Civilization (BE ABLE TO CONNECT KEY TERMS) 01/25/2016 ▯ ▯ History: first came from Herodotus—inquired of what happened in the past Herodotus: father of western civilization ▯ ▯ Prehistory—Stone Age Paleolithic Age (KEY TERM) means old stone, before advent of writing o Archaeology = only evidence for the distant past of humans Homo sapiens o Hunger-gathers (KEY TERMS) o Made durable tools from stone o Social hierarchy develops Known based on burials People buried with a bunch of stuff = rich People buried with out stuff = poorer o Religion Venus figurines Figures of women with bodies as if they have had children Worship the women body Cave paintings Cave of Lascaux (religious) A lot of pictures of reindeer but no reindeer bones o Otzi (utzi) 3,300 BC buried with shoes, satchel, stone tools tattoos Neolithic Age (new stone) o Neolithic revolution 10,000-4,ooo BC agriculture Domestication of animals Able to stay in one place o Change in daily life Food surplus Specialization of craft Not worried about where food is coming from we can expand our knowledge o happened in fertile crescent called Mesopotamia o first evidence of people growing own crops and domesticating animals o Tigris river on top and Euphrates river on bottom characteristics of civilization o urban focus cities become the center o religious structure o political and military structures organized administration and defense o development of writing usually reserved for the priestly and upper class, but still an essential aspect o artistic and intellectual activity architecture, artwork, crafts Mesopotamia o C. 4,000-1,000 BC (Bronze Age) o “land between two rivers” Tigris and Euphrates – modern day Iraq, Syria little bit of Turkey, Iran and Kuwait o Collection of a number of different societies o Huge advances in writing, math, astrology o Religion highly developed Sumerianth rd o 5 – 3 millennia BC o Eridu = first settlement o war very common o “king Priests” o inventions of Sumer wheel and plow planting of the first orchards dates, figs, and olives development of metal casting most significant = writing o cuneiform (KEY TERM) means wedge form first form of writing writing is significant because the insemination of knowledge knowledge is preserved and can be moved around o Epic of Gilgamesh Similar mythologies in the bible, Greek, Aztec About friendship Very pessimistic One of the oldest stories Written in Samarian writing o Enheduanna Sargon’s daughter Wrote short poems Is the world’s first known female writer o Threat to Sumer Broad, open plain with little defenses The Tigris/Euphrates flood sporadically Fertile crescent, land between two rivers Several neighboring people From 2350 BC Sumer was overrun several times by outsiders This uncertainty is reflected in literature and religion Worry, wonder, at the mercy of the gods and nature o Akkadian empire Sargon of Akkad united Sumerian/Semitic 2334 BC – 2193 BC Another warring nation Empire collapsed Climate Regional decline Invasions o Then Babylonians Akkadian rule eventually weakened Brief independence for Sumerian cities Than Babylonians invaded in turn Like Akkadians, they adopted Sumerian culture Hummarabi o Most important Babylonian ▯ ▯ Hammurabi Uses cuneiform to write down Hammurabi’s laws/ rights Two different types of law in Hammurabi’s law code First written code that we know of o Two forms of punishment o 1 is monetary punishment based on wealth rich guy beats up on poor guy he has to pay a fine o 2 is eye for an eye poor guy beats up poor guy he will have the same thing done to him ▯ Mesopotamian Religion these societies are polytheistic also synchronistic o Adding a bunch of different gods together from different religions continuous adding of gods sky gods, earth gods, forces of nature, animism gods were immortal and had supernatural powers o powers based on what part of the earth they are “in charge of” no ethical dimension religion was pessimistic and fatalistic ▯ Hepatoscopy Divination by liver o Source of blood o Life Extispicy o Other organs Sacrifice o Gift to gods o Bring fertility to wife o Bring healthy crops o Not everyone go enough meat/ protein so they would have these sacrifices and share with poor people Haruspex o Trained to interpret ▯ Mesopotamian Mathematics Sexagesimal numeral system o Gives us 60 second minutes o 60 minute hours o 360 circle o all geometry based place-value system ▯ *** advances in math and astrology were key to Mesopotamian advancements ▯ ▯ Early Civilizations ▯ ▯ Assyrians Most brutal conquerors of all time o Enjoyed it Descendants of the Sumer- Akkadians o Half= Babylonians o Other = Assyrians o 24 – 7 centuries BC o spoke Semitic language in Mesopotamia military expansion o Judah, Egypt, Babylon (conquered) o Start making better military weapons o Start making iron Stronger than bronze o First one to use horses and chariots Art work depicts brutality o Put artwork everywhere to remind people they have conquered what they will do o Very proud of what they do ▯ Ziggurat (KEY TERM) In Mesopotamia Religious temple Organize big structures to go to war *** war is one of the more sophisticated things that humans go do Power of a society is how well they go to war o Takes an incredible amount of organization of gathering hundreds of troops o Major planning ▯ Nineveh Syrian capitol at Nineveh Largest city in the world 690 BC Destroyed by Persians 612 ▯ Egypt Assyrians conquered Egypt Before that, the Egyptians were one of the most prosperous states Importance of the Nile o 4,000 miles o Reliable/predictable o Flows north o When it floods brings fertile soil from bottom of river to fertilize crops #1 contributing factor to the success of Egypt for so long Old Kingdom o Lower and upper Egypt were united into one culture o Pyramids were built 2686- 2181 BC United by Menes Pyramids Middle Kingdom o Time of decline 2040- 1786 BC New Kingdom o 1570- 1085 o when Persians take over ▯ Egyptian Religion Polytheistic (KEY TERM) o Gods maintained in humans/ animals/ nature o Pharaohs = god-men Afterlife = hugely significant o Pyramids = tombs for pharaohs Religious buildings Few minutes off of perfect north Built by aliens Said because no one really knows how they are built o Mummification Open up cavity Take out all guts, major organs, NOT HEART Put into conoptic jars Rest of body gets stuffed with cloth covered with natron Rub body in tree sap Whole process takes about 40-70 days originally just pharaohs but started to do dogs and cats heart gets put back for afterlife heart gets weighed heavier than a feather = convicted 1 of 40 sins you get fed to three most dangerous animals in Africa o Funerary art o Book of the Dead ▯ ▯ Pyramids of Giza One of the 7 wonders of the ancient world ▯ Khufu 4 Dynasty Pharaoh pyramids built for him Old Kingdom period ▯ Hatshepsut One of the first great women who have come down in history Married to the pharaoh Pharaoh dies and son is next in line o Son is to young so she takes over for the mean time Wives were viewed as goddesses as well ▯ Hieroglyphs (means: sacred writings) Second oldest writing form that we know of ideogram Each picture represents an entire idea Hieroglyphics went out of use due to.. o Coptic Using Greek scrip to write hieroglyphic terms ▯ Rosetta Stone (KEY TERMS) Dates to decree from Memphis o Cult of Ptolemy V Egyptian hieroglyphs, demotic script, Greek Without stone we probably would never have been able to decipher Egyptian language The key to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphs rediscovered’ in 1799 by French soldiers o French defeated by British in Egypt o Now and has been on display in British museum ▯ Jean-Francois Champollion 1820 by age of 20 he can speak Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Avestan, Pahlavi, Arabic, Syriac, Chaldean, Persian, and Ge’ez unlocked Egyptian language after he unlocks it everyone starts to unlock the Egyptian writing as well ▯ ▯ Hittites Battle of Kadesh Egyptians and Hittites both say they won Each put up the peace treaty in their own writing that they each won the battle ▯ ▯ Refutation Evidence of “Asian” slaves in Egypt o Some must have been Hebrews No point for Jewish scribes to record the race of slaves Extra-biblical evidence o Outside of the bible evidence o Dead seas scrolls o Tel Dan Stele Talks about a potential house of David ▯ Kings First king of Israelites = Saul David = second king Solomon o Davrd’s son o 3 king o built temple to ONE god o taxes and favoritism o kingdom divided Assyrians destroy Israelite kingdom o capital Samaria was taken temple destroyed by Babylonians o Babylonian captivity DIASPORA ▯ Hebrew Religion Developed over time o Started out as a blend of Mesopotamian/Canaanite religion o Polytheistic Yahweh= chief god of Israel o But kings, rulers and people worshipped other gods During Babylonian exile, Yahweh became single o Exiles returned to Judah (help of Persians) o Monotheism becomes dominant belief First explicit from of monotheism the world had seen ▯ Persians Cyrus the Great o Founder of Archaemenid Empire o Innovative conqueror Would tell people he would provide them protection if they joined him o Freed the Jews from Babylon Only foreigner in the Hebrew bible referred to as the bible o Paradise gardens o Irrigation systems Qanat Siphon water to where they want it to go o Died in the battle before he could see his empire succeed\ o Becomes kings of kings Zoroastrianism (wont need to know on a test) o “good religion” revealed to Zoroaster o henotheism means ONE supreme god and than lesser deities worshipped in a different way o Ahura Mazda = supreme god o Vs Angra Mainyu (destructive spirit) o Zoroaster’s revelation ▯ ▯ ▯ Minoan Civilizations (live on the island of Crete, modern day Greece) ▯ ▯ Palace at Knosos Sir Arthur Evans Oldest in Europe? King Minos o Wife falls in love with bull and has Minotaur Minotaur (bull and human beast) Labyrinth Place admin ▯ 3 types of writings Cretan Hieroglyphs o Goes in circles o Only about 300 found o Not deciphered Linear A (KNOW) o Writing script of Minoans o Not deciphered o Found about 10,000 Linear B (KNOW) o Mycenaean script o Deciphered by the enigma guys o Old form of Greek ▯ Minoan Demise (KNOW) Volcano erupts o Sends tsunami towards northern end of the island of Crete o Weakened Minoan civilization greatly ▯ Mycenaean Civilization Visit Crete Realize the Minoans no longer have as much power Mycenaeans go and conquer Crete Tholos o Buried dead in these tombs Collapse of Bronze Age End of bronze age= begins dark age o Stopped writing Last tablet of linear B 1200 BC Sea peoples (KNOW THE BOLD) (COLLAPSE OF MYCANAEANS) o May be the reason for the end of writing Dorian invasion o Aka return of the Heracleidae o May also have been reason for end of writing Reasons for decline/ migration vary o Newest research suggest 300 year drought ▯ Homer Much about him is questionable 2 Books written o Iliad Troy and the Trojan war o odyssey o written in ionic Greek o dactylic hexameter long short short … dactylic = phalanges blind Iliad and odyssey were composed orally!! (TEST QUESTION) ▯ Sappho (KNOW) One of the great lyric poets Greek Woman Such a great poet th o Regarded as the 10 muse Writes about love with men and women Passes down writings to us ▯ Archaic Army Hoplites (KEY TERM) and Phalanx o lightly armed soldiers Phalanx o The formation that the Hoplites take o Rectangle shape group of men o Plan was to push back enemy together ▯ Polis (KNOW) City state Independent o Own laws o Customs o Political system o Military force o Currency calendar o Self efficient o Limited in size ▯ Agora Each polis has one Gathering place or market place Center of political and public life Large open area surrounded by buildings with various functions o Religious and military activity ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Reforms of Draco and Solon Extended economic crisis in 7 centuryh Draco elected tot deal with emergency o Draconian laws Written in blood not ink For any crime he said to kill the person o Council of 500 Wealthy men in Athens Deal with laws Aristocratic arm of the government Solon’s siesechtheia “shaking off of burdens” o Elected after Draco o Debt slavery If you borrow money and cant pay it back + interest you become that persons slave o citizen rights, balance of rich and poor o Empowerment of citizen o Up and left Didn’t want to be sole ruler of Athens o Beginning of democracy Things go remember o Draco and solon are law reformers in Athens o Comparative form of questions on exam ▯ Tyranny in Athens Not originally a negative term, like today o Takes power by force vs. inherited monarchy Or chosen by election o Pisistratus Ruled Atstns three times 1 comes with friends 2nd comes with friends and hoplites 3rd Panathenaea Massive festival in Athens Sacrifice 100 oxen Wants to come to power by force Builds Zeus at Olympian ▯ Cleisthenes (KEY TERM) Father of Athenian Democracy Demes o Bergs or subdivisions of Attica o Tied to a place not family Elected by lot Isonomia vs demokratia ▯ Ostracism Any citizen could be expelled from Athens for ten years Ostracon Assembly would ask in 6 monthsh 10 days to leave o killed if returned no charges against, no defense no one man was getting to powerful ▯ things to remember Athens is polis Tyranny with Draco and solon Cleisthenes instituted democracy ▯ Sparta ▯ ▯ Spartan Law Reform Lycurgus and the Great Rhetra o Spartan law reformer (ON TEST) Test question: who is Lycurgus Syssitia (common mess hall for men) Isokleros ( redistribution of land) Dual kingship Geruisa (council of elders) Apella Periokoi o Means living around the place o neighbors Helots (KEY TERM) WILL BE ON EXAM o Spartan slaves o Greece speaking o Prisoner of war Ephors Agoge o Girls, boys, babies o Baby is born All council of Sparta and ask if baby is going to be viable If viable baby boy, he is taking to agoge (school system) ▯ Pederasty (2/11) Because boy lives with his mentor, it becomes a lover relationship Expected in a point of a boys life They “grow out” of it Erastes (dominant partner) - eromenos (passive partner) ▯ Spartan Women Education Marriage Children Land o Obsessions by authors Athletics o Nude competition o “thigh-flasher” nutrition ▯ ▯ Helot Revolt Earthquake Helots and perioikoi establish position on Mt. Ithome Athenian intervention o Spartan fears Messenians to Naupactus ▯ Persian Wars Persian war one First Persian invasion of Greece o Under command of Darius o Led by Persian general Mardonius Decisive Greek victory o Greeks outnumbered o Use of hoplites and phalanx o Pheidippides Persians lose ▯ Second Persian Invasion Xerxes 1 Battle of Thermopylae Battle of Artemisia Battle of Salamis o Themistocles o Trireme Battle of Plataea Persians lose again Golden Age of Greece Dalian League o Athens and allies o Naval empire, basis for Athenian empire o Pericles Athenian statesman Democratized the judicial system Peloponnesian League o Sparta and allies (Corinth) Classical Philosophy Socrates o Father of western philosophy o Theories survive through Plato o Ethics o Socratic method Plato o Socrates’ pupil o Founded the academy (ON TEST) Like a University Aristotle o Plato’s pupil o Alexander the Great’s teacher o Founded the Lyceum His own academy Looking at animals Animals diet and reproductive system invented biology, zoology, marine bio ▯ ▯ Classical Greece (cont.) ▯ ▯ Peloponnesian War Fought by Sparta and Allies vs. Athens and Allies o Oligarchy vs. democracy Drastically changed Greece forever o Brutality of the war o Scope of the war o Civil war = Greece vulnerable to outside threat o Never regained pre war prestige Athens loses Things to remember o Sparta vs. Athens o Sparta was victorious ▯ Thucydides Main source of the war o Historian AND general o Participant and first hand source Father of “scientific” history o Evidence gathering o Cause and effect analysis Without divine intervention ▯ ▯ Hellenistic Greece ▯ Macedonia Greeks thought ‘barbarians’; Macedonians thought not Greek o Dialect of Greek o Difference in culture Polygamy (more than one wife) Unmixed wine Extravagant burials vs. cremation “miracle of history” that this backwater defeated what the Persians couldn’t ▯ Philip II of Macedon Development of sarissa o Phalanx Marriages o Olympias Battle of Chaeronea o Historians view Greece as losing independence Assassination ▯ Assassination Sources Aristotle o Pausanias had been offended by the followers of Attalus, the king’s father in law Diodorus o Pausanias and Philip were lovers, Philip took a new Pausanias Justin o Persians Plutarch o Role of Olympias and alexander Alexander the Great Tutored by Aristotle until 16 years old Undefeated in battle King of Macedonia Pharaoh of Egypt King of Persia King of Asia Cultural legacy ▯ ▯ Persian Empire ▯ ▯ Oracle of Ammon Oasis of Siwa got the answers he wanted Pharaoh of Egypt Son of Ammon o GOD HIMSELF ▯ ▯ Spread of Hellenism (will be asked on test) Greek language (koine Greek) Cultural exchange in both directions o Greeks moving into Asia, Asians moving into Greece o Great centers of learning Great centers of learning o Antioch, ▯ Need to know: spread of Greek culture, language ▯ ▯ Cosmopolitanism A citizen of the world No longer is national identity tied to a polis Results from travel, mercenaries trade The polis is no longer the center of the Greek social and cultural world ▯ Library at Alexandria “The place of the cure of the soul” grew to 500,000 – 1 million works development of catalogue system professional scholars o textual criticism ▯ Aristarchus of Samos Heliocentric model for the universe o Often rejected for Aristotle/ Ptolemy’s geocentric Celestial calculations o Size of sun o Size of earth o Size of moon o Distance between sun and earth, moon and earth ▯ Archimedes Invented a language for very large numbers Archimedes screw Archimedes claw Eureka ▯ Eratosthenes Calculated the circumference of the earth Distance between earth and sun Distance between earth and sun Degree of tilt of the earth’s axis Invented leap year ▯ Euclid “Father of geometry” elements o second most bought book behind the bible Used axioms to systematize math Arguably one of the most influential books ▯ Hellenistic Philosophy How to live a good life vs math and ethics As a result of influxes of populations and ideas Cultural centers of learning o Academy, lyceum, Stoa, Garden Led to ideas of o Determinism and the relationship with free will o Value of individual o One god, pantheism, henotheism ▯ Cynicism Taught in Cynosarges o “place of the with dog” offered freedom from suffering o by rejecting all conventional necessities o money, career, possessions ▯ ▯ ▯ Epicureanism Based on teachings of Epicurus o The garden Pleasure = highest good o Form of hedonism To attain pleasure, not solely absence of pain o Live modestly and to gain knowledge of the workings of the world and the limits of ones desires Neutrality of gods Opponent to stoicism Materialists Classical=community (exam) Hellenistic= individual (exam) ▯ ▯ Hellenistic women Cosmopolitan cities in Egypt, Asia and Macedonia =different values than mainland o Except Sparta Women have more freedom o Upper class women, anyways o Egyptian women involved in politics and owned land o Increased economic freedom ▯ Rise of Rome Macedonian empire broken into pieces o Distuny= threat from outsiders Battle of Corinth o Greek allies defeated by Romans o Salt the earth Greece becomes province of Rome o Achaea ▯ ▯ Romulus and Remus are the mythological founders of Rome ▯ ▯ Aeneas Grafted onto original Italian foundation myth o Virgil’s Aeneid Survivors of Troy ban together under Aeneas Series of adventures throughout Mediterranean Lands in Italy, war over king of latinus’ daughter o Fights war and wins, gains hand o Assimilates with local peoples The end of his line, Kings of Alba Longa o Rhea Silva and her twin sons ▯ Etruscans Most of their history is lost o Graves and tombs Influence on foundation of Rome o Hills (living on top of) o City dwelling, Urban Culture blended into Latin ▯ Kingdom of Rome Little is known about the kingdom o Sources written much later, legendary in nature First King = Romulus Each king established new religious, political, and economic traditions that persisted Successor kings were related somehow o Adopted sons, son-in-law, etc. o Regnum vs. imperium Lucius Tarquinius Superbus= last king of Rome o Rape of Lucretia by his son ▯ Creation of Republic Office of consul was created to replace kingship o 2 men, elected annually o advised by senate of 100 o no written constitution, unplanned o Much like the structure of the Kings Except there were 2 2 groups of people in Rome o Patricians= nobles, can hold office o Plebeians= merchant class, can vote, no office Through the system of government was still just as oppressive as kings! ▯ Twelve tables Core of the constitution of Roman Republic Legislation passed by assembly o Checks and balances with executive branch (senate) Finally accepted and written down Ivory tablets posted in the Roman Forum Originals lost when Gauls burnt Rome ▯ Legacy of Roman Law in Western Civ. Roman law= mandatory course for law students England and America use common law o Based on court cases, precedent, etc. o Still influenced by Roman Law o Written record o Reflected in terminology Habeas corpus (may you have the body) Mens rea (guilty mind) Ne bis idem (not twice in the same= double jeopardy) Actori incumbit probation (on the plaintiff rests the proving) ▯ Paterfamilias HEAD OF THE ROMAN HOUSE HOLD o Legal authority established by roman law Of life and death o Enforced adherence of his familia to twelve tables Wife, children, adopted, children, relatives, slaves And clients Patronage was a key component in Roman society ▯ // Mafia? ▯ ▯ ▯ Roman Religion Mos maiorum, “the way of the ancestors” o Very traditional, slow to change ▯ Augury Interpret will of the gods by the flight paths of birds Official office in Rome Priesthood Consulted for all important business ▯ Punic Wars Rome vs. Carthage o Both expanding empires, encroaching on territory Rome defeats Carthage in Punic War I o For control of Sicily Rome defeats Hannibal in Punic War II o Hannibal invades Italy o Crosses alps with his elephants o Gains control of Spain Rome defeats Carthage in Punic War III o Total destruction of the city o Rome gains supreme power in Mediterranean Gladiators “swordsmen” mostly slaves and underclass often despised sometimes women! Gained honor in death o Only if “died well” o No crying or showing fear ▯ Spartacus Thracian gladiator Escaped from gladiatorial school Capua o Armed with kitchen utensils o Banned together and led a large group of slaves o Celtics, Greeks, Italians, and others Several attempts from Roman army to quell o Several failures, embarrassing Finally, Crassus and pompey end it o Spartacus and 6000 followers crucified First triumvirate Contributed of decline of roman republic Made up of 3 men Caesar o Popular with people Crassus o Money Pompey o Military excellence and reputation ▯ Destruction of alliance Julia dies in childbirth Crassus dies in battle of carrhae o First battle between Rome Persia o One of the most brushing defeats in roman history Caesar campaigning in Gaul Beginning g of civil wars
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