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History 1200 February 8-10

by: Cassidy Hall

History 1200 February 8-10 1200

Marketplace > University of Missouri - Columbia > History > 1200 > History 1200 February 8 10
Cassidy Hall

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Notes from class on February 8 and 10
Survey of American History Since 1865
Steven Watts
Class Notes
History 1200
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Hall on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1200 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Steven Watts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History Since 1865 in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 02/29/16
The Crisis of Bourgeois Society: The Radical Specter February 8, 2016 I. Rural Discontent II. The Populist Moment III. Labor Discontent IV. Radicals and Unions Terms Share Cropping Homestead Strike The Grange Coxey’s Army National Farmers’ Alliance Knights of Labor The People’s Party Eugene S. Debs Tom Watson American Federation of Labor National Railroad Strike Samuel Gompers The Hay Market Riot The United States was in Full blown crisis There was a widespread sense that this Victorian culture was coming apart at the seams. A lot of these Victorian values seemed increasingly irrelevant Working class people, and farmers were challenging Victorian America by the 1880s. Victorians themselves were beginning to worry about their own values and commitments I. Rural Discontent The American farmer was the backbone of the American society They were able to vote independently for the candidates they thought were the best Post civil war that picture was changing dramatically One problem was the mechanized farmer 80’s-90’s you start to have power farm instruments  Used steam  Later started to use oil Farmers were able to farm more acres The more they produced, the more goods that flooded the market, the prices went down.  Over production Second problem was farm debt  The tractors are expensive and cost farmers a lot of money to buy them, and when you have this equipment you also need more land.  So you need to borrow more money to get more land. This puts the farmers in debt Sharecropping Farmers rent out their land to smaller farmers  This took place particularly in the south, and the Border States  They rent the land and sometimes equipment  And then the landowner gets a large percentage of the crops  Putting some farmers into debt 1880s-1890s All of the newness in American life is in the cities, was causing culture problems Farms and countryside are increasingly being seen on the outs In the late 1800s you see new words that people are using and you see the farmers are no longer seen as the backbone of American public Farmers themselves are struggling and are not happy with the situation They think they have enemies out there to get them  Farmers see the banks as enemies.  There is a lot of resentment towards banks  They also think that the railroads are enemies because the banks have control over them II. The Populist Moment Farmers being to act out to try and find some solutions for their problems The Grange movement Was an organization or a cluster of organizations that farmers rushed to join.  Had about a half million of farmers  1860s and then becomes more important 1870s A cooperative group for buying and selling goods One of them would cooperate by buying a huge amount of seeds to cut a deal  They would pool their crops to try and get a better deal Literature went out about this  An organization of working together, selling together, acting together, for mutual advancement National Framers Alliance  Was a very large part of this movement in the 1880s  They were cooperative  Pushed very hard for government regulations of the railroads, especially for railroad rate for crops  Pushed hard for a reduction of the tarif  Pressure for a federal income tax for businessmen and bankers The Peoples Party (Populous party) In 1892 the people’s party had their first national conference  “Wanted to raise less corn and more hell in American life”  Took all their ideas and gave them political expression Tom Watson played a large role in the people’s party  It was the first third party The populous party didn’t do that bad in the election, and they had someone run for president  Elected 3 governors  5 senators  About a dozen congressmen  Elected 1500 state legislators  Never won a majority anywhere  For the first time since the civil war they were able to unite farmers from all sections of the country  In a parallel way they were able to cross the racial divide  The populous also appealed to urban laborers to a certain degree  They made argument that factory workers were in the same boat III. Labor Discontent Were facing harsh working conditions  Were facing very low wages  Industrial workers are very unhappy Starting to see class conflict  Begin to see labor strikes  Industrial workers refuse to work and try to bring pressure to their employers  The national railroad strike 1877  Railroad workers were having their hourly wages cut, so as a result they turned violent in a number of ways o Often got into fights with the police, with higher people trying to protect their companies o Property destroyed o Spread to east coast all the way out to San Francisco Hay Market Riot of 1886 A Violent clash of labor strikers and police in Chicago  Hundreds of laborers were in Hay market square and the police were called  Bombs were detonated in the middle of the crowd  Seven people had been killed  Radicals in Chicago were accused of detonating these bombs and they were brought to trial, o Public opinion was split  4 of the men were hung, the other 4 went to jail for a long time Homestead strike of 1892  Included Andrew Carnegie  Biggest steel company in the country o Homestead steel mill  Wages were cut in Homestead, Pennsylvania o Workers went on strike  Andrew Carnegie didn’t want anything to do with this and went to Europe  Hired the Pinkertons to protect the factory o 300 agents went to the homestead mill  Guns were had on both sides 3-4 detective were killed  10 strikers were killed and dozens were hurt  The strike was then crushed and they all went back to work Coxey’s Army  Was a result of the depression of 1893  A lot of workers were fired and others had their cut wages  They walked to Washington D.C. from Ohio  Challenged to e government to do something about the labor conditions V. Radicals and Unions The best way to deal with their problems is to join the unions The Knights of Labor 1870s Was what was called a reform union  8-hour work day  Pushed for the abolition of child labor  Humanitarian relief programs for people who lost their jobs and were thrown out on the street You see more people becoming more radical Eugene S. Debs joins the socialist party and runs for president He granted reform but worker control in the economy A man who becomes very prominent pushed American Federation of Labor forward Samuel Gompers  He Rejects the socialist party all together  Focuses on concrete benefits for labor workers  Focuses on collective bargaining  Argues that more people they get under their umbrella the more people they can get to influence the powerful they will be They wanted:  Higher wages  Better conditions  Lower hours They started to overshadow other parties The rural American and industrial workers were seen as a salt on the system Late Victorian Culture: The Crisis of Gentility February 10, 2016 I. Social Sources II. Economic Sources III. Cultural Sources IV. The Disease of the Age Terms Scientific Racism Standard Time Henry Cabot Lodge Herbert Spencer “Race Suicide” Liberal Protestantism Theodore Roosevelt Neurasthenia Monopoly Capitalism George M. Beard Charles Schwab Crisis within Victorian culture They begin to question their own values Creates anxiety within Victorianism Sense of weakness and decay I. Social Sources Victorians have a growing sense among them that they will not have the will to resist these uprisings from below. Century magazine in 1883 it ran an editorial about labor, and its problems.  Creates an image that Victorians are becoming weak and complacent. “Sitting on top of a volcano that’s about to erupt” Immigrants from eastern and southern Europe largely populated the lower class.  Immigrants are the ones who are creating these uprisings  Racial/ ethnic fears reinforcing the class fears that Victorians were having Scientific Racism is a kind of intellectual endeavor that comes from a field of biology, certain biological theorist begin to argue Slovak and Latin groups should not be assimilated into the American society because they were biologically inferior. Henry Cabot Lodge was a Massachusetts senator that helped restrict the amount of Europeans that were able to enter the country. “Race Suicide” if you look at the birth rate what you see is a declining birth rate.  There were fewer and fewer families having kids.  If you look into the birth rates of Europeans, it was steadily rising.  Anglo-Saxon Victorians were urge to have more children Theodore Roosevelt in 1880s he was an up and coming New York politician.  Ends up being a politician and intellectual.  Wanted to fight birth control and have big families. II. Economic Sources Victorians started to become doubtful of themselves because they were nervous about the changing economics. Monopoly Capitalism  You see a shift from Competitive Capitalism to Monopoly Capitalism  Movement away from individuals competing in the market, and more big businesses competing in the marketplace  Corporate bureaucracies  Example: In 1901 Andrew Carnegie sold his company to a big corporate company called US Steel.  US Charles Schwab was the CEO of US Steel o He was a faceless corporate bureaucrat  A lot of businessmen are caught up in US Steel Increased demands for productivity Have to be productive; new kinds of pressures have been brought in for businessmen A wave of anxiety sweeps through mail business Reeling from new demands for productivity Standard Time was pushed in the late 19 century;  The railroad companies created it.  They used it in order to make their trains match up.  Establish the clock and times as a mechanism that the people had to match up to. Herbert Spencer was an Englishman who becomes a hero to American businessmen because of a series of books he had written.  They were typical Victorian books. Said that the businessman was the high point of history.  He goes on a tour and businessman flock to see him speak. He says the businessman were working to hard and they their lives have become to tense  Points to the rising rate of suicide among businessman  “ We have too much gospel of work, it is now time to preach the gospel of relaxation.” III. Cultural Sources Severe questioning of Victorian Values that have been dominate since 1830s Begin to question keeping emotions under tight reign The creed of self-control has been a straight jacket for men  Has helped eliminates the passion in life  Restrains them from moving forward in life  Creates brittle shelves of human beings.  Women who were only ornamental 1889 a woman wrote an editorial about the standard of the true women and created a woman who is heartless to laugh, morbid to hate, etc. th By the late 19 century Liberal Protestantism moved away from the evangelical traditions  You see a softer route of Protestantism  Hell may not exist  The devil may not exist  Must be a good person  Follow your conscience  Dressed up went to church to see and be seen  If hell is not real why are controlling our passions and our impulses so much 1890s there is a tidal wave of introspection among Victorians who are increasingly plagued by doubt and anxiety of their Victorian culture. They are questioning everything that they have held dear. V. The Disease of the Age George M. Beard was a neurologist in New York who began to notice in the 1880s reoccurring symptoms in his patients  They were unable to move  Complained that they couldn’t sleep, had fear of society, wanted to lead more stimulated lives, complained about a paralysis of will.  Writes American Nervousness Neurasthenia is what he diagnosis’s these symptoms. Was almost completely was among the Victorian people and in the urban areas. It was the result of urban life.  It simply overwhelmed some people Argued that Victorian repression was so tight that it had simply crushed some people’s sprits. Not much was known about it much statistically about Neurasthenia Regardless if it was real, they thought it was real It was a reflection of all the anxieties of the validity of Victorian culture and their standards.


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