Chapter 6 Notes - Week 6
Chapter 6 Notes - Week 6 Sped 482
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SPED 245 - C02
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morrissette32 on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Sped 482 at Clarion University of Pennsylvania taught by Mrs. Mohney in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Direct instruction in Mathematics in Special Education at Clarion University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Chapter 6 Notes Instructional Activities designed to teach basic facts: 1. Activities for understanding – concrete demonstrations of the operations 2. Activities for relating – exercises designed to teach the relationships among various facts. 3. Activities for mastery- designed to facilitate fact memorization. Two basic types of relationship activities: 1. exercises with number families based on a series (ex. 3x1, 3x2, 3x3…) 2. exercises demonstrating inverse relationships between addition and subtraction and between multiplication and division. (ex. 4+2=6, 2+4=6, 6-2=4, 6-4=2) Plus One Format Part A -> The teacher counts several numbers, holding the last number for several seconds. The students say the next number. Presenting several examples in which the teacher says a series of numbers & asks students the next number. The teacher presents examples in which she says just a single number, not a series of numbers and then students say the next number. Part B -> Should not be introduced until mastered next number skill. Teacher presents the plus one rule, models several examples, and then tests. As a prompt, the teacher emphasizes the first addend, stretching it out for several seconds, and de-emphasizing the words plus one. Part C -> The teacher presents the plus one facts without any prompting. The teacher should initially pause 2-3 seconds before signaling for a response, so that students have time to figure out the answer. Series Saying Format Part A -> Students read the consecutively ordered statements Part B-> Teacher erases the answers and the students read the statements. Part C-> the teacher erases everything and requires the student to say the series from memory. Part D-> A drill on randomly presented facts, Commutative property is extremely important in that it greatly reduces the number of facts students need to memorize. Three Number Fact Family (Addition and Multiplication) Part A -> Students are taught how to construct a pair of addition statements from a set of three numbers. Part B-> the students are orally tested on the new “reversed” facts. Part C -> A worksheet exercise in which the students are given a diagram. They are asked to fill in the sum and generate two addition statements. Guidelines in establishing the fact sequences 1. Easier facts were introduced first. 2. Related facts were introduced together. 3. The reverse of specific series of facts was taught relatively soon after the initial series was presented. Introducing related subtraction or division facts for a particular set while working with lower performers, a month or more after the original addition or multiplication set had been introduced is recommended. Intermediate Grade Students who have not mastered any basic facts is recommended to do multiplication and division facts before addition and subtraction. Multiplication must be introduced no later than third grade. Six Components of Basic Fact memorization program 1. A specific performance criterion for introducing new facts. 2. Intensive practice on newly introduced facts. 3. Systematic practice on previously introduced facts. 4. Adequate allotted time. 5. A record-keeping system. 6. A motivation system. Mastery level is the ability of students to respond immediately to the fact question. How a teacher would establish a mastery criterion for written fact exercises depends on the student’s motor coordination. The criterion should be set at a rate that is about two-thirds of the rate at which the student can write digits. A student’s writing ability can easily be determined by giving a 1 minute timed test. Peer Tutoring Teachers should pair students who are working near the same level. Each student has one booklet with answers and one booklet without answers. The student with the answer sheet acts as a tutor, while the other student acts as the pupil. The teacher has each student practice the top half of the worksheet twice. Each practice session is timed. The teacher says, “Get ready go” and starts a stopwatch the student practices by saying complete statements instead of just answers. If the student makes an error, the tutor corrects by saying the correct statement and having the student repeat the statement. The teacher allows a minute and a half when practicing the top part and a minute when practicing the bottom. The teacher maintains motivation level for lower performing students with incentive programs. As a general guideline, the facts that parents work on at home with students should be one which review the 15 previously introduced facts before introducing a new set.
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