Week One Notes
Popular in General Chemistry I
Popular in Chemistry
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alessandra Piccone on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 2070 at Cornell University taught by Crane, B; Wolczanski, P in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at Cornell University.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
21212 Element any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances 120 chemical elements Compound a substance that can be broken down into two or more elements Metals 34 of elements 0 luster malleable rolled amp hammered into sheets ductile rolled into wires cast into various shapes and good conductors of electricity and heat Chemical symbol abbreviations used to designate the elements Diatomic Gasses H O F Cl Br I N Molecule a unit consisting of two atoms that are joined together diatomic molecule a molecule consisting of two or more atoms joined together 0 2 states of matter 0 solid characterized as having a fixed volume and a fixed shape because the particles that make up a solid are rigid well defined lattice 0 liquid definite volume but no specific shape 0 gas volume is that of its container and no definite shape 3 Mixtures component substances exist together without combining chemically heterogeneous it is not uniform from point to point 0 clearly seen with microscope 0 easy separation magnet tweezers etc o dissolution homogeneous uniform from point to point 0 Solute the solid that is dissolved o Solvent the liquid in which the solute is dissolved o Aqueous Solution the solvent is water Filtration Evaporating liquid to gas distillation one boils away condensation a gas returns to liquid state volatile easily vaporized Fractional distillation the separation of a solution with two or more volatile components 4 Law of Constant Composition the relative amount of each element in a particular compound is always the same regardless of the source of the compound or how the compound was prepared Mass Percentage know how to calculate Law of multiple proportions when a given element combines with another element to form two different compounds then one element combines in such a way that for a fixed mass the ratio of masses of the other element in the two compounds consists of small whole numbers 25 Dalton s Atomic Theory Explains the Law of Constant Composition atomic theory proposed by John Dalton 1803 o Matter is Composed of small indivisible particles called atoms 0 The atoms of a given element all have the same ass and are identical in all respects including chemical behavior 0 The atoms of different elements differ in mass and in chemical behavior 0 Chemical compounds are composed of two or more atoms of different elements joined together is called a molecule 0 In a chemical reaction the atoms involved are rearranged separated or recombined to form new substances No atoms are created or destroyed and the atoms themselves are not changed Law of Conservation of Mass Relative atomic masses Atomic mass ratio atomic mass is the ratio of the mass of a given atom to the mass of some particular reference atom Atomic Mass Unit amu 26 Molecules Are Groups of Atoms Joined Together 27 Compounds Are Named by an Orderly System of Chemical Nomenclature chemical nomenclature the system for the assignment of names to compounds binary compounds consist of two elements 0 first element second element ide 0 chemical formula 0 prefixes mono 2 di 3tri 4 tetra 5penta 6hexa 7hepta 8octa 9nona 10deca water H20 l Ammonia NH3 g methane CH4 g 28 Molecular Mass Is the Sum o the Atomic Masses of the Atoms in a Molecule molecular mass the sum of the atomic masses in a molecule 29 Most of the Mass of an atom is Concentrated in Its Nucleus subatomic particles compose an atom JJ Thomson 1897 o Cathode Ray glowing discharge deflected rays with electric and magnetic fields and showed that they were identical negatively charged particles electrons negatively charged particles mass9 09x1 031 kg or 602x l 019 C Cathode Ray Tube CRT discharge tube was used in tv s Radioactivity discovered by AntoineHenri Becquerel o the process by which certain atoms spontaneously break apa 0 Marie amp Pierre Curie 0 Ernest Rutherford radioactive consist of three types alpha particles beta particles and gamma rays plum pudding model nuclear model of the atom foil experiment nucleus very small volume at the center of an atom protons positively charged subatomic particles in the nucleus 210 Atoms Consist of Protons Neutrons and Electrons neutron 1920s1932 similar mass to proton but no charge atomic number denoted by Z number of protons neutral atom number of electrons is equal to the number of protons mass number denoted by A total number of protons and neutrons in the atom 211 Most Elements Occur in Nature as Mixtures of Isotopes isotopes atoms of one element that contain the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons deuterium heavier isotope Heavy hydrogen denoted D Heavy Water water made from deuterium D20 Natural Abundance the naturally occurring percentages of the isotopes of particular element Mass spectrometer an instrument with which the mass percentage of each isotope of an element can be determined ion an atom or molecule that gains or looses one or more electrons and becomes charged weighted average sum of the masses of each isotope each multiplied by its natural abundance 212 lons Are Charged Particles cations positively charged ions anions negatively charged ions isoelectric species that contain the same number of electrons 3137 The Periodic Table and Chemical Periodicity New Substances Are Formed in chemical reactions 0 products the substances formed in the reaction right 0 reactants the substances that react with each other left 0 chemical equation the representation on a chemical reaction by the chemical formulas of the products and reactants Chemical Equations must be balanced o balanced chemical equation both sides contain the same number of each kind of atom 0 individual atoms of various types are neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction 0 balancing coefficients appropriate numbers in front of chemical formulas o balancing by inspection adjust coefficients of chemical formulas on each side of the arrow such that every element involved is exactly the same See page 82 for instructions Elements Can be grouped according to their chemical properties 0 alkaline corrosive aqueous solutions that feel slippery and react with metals alkali metals gt group 1 o alkalineearth metals gt group 2 compounds often occur in in alkaline soil deposits 0 halogens exist in diatomic molecules very reactive react with most metals and non metals 0 halides white crystallike ionic solids formed when halogens react with the alkali metals fluoride chloride bromide iodide The Elements show a periodic pattern when listed in order of increasing atomic number 0 periods rows 0 periodic arrangement of elements is done by atomic mass and Mendeleev s realization that apparent gaps o periodicity arrangement 0 periodic table of elements Elements Assigned to the same column in the periodic table have similar chemical properties O O 0 group aka family column group 1 metals group 2 metals main group elements 1318 noble gases 18 inert gases lack chemical activity lanthanides series elements 5771 actinide series 89103 Elements are arranged as main group elects transition metals and inner transition metals semimetals metalloids are brittle semi lustrous solids elements on the zigzag line between transition metals and non metals semiconductors can conduct electricity and heat but not as well as metals do transition metals ten elements in each row of groups 312 increasing metallic going left and down most metallic in bottom left corner most nonmetallic in in right top corner see table on page 95 also see class notes inner transition metals the elements in the lanthanide series and the actinide series rareearth elements the lanthanides Periodic Trends Contain Some lrregularities organic compounds compounds containing carbon carbon atoms bonded together form the backbones of innumerable extremely complex molecules that involve thousands of atoms diagonal relationships similarities occur due to relative locations of these pairs of elements in the periodic table ex groups 1 lithiummagnesium berylliumaluminum and boronsilicon hydrogen does not fit nicely into any group Summary metals appear mostly on the left side and nonmetals appear mostly on the right side and semimetals boarder in between 7Aimw 2m i am A Mamie Smeme A g M0 A H L a ANS u MME R25wa Ban aCCWOSJVOd C Form A m mm W3 quot3 0 334quot U800 v A oAACGnsAXQeer WM myhm omm rgg 6 10 qlt0 10gt MOHEV 3 CommSC be ndv famltMs g roms A qlq U V I AL rom3 0 we same demcm39 nov Wwe Same mass A 94 A AAAF A raz X atoulomm Lam AA quot 39 39 v H 7 W some VWWCS A A A A A Acgmggg ds amwudz RasmAdtGRN CM odbms oomcd 2ch Eq E n c n P 5 lt0 aha ch 39 A H ms Amoxceme A p gt O rCQwSm u A maCMCmS WCgtwa mavmncgcmw 6G J 39 2 w A amAm 0 W KACCLBVQAA A WWW A A A A A A A A A inng HomA AA I sDQULQQ wALereAAA vowed 4 Pugow W A quota quot um myeAA nal ts A A A A WAniolncAL0U0iquot V V K39Wcu lt w quot quota i i 39 L Oarqhu A A A A AA A AA A a A A A A A 1 AA A A A AJAnon xdpA A A conserOhm 39 AV I 1 AV n 4A f5 39 AA A quot AA quot A Ayggggg g quot f A A Moon Mam Ace AAeAAw AQAAA 9 5 251 A foxes AAgtxIAgtaom i 59 A T fluWane 3 i480 W VMh m nuazus law pmmlms 0 Poath L9 7 m modem lama 0 WP EXDCHTWEWC Mi dkO S WEIHWCM Jewam Maid Ce omsa de 54 no A mm G9 7 a quot y 33 1 ilcc rvoy ra c Force m gram393 h omw fwn lomcmced 080mmng S e l l Smogab q 3 he A opure summww wmmsed 3 mom w 7 f X Some nucxear inmost WW 1 t I m lt Xsymbo A mass number E a Name mumm Wn lomsms E have c chmc Om C 3 0 283 Klan9G L quot Iampem 65quot x m Kay W Mummum up Mn V35 a1 N 97 lt 3 N m honMons plum puddln mow 4 Cquot m mposihv mq l WM mass huhmar wech massund m mauve WW abundance 39 m excm 450m 65 have cw Mass j msgg gfm Whoa zuaadkmpii pw o 63 9mm z a ww vw w w V PaY OBS wen nqh hmoo5b quot mgomw Somc mm CH dfd and wrgxe re Moms Md Conceanrcd 39 cm dyposmw cmeh r ham same 1 0e hut m Jrhc same A Male 1 w 1Ammnew m lt a A L3 Ms 0mm Unions Periodic Tmb m Sco ans QGLUS pEViacB mn035 mm n qYDMp mamm 2 g 33948 H117 mA mp Tmmi uh mamas 242 L bo rom KRQN M nowMW N0 2 961565 R mug g L b h Enoh PEIUH ram1 L mac15 WMK 610056 amp 9cm 6 m 4 0 C 6 Ni W39E ml w mew 6 3 himlL Cowu bkJ1 0 gt00 c conducfw bvi39me low M WW quotml 63 hammqh V p4 I r meawu y H POW A QWIO S 6301175 0 um um k0 quotmnev vamsHon metals Lammonldes A Ac m fc w kH Wms kmgkA el hgmcKV 4 ClOkdh OW mc01s o r QOLSHq demvmcdf no maMcxbR ammo er quot 8 Mass oxides bmclvidar are vgmme 25 WW meq Rm IQVB Warch awnx3 osi v a char 2 an 6x K r ugh 39 Homes R 0mm Mgahwe b C90 0 quot 39 6 SCWgt OH 3 030me gummy cm gum m of W mbtc C30 S LO WHO LMCWC Yon 5613655 gabw xW rmern by 39 lw r q5 p H N L3 0 Cw o s 7 m ltf wilt1 mum Reuc ons LO waxW 59 MM OMIO39 S39 4 we 05 Lom umhm yd itkw m nus 056 gt6 w kdr0xiampe Trends 09 Reac viw L Q Navy Mc i f 1 3307 Q quotOJ 639 H10 4 w 4 OH CW9 I kw Whom Amml s MEWS WM 253 quotEiwii c w 1 W 1 Group Emm z camms Maw 8am ms 9 m t 31 Ham l M Glyon 15 m4 3 Wham WW yao C1va H quot Haxoqem wall Halogen ID H10 Gm f quot 2 WW quot620 Gimmick Mich M96 r Cum MQCAIEL s 30 CHOW 15 3 C01 J mga 02 top quot9 W50 339 rams x my 1 mu m gt Mg 5 L5 W cthns Uzcg A LVM CH5 Cong 3410 r9 adv711 4 Hgo JI I 3 Z Cm 39w quot3 QKBHS NonmEWS w nth mmcm amp oxqqms PL gtXqu 9 Pqua S ricer PLO If 39thcilflj V 3 Ml W 637quot law 9 02W 9 0219210 5 P052332 9549 wolg A5 O Qs PU J 3quot C39NfSZC tv 1 0le 4 02ch 9 MCAlOL oau um parczsde j 39 O 39 pcindE cm W ZNa S gtM g 9 9 23 Sd Haw 976N033 S erow m dlc omic Favm H k 0 Wm SwF gl mpem fs Mom mews 39 V Ha 9 6 Nindi mm MmeW5 H j 39 39 39 h m quc39m m wq39bm mm ml wovmmms W LH KBCHL LB 9 A 0 x 739 h 9 439 Oacq 9 QHAOQQ A QQQQQQQQQQQQQanmmnggA my an W V F Chem 1007 Notes Discoveries and Experiments lead to out understanding of atoms do not need to know names and dates 0 law of conservation of mass matter is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary chemical reactions Lavoisier 1780 s EX 2Mg s 02 g gt2MgO s mass stayed the same 0 law of constant composition In a pure compound the elements are always present in the same definite proportions Proust 1790s ratio of Mg and 02 will always be the same in the run above for water gt mass H mass 0 18 start with 10g of Oxygen and react with excess hydrogen gas how much water will you produce g 1000g O 1gH8gO125 g H so 101251125g water 0 Daltons atomic theory All matter is composed of atoms 1 matter is composed of tiny particles atoms 2 all atoms of given elements are identical in mass and behavior 3 atoms of a different elements are different in mass and behavior 4 chemical compounds are different elements composed of 2 or more atoms joined together molecules 5 in chemical reactions atoms are rearranged but not created destroyed or changed 0 JJ Thomson used cathode ray tubes to study electrons 1890s larger mass less deflection more negative charge more deflection attraction to positive plate found mass charge ratio perpendicular forces electron to magnetic field to electric field could just them so they cancel 0 Millikan s Oil Drop Experiment 1909 used to find the charge of electron small droplets into a hole with gravity forcing the drop down with a negative charge on the bottom and a positive charge on the top also an xray force could adjust electric field until the force going up force of gravity to keep drop suspended in the middle of the two charged plates q charge on the drop n whole number integer e charge of the electron charge of electron 16022 x 10 A19 C o Rutherford s gold foil experiment found positive charged nucleus plum pudding model positive atom has electrons floating around alpha particles positive He2 sent through the atom Atoms and Subatomic Particles o Proton p 1 10 u 1673x10A24 g in nucleus 0 electron o neutron 0 chemical symbols mass number A number of protons number of neutrons top left corner Atomic number Z number of protons bottom left corner Charge number of protonselections top right corner ex 56 mass Fe 2 protons 26 neutrons 30 electrons 24 ex 127 iodine protons 53 neutrons74 electrons 54 o isotopes have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons and therefore different mass average atomic mass abundance isotope l x mass of isotope 1 abundance isotope 2 x mass of isotope 2 see power point for sample problems Periodic Table 0 suggested by Dmitri Mendeleev 1869 0 Rows called periods 0 Columns called groups or families have similar properties 0 elements in the same column have similar properties 0 Major groups and families to know metals nonmetals semimetalsmetalloids fig 315 main group transition metals inner transition metals 320 Alkali metals alkaline earth metals halogens noble gases see PowerPoint for map of major groups more metallic want to make cations left and down less metallic want to make anions right and up alkali metals in water video YouTube brainiac alkali metal video Chemical reactions a process where one set of substances reactants is converted to a different set of substances products change coefficients to balance reaction Method 1 if an element occurs only one compound on each side try balancing that element first 2 in an element occurs on one side as a free element balance that last 3 leave polyatomic ions together if possible and balance them as a subun 4 check to make sure each element is balanced
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