Current Issues Environ
Current Issues Environ ESP 010
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PM 5m ff M 7739 go 3 A w C ZfltMun vVIJIZ m mapH 15 m 6 M4 I 1 Ing 1E 0 M 3 4 b W77 5017 ONE MORE NOTE REGARDING FINAL The period is 68 PM The exam will not likely take anyone more than an hour At the second Mid term there were some latecomers NO ONE WILL BE ALLOWED TO START THE EXAM AFTER 645 mug mum v lnjur oil will ulf sumh Kurt1 Current Issue I n t e Environment l g MESOPOTAMM The Role of Wood l in the Development 7 of Civilization l John Perlm Environmental protection has a good pay offratio Blimalas of In YODI Annual Bene t and Cons o39 Milo Federal Rules Caliber 1 1992 In September 30 ZDOZ lmilllnns 039 Mel dollars LLL39qu ll whh K mh Mum C Lulw 1 gt LM m 14 ltll h ihquot 04quot u I i ile u hlll I m n 41 M 403 Ilwlllv N Humm rmm 0le m 39U am In Hmmng x mm 4 in M u Ilnrlupml m l nu I Il I HIH AHHH mm n 418 i ionnu nrr purines apt mle n in um llleY mlliu nnl my vhmvmh re mm on it till a unit tr min er torrnlr on an W ac generation has at least e environmental battle that takes center stage enumaunma metronome a Yam 1 2 gar Mnur Appmrnes tn What can you do Four Suggestions 1 Understand tine Issues Every a better environment but we v as commence annoy a onment needs to be more Widespre anding the Emmy ufthe pro 392 atary amewmktu deal wrtn th dualmeys to e er advanzzy fbram Under t one wants to live in 39 the costs a e we are willing to bear Better understanding uftlne cam ufnut acting on behalf uftne enmr ad blem and the e problem are the lnnrm Four Suggestions umemisru Unregulated eeonomie markets e enmmnmental problems nur does radieal back to naturequot enmmnmentalism e Demamzingthz sppssusn may be fun butitnrely works Bevau39snt Demueraue guvemments work sluwly by esign Be wary of ean not sulv e armaments sslmms are seen eremanngy sswtsoe X mplenened e in Us is anumnae esnsnentnts armaments manger mwtnmzsyeassgs e We mtrmgaparodwm mortngn mrmppmm m murmur stun intt39vi39mlbemwor Tniswl be s mdpnmuf m Four Suggestions Embrace unoertainty Environmental problems are inherently complex Complexity an uneertainty ean not be allowed to be barriers to action 7 lndeeision beeause ufsclenu cuncertainty is a deeismn Understand the uneertainty and treat it as a ene urnsk analysisproblem messenger the science and the seientist ey appointedto protest aresoureenas beeometlnenor Recugmzethatthlslsacheap mek ufthe eynieal andjaded some bug Con ete V7 Ihelrown Illes I usually Comes down to shopping and taking ou the rash Volunteer 7 Environmental organizations depend on volunteers Make your voice heard Understand that humans are a social species Donate to organizations that support your concerns The Nature Conservancy Mung llue er Emil mm euvmonueunt De ense nding m ray um work Intmm uv e ENVIRDMIIENTAI DEFENSE lindmu m mys Mm work Nature Conservancy 5mm nu LN cm Mm The organizations 0 Law driven organizations quot321332 7 Environmental Defense Fund EDF 7 Working to implement legislative change in the Way we manage natural resources 0 Environmental lobbying organizations 7 Natural Resources Defense Council NRDC mantle lb Exa mAL mar Aves Dvotezted m the u s nauuun Land Protection Organizations The 7 The Nature Conservancy Nan 7 World Wildlife Fund COUSEWHHQ N WWF szng lel Lw thmlrmm 7 Conservation International I 7 County Land Truss an EDS mg mg SEI S u m2 Lszn 2555 7ma an numbers m mm The LAND TRUST of NAPA COUNTY 7 Sierra Club 7 Audubon Society H 0 Environmental Activism groups quotif c 7 Ealth First 7 Greenpeace t ef ax ngzt mmmln nu awn Become active in your local government 7 Voting is a voice but is a small one 7 Calling writing or showing up at local government meetings vastly increases your impact a cm or SAN DIEGOquot Cf39v D zjfiffji nm m t v m a a cum rug m Gan Rnth Exercise your right to be active here Develop skills ou si e classroom tudent organizations W orking with graduate students and faculty internships at UC Davis Bingupny Grew up in Fresnn BS in envirnnmental planning mini UC Davis Ms rinni MIT Walked fur Envirnnm tal Defense c an recycling during an late 90 Hewnrked with lVIchnalrls tn phase inn clamshell San dwich hnxes in s Not all the environmental news is bad Much ofit is very encouraging Get Started M 1yunmur39sntlwn39 sle ilsFm39inmmf nl Juua r lnuxmm lmnlN mlnlM and him WIN also in hllnn I But individual countries can try to help n r ls L awmaker to Halt Illegally Harvested Timber by Kathleen Schach int llhrlllr E7 l l stallel utll hdress halds lts rst hearlhd ah legislation alhed at shutting daWh the u 5 market for Wood that ls harvested llledallv abroad runs a lt came lhta the News U s allv But sametlmes lt takes al Palm5 a eaelety not What ls llledallv harvested Wood r umber deteetlve ta gure Business 39 39 z e ESP m cvrrslll lam ll rlt Ellllrullmem F llzual39 IIJZSwm I Nextweek rharlhe resuurces Wlll h e nunsbu k readlhg ALLdu ll ll l llllldrl llll lvwl be ested by Wed next Week test an the fulluwlng Mundav THREE flies The first lS frurn bunk answers are lrl that rlle October 17 2007 l Term papers grading guidelines u Sources a literature cited is not required but there 5 o e some evidence that you looked outside of lecture notes andt e book According to a recent article in the 39 39 ints uGr 0 ts orl ti 0 nt View issues 10 point balanced 15 points cover he Chapter 6 Environmental Conservation Wednesday Friday l Urban Ecosystems 2 Natural Ecosystems Forest Land Uses tropical deforestation Rangeland Wetlands Parks and Protected Areas 4 Wilderness wildlife reserves versus biotic representation la Debt for Nature Swaps Urban1zat1on uma populations are growing and rural populations are 39 kin quot39especiallyin the evelop ng ltd umm twinned roumvlesl 1 Jr Urbanization 0 Emma m um Rm nal army mam4 may 1w cmcago grew the late 7939quot and ear 20M Frederick Law Olmstead I Invented landscape architecture Designed many of our classic parks Centra Park NYC ack Bay Boston Stanford Yosermte US Capwta unnnnn cu Estabhshed m eanvzu mw and navv We newpvmemam Mme yesnummg m m anagem em Ywn Dunry mm mm mm u n Prnv Inglwnhlesrucesm Ind Imund our um uwlmnmuns 2b Prmmingvlunhlennunl sums nlunl legumes Indtuncllnnlngecnfy um set 450 mm Mu wuatmsmm mm Urbaruzatlon Tuday EltlES llke F39huerllx and Las ye as are gruvvlrlg asrast as cnlcagu more am They are spreadlrlg acruss the andscape s s nuwn bythese satelllte pnums urLasVegas gunreissue Redrwllawillghtgreen hlgmalawrlskmdevelapnlenl a I M a museums I era panama The Changing l x Imps rnese Peaple need Pains am as we pullalnese Peaple lenam bulld thew ale Parks n the tuml atlargeyards Growth VS sptaw I Economists politicians and city boosters traditionally encouraged growth assuming it was economically goo I Growth has become synonymous with sprawl Americans rethinking the bene ts of growth I Note the positive connotation of rowt quotand the negative connotation of sprawl 19 h 20 h century legacy I The Great Society a leeable spaces Wltn parks and open space a Open space generally rorthe publlc good I East Bay Parks Presidio Golden Gate Park Mt Tametc Reducmg the tax burden of provldmg pubhc goods I Privatizing open space protection a Trust for Publlc Land I Shilt in emphasis a Natural Resource Protectlorl n m o 8 E 8 3 1 a E ce 1 Buffers between urban and rural landscape 1 Protectlrlg crltlcal land uses agrlculture A brief foray into types of goods brief foray into types of goods hc young United States a Forests Were Westward I Timber harvesting propelled the growth ofthe quotpublic and private goods quotpub e goods A common Pdvate p001 goods 3 resources s D n Public Club xv goods goods Lu Excludability o W Excludability I Deforestation Deforestation I Over 3 centuries Americans denuded most of their forests green Ve n tne green areas manned above Very few targe Virgm trees remained nearly an forest is second growtn Measuring forest cover A 2007 internationalstudy used 63 with satellite data to not togetner an a te inventory and map ofthe wortd39s forest cover 20 orEartn39s sonaoe remains covered by closed forest 88 ofthts ts sparsey inhabited by people 80 is concentrated intust 75 nations Forests and deforestation Demand for wood products and for open land for agriculture has led to deforestation the clearing and loss of forests throughout the worl A rice and Latin Forests are startrng to grow back in North memos and Europe atter ntunes o lorestatton Ce de Growth and removal of timber USA I Forests are growing back faster than they are being cut on all types of land except timber company land and v 913 n u MOM H390 ii row11ml was 95 u m may W mm mm mm mm mm The mum seaboard39 dedinins usrimllure inueasins form age all recs 5 fooiprinl r w u Federal lands I US federal agencies own a large amount of land in the western US allowing resource extraction on most of it Vational orests reen Logging Private and public Mu m I Logging i m Prwm has risen E m on private 5 m land anal g M m has fallen g N on public E land since 986 i952 mm mm was 19 Veal Figurels 13 Methods of logging H Design of protected areas I How parks and reserves are designed has consequences in Cadiz T owmhip Wisconsin I 83171 95 0 gum m 1 mm ENVIRONMENTAL NEWS NETWORK M om anncll on cl m nle lmd WWWme mwnrmm m n Agricultural land use 71m more about m m 2 weeks I Agrlculture HEW Euvers murE Elf Earth s Surface than furests I 38 Elf planet s land Surface agrlculture 26 pasturerangeland 12 ruplan Inlenslve monocurures heavy lmpacl on me and Agriculture and wetlands I Most of North America s wetlands have been drained lled and converted for agricultural use Morrowlure armand encroaches on prams pothole wetands In North Dams mriem and sediment Plumefromthe mouth of theMixxixSiDDi Missi Iiplri River all m39 Rangelands Livestock grazing in Done badly it can ruin soils cause erosion and desertification u Done responsibly it can sustain grassla wildlife use nds allow Rangelands Most ranching takes place on federal land managed by the Bureau of Land Mana ement BLM purple in map Grazing fees are extremely chea mm 151n mm m a cm m w 51mm Five great things to do this week Study for midterm exams Study for midterm exams Study for midterm exams Study for midterm exams Eat the rest of that chocolate wawwe n i 3 I l I mm was 195a ms mm mm ms mm was we mm 19 Bring 1 ofthese Friday D Mm mm m whim Chapters 7 9 10 12 16 1 Southwestern Paci c Australia vmnm mum a mum w m A a kam V These I pSqm mum mmwses numbers In mier mm are suspe t mnmm manna mama Ammuth mm a quotWWW vasn mm was mm min mm mm um my man Him w MMquot WWW I mm mm I an v 4 Insum m um A m a n Nn nml Smrdndx uh nuterme m mm me w W x mwmmnagmmumummmmmmmm magnummummth A nnmhmmmmmm w um mm hun M M muzle Nahum mm mum lumw n mymmq ulmmunum mBmumrmmmkm m tmmmmn 3 NLmvunbyrmuxmmbyrm In mmnmnm m US Exclusive Ecunumiczune 3 r Z miles uffshure 19767M231usunrstevens Act Emil Amixed blessing my DEW Nx mnt Fishing Most methods are very eneral and catch stu not m 4 v 39 intended for harvest Some types of shing are mquot r physically harmful to the i environment as Well scraping the ocean oor oforganisms bottom trawling BYCATCH Stuffthat sherman catch but don t Want Excessive bycatch prompted Floridato adopt mandatory Turtle Excluder Devices TEDs so as to release sea turtles 7 Loss ofef ciency for shing industry hnmp 7 Highest bycatch rates and habitat destruction rates nksx Grubddbaadxanmumnmel In Amm muu P a a I Ilmul mumssz Clu ununafrwmw WWW mg 3 m 3 ma wFAutme mm Nmmn mmummm Mums Is In 1a scum up mum walnut dl w nk mmm 225 0 N W t cmquot in mm W x l 5 ts m m rm Ilmr luvWt derar Fm huusebulds share a cummun area that suppms can sustam inde nitely A B A zu cuws Each huusehuld has 5 Laws B Huusehulds cununue m add mure cuws mm Lhebene t gamed by them A mdwxdually 15 equal m the custm B The swam wanmally cullapns Sum reduced ufcuws uvepexplmum 7 4 aw W WWW 1 WWW Haw l Viewpomts m m lm m u Quuta39s Q 9 m Mm m The Economists Take 0 In the case of natural resources it is human nature to overexploit resources w en39 a The GAIN is to tlle individual harvesting the resource a The 0081 of providing the resource is borne by the whole of society not the individual are cheaper than comparable private goods Option 1 Resource Economics inheeostorharyesun th P sh does notinelude gowing 99 the shthenthepnceufthe ishontherrarketis amhoallylowalp This results in quantities supplied Qp relative to an equilibrium amount Q5 The solution intrase the pn ee p lnthts use dshermanlieense fees Fmblem Has not limited take to sustainable levels Quathi ty Q Government Intervention 1 Increase COSTS of open access goods through license fees Reduce harvest to sustainable levels through license fees for resource extraction increasing the cost of harvest so that it equilibrates with demand at a sustainable level Where does this work sp orta shing hunting Not commercial lishing It also does not oiten incorporate option value or society t Option value the value societ places on NOT Government Intervention 2 RESTRICT ACCESS to open access goods through licensing Reduce harvest to sustainable levels by restricting access to resources limiting the numb er or b oats lishing Example the number oftaxl cabs in NYC is limited making it possible for individual cab drivers to make a living cabs go 247 Uniortunately frequently does not work Fishermen can work more time or more eilicientiy to increase harvest eiiort Drives technological improvements to increase elliciency oi catch Government Intervention 3 PRIVATIZE open access goods so that owners are vested in longterm stability Privatizing resources has the effect of the owner bears the cost or overaexploitation in reduced longaterm or resale value Example Loggng company ownership uffurests Problem owners aren t always interested in conservation and may lind it linancially prelerable to overaharvest discounting Privatizing option 2 give ownership to a cooperative and not to an individual Example Alaska gounddsh The problem with privatizing Discountlng the future Imagine afishennan who owns access to aresource This sherman has 2 options 7 A Fish them all out this year and earn SHIELDED e B Fish in moderation and make 1EIEIEIEI yearin perpetuity enent Add uncertainty to harvest and it is o en better to choose A Thus privatized resources are often overexploited by ohozoo Th1 nght be ne ifit really is aprzvate gnud butnut so much when it is a suczetal guud News 5w notwim ewlowlnniny Dclla si lH millli with ieeietitiiiui itteiiti ii than if H39 itatici iivk iieNuirlwiitliilci BaumKlan tee t it A1 dawn HEW mumJauwg Kile jam nliLDLiFE n Fmblems with Setting limits either thmughlnereasmg eusts urlleensln SUSTAINED MAXIMUM YIELD SMy Fisheries management 2 Harvest a constant proportion llr Overrexplumng resuurce gruwth lt harvest phasis has often focused on using science to set sustained yield targets Papulanun GmWLh e Monitoring ofpopulauon my D e Set quotas of take Harvest Rate Limit beats lirnit catches per beat But there has been an alarming failure rate as sheries continue to close or collapse WHY7 Pupulauun size Settmgthe Alluwable catchquot Marine Sanctuaries Maximum Yield Management An alternative approach to restricted access Best efforts to manage fisheries using population biology fail because 39 Marine Management Areas 1 Nature is difficult tc assess ltis difficult tc accurately gijxgzmm m mfs predictpupulatlun gmwlh eluts ufenur Mame Smcmmes g 5 a e 2 e e El 5 e IntegatszamgzmzntArus Marine Biosphere Reserves ressure tc m age class tc theMSYhgherharvest The cluser yciu get the higherthe nsk cfrnciyingintc the unstable zune wherepcipulaticins spiral tc callapse 57 in 5 E at S Agzrdy T 1997 Mm peateateaixieaa mi obeanceeeemaen EILV Case Study Philippine Coral Reef Sanctuaries Apo and Sumilon marine reserves were established in the mid 197075 Community support has been strong and consistent at Apo 7 Community based management Community support has uctuated and enforcement variable at Sumilon Russ and Aleala 1999 Coral Reefs 18 3077319 Eom e tviu w are Sumilon 19731998 The community 2 towns on nearby islands set the rules With University help ti Slumlon Island Lighthouse a uti v a in The national goy emment took control ofmanagement in 1980 Enforcement has varled through time Fig 2 A l c ier hook imd line shing in lrum oi inc iieuly eon nclcd Sumilon R selw Gil is Dcccmbcl 1995 Dcsprreinriiioniulaw cainiox hmmmgllslllnglnllllsrcscrvu u inn lDl I4 vllt and line shln Is Allmvcd Apo 19761998 7 he community set the rules 7The community enforces the rules 7The community is on sland the i he nity de ds at maintaining the reef hel eryo Results SUMlLON APO I I39 llllll l Global Assessment of Marine Reserves I 1306 marine reserves WorldWide 7 80 million hectares 160 mil acres 7 50 ofthe area is encompassed by 3 Galapagos GreatBarrier Reef North Sea I Management known for only 383 29 7 70 had low to moderate management effectiveness 7 117 had levels ofprotection classi ed as high Kelleher et al 1995 World Bank Marine Sanctuaries The US 0 1972 7 Nixon National Marine Sanctuaries 7 Resource protection is a major purpose of the sanctuaries and as a rule drilling mini dredging dumping Waste or removing artifacw is prohibite 7 But shipping commercial shing sport shing boating and other recreational activity is generally allowed Fishing Permanently Banned Around the Channel Islands Axesexve encampassmgWS square miles um effecthn I ande an quhelargzsLm the U s No shing areas We mm l ls n mac 2 Cnmmlsslnn worm le zrglwxlnr w llzmpnsza mm mm mum mllesamnnd the mmmm mann mxzwexw manual lsnndxamlmltsw mm cmwmm mamamm whale Its l39edanlol clnls m warwllldeudn Ind mum remurnm rnnre e nl Mm Dewandvmwurmxlmn mmmn s an mm um mmm nummm 5mm Mmmmnmpvmmmmmm m in new m mowa alan mum my m mm a b IIJIIIIILD amass us nan sun unwuu us Fun 3535 gt E N w A Y P A R K Standings Bay Area r BerkeleyBowlers 6 I 2 3 4 s 6 7 a 9 no 4 V 7 l Paci c Rim 7 LafayetteDiablos 4 r SacPlaneu39us 1 10 7 San Francisco Huskies 4 awal i Thugge s 5 7 OaklandBombers 3 r AlaskaDrillers Z r SonomaWhiners Z zMuirs Z SO 7 VenturaS d 5 r SntaBarbGreen 5 7 S OMoe 2 1quot wonquot sums BEGIN 1333 2 ENVIRONMENTAL mumde NEWS NETWORK Imr zml AwwImuu rrN unwmm quotand mummy t a EL court anm s ship polhmun law on techmu m39 gum a may numnsmmm m mmm unmzm rm uh Ecamgc quotMumquot mm mamam 5W m mnmmmvm mum mm warm mu u w m ms man my m mquot 5vquot wmm mmwmmmwa 1H m Mum y m Wm WM m w unumvn m inan u mquot mmquot 4 m wanMme pm a n mm mumw an mum lunwm Hm Five great things to do this week environmental 1 Study for m1dterm exams lmermhip amp Career Fmr 2 Study for m1dterm exams Thursday November 3 2007 10 am to 2 pm Freeborn Hall University of California Davis on r 391 7hmdiv mrvH MM 3 Study for midterm exams 4 Study for midterm exams 5 Find a costume Bring 1 ofthese Monday gt Chapters 123455 a mum 1 Suuthwestern Paci c Australia wtm 7 r64 ram 12 mi w mu w m wt 9 an mm l WI Western Paci c China mmI mm W Nah w M w m 31 um Namquot m Only 50 years of fish left atom LESS as sumo SPECIES at p pa a mum l r is impair mems n my mm mm 77M Fishing Most methods are very general and catch stuffnot intended for harvest Some types of shing are physically harmful to the i environment as Well scraping the ocean oor oforganisms bottom trawling BYCATCH Stuffthat sherman catch but don t Want Excessive bycatch prompted Florida to opt mandatory Turtle Excluder Devices TEDs so as to release seaturtles 7 Loss ofef ciency for shing industry Shrimp 7 Highest bycatch rates and habitat destruction rates mu awammmmtm Am and minimum ms t m orpnmlnmi Wuhanl A990 n vs w quotHumquot um N runqu Swim summ Vv Gm awl mum m Fm m mm ms IS mu 39 an m Mum ffx Amxxed blessing m ml Mamwanmq mm 9 m Nz nnzl Shudzxds arm Mzgmsnnrsiwens m mm mm k mm 1 1 gamma 1mm w z armammwmummmmmm mumu Mnmmh m mmmmmm w um mm hun m w m mymmm memnmmmmxmkwm Wuhanmm my mlwxmummbyxm nmmamum m US ExclusxveEcunumczune 3 r Z mxles uffshure 19767M231usunrstevens Act nilnwmvm 560v FYSH AND GAME Mm Inrm I n mummum m an Snmmmy The New Era of Fishing from species to ecosystems W gm l MM 111 1111455 lg Mew A The Tragedy ofthe Commons B O Fm huusehulds share a cummun ar that suppms can sustam maesmca ZEI cu ws Each huusehuld has 5 cuws as Y Households continue to add more cows A until the bene t gained by the individually is equal to the cost in red t V 2 Fishermen sharing sh Too bad furyuu i i The system eventually collapses from overexploitation The Economists Take 0 In the case of natural resources it is human nature to overexploit resources when 7 The GAIN is to the individual harvesting the resource 7 The 00839 of providing the resource is borne by the whole of society not the individual labor and tools to extract the good Thus they are cheaper than comparable private goods The resource economics of supply and demand ifthe cost ufharvesun the Price equilibrium arnaunt Q5 E I trail mil L L Qumtlef ucwl wklk Option 1 Resource Economics ifthe eust ufharvesung the sh dues not include guwmg 99 the shthanthepneeurthe i39ish unthe rrarketis am nall l WFp This results in quantities supplied op relative to an equilihnurn arnuunt Q5 P5 The sulutiun mtrase the pn ee Pp in this use sherman lieense fees m em Hasnutlirnitedtake tu sustainablelevels Quathi ty Q Government Intervention 1 Increase COSTS oi open accessgaads through lieense lees Reduce harvest tn mminahle levels thrmigh license fees inr restmree extractinn inumsing the east nf harvest sn that it equilibrates with demand at a mminzhle level Whae tines this wnrk spurtr shing hnnting Nnt cmnmu39cial iishing lt alsn tines nnt n m inenrpnrate uptinn wine nf snciay Edam Government Intervention 2 RESTRICT ACCESS to open access goods through licensing etlnee harvest tn mminzhle levels by restricting aeeesstn restmrees limiting thennmher nrhnats fishing Ex ample the number nttnr eahs rn NYC is limitenmahng rt nnsshle mindide cab hverstn make ahnng Cabs gn 247 Llninrtnnately frequently tines nnt wnrk Fishermen ean wnrk mnre time nr mnre ellieiently tn increase harvest E 39nrt Drives teehnnlngieal imprnvements tn increase ellieieney nf eateh nets are min QM Thepmblem Wth nnvatrzrng Discounting the future Imagine a sherman whu uwns aeeess tn areseuree This sherman has 2 eneens e Aylnhtlemnllmtthn yennnienmslmm e E7Fuhmnmdmonnandmakelom0yearlnpexpemlly Ifthe shermanls cun dmt n being able tn earn lEI un invested meney then chuuse entan A e Lntr ufwmkln nttlenenlyrenenent Add uneenatnty tn harvest and rtrs u en hetterte chuuse A Thus privatized resuurces are u en uverrexplulted by nurse This night by ne rfrl really i a pnvnle good but not a much when it x a ma a good e we s enumewsamh an Cougle min sinnntnmut thlems with setting lirnits either throughinereasing eosts orlieensin Fisheries m anagem ent The ernphasis has often focused on using science to set sustained yield targets e Monitoring ofpopulation e Set quotas of iake Limit huats limit catches per huat But there has been an alarming failure rate as sheries continue to close or collapse 7 WHY Set of priorities MagnusonStevens like most international laws set goal ofsustainable fisheries 7 Sustainable pertaining to the livelihoods ofthe shermen not so mue e s approach Set lirnits hign andreouire data to argue why they should he redueed rather than the other way around UST 2 arvest a constant propomon N S AIN39ED MAXIMUM YIELD SMY H SUSTAIN39ED MAXIMUM YIELD SMY 2 Harvest a constant proponion llr Overrexplumng resouree growth lt harvest Fapulatmn Growth Rate or Harvest Rate Fupulatmn size Setting the Alluwable catchquot Maximum Yield Management Best efforts to rnanage shen39es using population biology fail because 1 Nature is dif cult tn assess ltis dif cult tn accurately predictpupulatiun ngLh eluts ufermr 5 s e s e s El 5 ressure to rn age elose to theMSYhigherharvest The eloser you get the higherthe nsk ufmuvmgintu the unstable zune wherepopulations spiral to eollapse 57 in 5 E e s EU sets lower Baltic c d qu cuts days at sea com an m m slu mm am am can I39m WM I39fcrlvral age quot Y39i liyyiimMum n e 7 w m marhugs mnrnlulnuymv know mm M ma wa aWNMWWW Hm eraldsnn auswEss Tunw W ammaaam Feds mm sales reuuests lur sheriEs n dlsashar help a The New Era of Fishing from species to ecosystems 750v HSH ANEEX KZ quot quot mane Marine Sanctuaries An alternative approach to restricted access Marine Management Areas 7 usedAreas 7 SensuveSeaAreaseg can reefs 7 ManneSmcmanes 7 lntzgatszamgzmzntArus Marine Biosphere Reserves Agardy IS 1997 Mama mama Max and OceanCnmemonn EIU Case Study Philippine Coral Reef Sanctuaries Apo and Sumilon marine reserves were established in the mid 1970 Community support has been strong and consistent at Apo 7 Community based management Community support has uctuated and enforcement Variable at Sumilon Run andAlcaJa 1999 Coralkzefx 12 3277319 Mimgvuw mam Sumvlcm mm 0 197371998 nearbyislands setth withUmvemtyhzlp Themtmml gem teak mam management m 192 7 Earmaememhasmea thmughume l Wm t was cammercial shing math bassaf gvngtheislmd backm shzrmenquot Fig2 A local taller liuuk and line nslnnn in nom ol the nonly constructed Sllmllnn Rcscxve Gnnn House in Dquotcmlcl was Despnen nabonal law passed m m0 hunnmg risinng in Him restm or and hue lishmp n allow Apo 19761998 7 he Community set the rules 7The Community mforces the rules 7The Community is on the Island 7The Community understands that maintaining the reef helps everyone Results SUMILQN APO l u39 Global Assessment of Marine Reserves I 1306 marine reserves WorldWide 7 80 million hectares 160 mil acres 7 50 ofthe area is encompassed by 3 Galapagos GreatBamer Reef North Sea I Management known for only 383 29 7 70 had low to moderate management effectiveness 7 117 had levels ofprotection classi ed as high Kelleher et al 1995 Worl Bank Fishing Permanently Banned Around the Channel Islands A reserve mcumpassmg 17s squaremdes takes e eetlan land is one ufthe largest in the U s ma mumnhm umumn I991 u mlmlun lm m m 50mm 9mm mm M um WM man A m y M l 39luiw u A lgtlln 1 M m Mm u l l w r m mm mm mml W W wme Hm m m l u h m m r M Wm mm mamtrvmeLw M m n w r 7 Wu nm in mm 39Unexpected growth39 in C02 found mm Mm cu lawl lhu almosylvum avu riuquot aw laslnrlhnn mpnum Inna 2mm avnanny 39 n y n m mm Climate threat tn 39139 divers 1 July lumpmmm mum n he Lmnlm cnnmms cnulul nllurn wlumlu 5 luv Cumuu maul m m mum MM 7quot M 5 The EMCEPBIHVES ave wnnw Hut mrllv army m In my mum nfmanrnm a ham fuels mzam e u w mm Mm m m m u m m m 39 a ummmmnum E1 mm um 155 ul39 u 39 I e m we nawar abwty m m and mm 3 ml w w m ma mmmm mammummy mum mm mm mquot w mm mm quotW M mm H azunnmwamslmomnummas mm 39quot quot39quot MW 41 l r nmlun Julun lulluni mu m um Mm m w V I A mmuw w M w 39 quot511 39 P 9 9 3M WW m r w mmm mm m mm m l w H quotH 39v v r V quotavquot UV 7 Emu m4 Huxuulhvllw uawl m vvrv v39quot mmwn pnxulhmcumrmlmunrummm39 ammnmmn lwl mn rnu e d quot1 W srhuvvpl M 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ummmqlcwlum mm luvanmelml mum n mum mummy chm Mira mquot am new 3b mugsm x N am Em WWW FIRST PERSA39IN slmpllda i 11mph mm m up mg m ImrlmmmmL MW Bush anglesf 0139 mm conservalion credentials 39Ilhl ouxl ulnal 3953quot Marine Environmental Issues I Oceanography ti physical structure seawater composition currents oceanic topography I Marine Ecosystems D Biodiversity and food webs i Examples coral kelp intertidal zone marshes mangroves I Human Impacts g pouuuon Lecture material will focus a Ermtying the Oceans HERE I Conserving Ocean Resources 39 Announcements I Problem with test question answer key 2 httpwww coml WWW shiftingbaselines org The decline of marine life The Pew Oceans Commission I Several recent bodies governmental and private have focused on how to become better stewards of the resources of the earth s oceans I The goal is to reach sustainable rvest of resources pro ec oceanic food webs protect species diversity and reduce pollution June 4 2003 3 year nationwide study in Bur rst I Good News I Bad News Chemical Spills in the Ocean licralb rihum News amp Features 5 Wm 31533 W quotquot I uerku Rico investigators search for oil spill culprit as coast cleanup ends REMEMES M LEE Wig Kmumpu nwwv talc Mr M wmmgwmum m an n i954 my mac mu rm w m e Iidu mimch sililpmsmlnntm coast om rummaqu Maurm no menu on zzan nm nz Em vex Re new We a an m e u e Three clear drivers of HAB s I High salinity DWater withdrawals from streams and rivers i Pollution runoff Each dnver sub eat in increasing sequeney and seventy m h an imp we been hum sundown m m 3 Mustwatens m the deep zune HUGE buffering capacity fur pullutmn nutrients temperature carbun sum m m d Ocean 302 uptake leading to ocean acidification present h Change in ocean pH1700 s to A larg On thetssue ufOcean peuuuen hm Elme face zun dilutlun is NOT the sulutmn and pycnuclme m Waste Items Pram UP em a mm are new 11 ii Coastal Cleanup at U 5 Beach Z Fullutants new mm mm released near W luuh share u e A NM my a mu Mm mm we we mm 5 New more I Mme Gum where we gum my u w nay1 1 x A me we a unllwu my WOW Hf lllultu all Hi llull 39 m39w WE we m wow I Each year 88 million po I Adults The local perspective SF Bay tl We unen heavutpullutlun and hablta uss unds of pesticides and toxic chemicals drain into the Bay recommended to limit their consumption of sport sh to 2 meals per month I A of Bay has been lled in 92 oftidal wetlands lost I Less than 50 of original freshwater input now runs through the Bay setmlr mu new em m h 39 l mw En 9139 2 W e ts have every large effect un climate Facturs that affect these eeean currents are puurly understand urmudeled 2 Ocean eunen mo ut svrrimx We issue m l rq u39 Wam eeeame surface Waters druve zu year unrecurd 21 named Stum513 humcanes 5 7 K Biodiversity I Marine biodiversity is very high C Not at the species level but at a deeper level of omy C Of 33 known hyla eg chordata mollusca aithropoda 2 are found in the ocean 18 on land and 15 are exclusively marine Ci Some marine environments rival tropical forests in terms of diversity I Coral reefs Mud bottom bay in Maine gt 1000 species of invertebrates Globally fisheries production and demand continues to increase Humans consume a pretty diverse array of ocean resources High harvest has raised global concern of SUSTAINABILITY irisr iau HHS 39w l tif 39iin mm 1015 mm was ism 3909 I9ltl3 Some have argued that global fisheries are in a state of collapse Cullausedtaxam A 5 Plt0 0001 A an i i i l l igao 1970 men i990 Year 1951 Worm et al 2006 Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services Science 314787 frod In SolIda 0pm Ann quot5 Hill u quot351995 m us landings I 5W7quot M ml 000 OM Source See endnola 24 Mon halibul Il mil lbs U1 Cl ii o D O 0 Q Q 0 Q Q g g 9 Q q 59 f5 5 1 1 00 quottr Whaling gt77 IWC formed i111946 called for complete moratorium on whaling 39 5 Virtually all whaling is banned by International Whaling Commission 51 member nations Why were so valued I Whale Oil CI Lighting Whaleoil burned slowly without an offensive odor It was Ci For lubricatin I Whaleoil was processed into ne lubricating oils for industries such as c ock making Ci Other uses soapsvarnish cosmetics paint I Whale bone Baleen U Buggy whiEs Carriage springs Corset sta Fishing rods Hoops for women39s s irts Umbrella ribs and many at e applications where nowadays plastic or steel would be used I Meat A swarm BMW WW HOW ARE WHALE POPULATIONS DOING Most whale populations are increasing gym mu um m a mi mm mi 15 o 5 i w iWC Statistics NM quot quot4 NM inn be r m mum m mmnumum mm mm in um mm mm p m 1 Mo ri ramcuwurae v m in mm A i mmmmmp gm ii In ku n mnm m mom 7 Miigti xvv39 mi Inletlullunz Whaling Conrin I I i Li kuv u39 m munno M scIEN39nric COMMITI39EE REPORT 1007 mm M mum L 39 ac Npu quotwillquot onnum mm in quot1quot A n uua amp Barbudi Avqen na Austvaiia Ausma Mumm m l W aggro Baum aw mm CImhudia CimIroun chiiI Chino Flupia RBI 04 Cash Rica Cine d Ivnive ma i Cwms Czech Rapubik Denmsr Daminia Ecuado n win mm WWW w winJim W mm 5 T quotquot m V39 n 39 39 Gvaaii Grenidi Guatemala 394 quot Aquot quot Guineai Rev of Hungaw ioeiami Ixeiand mm Italy K2 mm Kunm ap uf Luxembourg Maii Mgtltkgtli Isiands Rep of Mexico Mongaila NIum Fur Zsai39 n Nomiy vaiau Pew Russian Fadalakin 51 Kim amp News siuvak Republic Spam n so Vlnc nt om Grandmas Saiumon Islands Sweden ux suviname Yuuaiu Togo usn 1024 2007 51 in 2003 66m 2005 lin39y whnm I um mmraiia inmeu lapanem Vaum with You YiLbP Ami Wiiuiim cm in r n n 415 niqumimw iix uimigry mn rnvimniiminmiri m anni r 1 mr re rm r i mrngnnwnnm aminoMn Winii Mair m mu mm min mum 15quot r ordnnudfavmonn p iiii LAEiiruai39 U A or my midi x 1mm wakviLULhiui JJJuuVwu wow wow Uiuu in ion quotE Jagi in nu uign Mum wrong uwu39aii in Back to this Giobai prod How long can this go on Total shery production by region 1950 1970391990 20 I 0 he i I Suuin in u Nunn Aivica amp Near Easi lAivica Suuin mi 3 g a Easiem Em g I Nun men a DWesiem Euvupe lASia mi onina a onina http www fan urgDOCREFFIELDUU AD743Bad7433 3 him Data indicate that We are saturating or oversaturating 111 mm mamnu urnmi Drawn igimilqrdlzmi momma rim astral my 1131 14911 quotiJl LVJi 39 1 Example 1 Caribbean Coral Re 39 a cascade of human exploitation I Top Predator Monk seal extinct I Large herbivores Sea turtles hawksbill green manatee CA nearly extinct I Sharks and large fishdeclining I Small fish now being exploited unzip poo 9m umop uoimioldxa From I B C Jackson 1997 Reefs since Columbus Coral Reefs 16s 2332 D swan Zt ii a ti39nl abundance of sea turtles a but mange twenty 1 gigs they ng v ety39mn y39 mm for s39thick withnthem and they were ofithervery largest so numeroust t seemed that theship39s wouldrun aground on the er naldez on39Columbus quot2quotquotVoyage in 1494 39 Jackson asserts that the biomass of turtles 660 million was likely as large as the biomass of ungulates on the Serengeti and kept the sea grass beds trimmed like a lawn 36 i Georges hghi Bank i Cold storage longrange eets 39 m x mm 1 W mrrrv 3quot in m M um um 39 Northwest Atlantic Ocean Fisheries FAO 1997 w 39 l i U 1953 1954 1953 19m 1955 19m 1974 1973 1932 1935 1am l rciams comes arkswelis aaraemshesiha semmam I 32039 hakes haddurks muiiais saunas I 35Hamn955am1nas1anchmes 51th Ocean Fisheries FAO 1997 FOR SALE This has been managed for sustainability since the 1950s pm 1 V Economic Collapse FIRST mm FIRST mm St ll l I h I W Bush angles for a 22222 1mm mm conservation credentials mu i mulls I I I Bay Area Announcements Stand39quot95 mm 2 Berkeley Bowlers u Lafayette Diablos I Pacific Rim I Problem with test question answer key Oakl n Bom e 5 GM chapters 2 3 pages 111 El Optional reading Worm et al Hilborn I Exam on Monday blue scantron form b 39 D sac meme 8 San rancisco Hruskies I Reading for the week 2 Alaska Drillers 2 El Pew Ocean Commission report on managing sheries D 50W WWWS g 2 n um i I So Cal a Ventura Squid r Snta Barb Green I First set of papers due Friday SLO Moe s 2 i2 Whiners Bowlers Ducts a LA Ducts 2 a so Explorers 1 Marine Environmental Issues WWW shiftingbaselines org The decline of marine life I Oceanography El physical structure seawater composition currents oceanic topo ra h Marine Ecosystems D Biodiversity and food webs D Examples coral kelp intertidal zone marshes mangroves I I c 3 m 3 5 Cl Pollution Lecture material will focus Er Ermtyin the Oceans HERE I Conserving Ocean Resources The Pew Oceans Commission I Several recent bodies governmental and private have focused on how to become better stewards of the resources of the earth s oceans I The goal is to reach sustainable rvest of resources protec June 4 2003 3 year quotmowids oceanic food webs protect study species diversity and reduce pollution httpwww coml him If C 143 Bur rst some Chemical Spills in the Ocean I Good News Iicraigu tihllllc News amp Features I Bad News N quotifquot m I ucrlu Rico inrestigptors search for oil I And then some oceaneraphy spill culprit as coast cleanup ends mam Mum m quotI um I me im mwmu m mixnu r 1970 mm wgz yew rm w Luts ufdxfferent types ufHarmful Algal Bluums HAB Mljm39HABddnad 12mm in an Znml v31 Rad IiduInimamsiiilpminnlnnmu cm om mmmlmu iWWva m Emmwmnwmsy a ncmmc ccu counts mm in an any are Three clear drivers of HAB s I High salinity DWater withdrawals from streams and rivers l Excess nutrients i Pollution runoff Each dnver subject tn increasing equency and seventy with human imp 215 Damian acuch ierwcru a cw u nm Must Watens m the ccp zune HUGEbuffenng capacity fur pcuuucn nutrients temperature carbun 5min m Um m n m m ic m Ocean 302 uptake leading to ocean acidification 3921 Change in ocean pH1700 s to present M4 Iii2 EM Ir termini NH 1 n I in 1 4mm in m 4 u in it larg On the issue 0 Ocean pollution fraction me dilution is NOT the solution surface Z 6 and pycnocllne 39 n9 3 R35 are may share National canal Cleanup of U 5 Beaches rm 1 mm Numl rr 2 Ponmams released near lpJn Kh bum shore often i Ilurllaucntu lmlu nitm 5to may iLmie mini new mom mime lug nut upprh i39ldslk39 hi 3 Near share is i39anc imm rm 4 where we gain mi iit 3439 i iiquot mer 1x minim k the van ll f 394l Ilti maj n f 39 resources we Atiii ii iiiiii iiiii Win MM nit iiiiiiitiiitiiei u iiiiiii levli mtiiiim niii imiii m min tnimmm nimninimi new Jilin Ut mime mt39eiw sites in bear in rr39ml for ME in 735 mam late in the qua suit Hie tit al 2 Ocean currents have a very large effect on climate Factors that affect these ocean currenm are poorly understood or modeled LAN r u Sum 92 SETHML Enter apltit Muss lti hear in lsilmi 39ai39 the present 51 the quanta and min in gezm 3gCoastal winds drive surface temperatures which drives inland 4 39 climate invi iitei m4 iiiiiii i ii uni ril iuiii iii iui ii mm ili Warm oceanic surface waters drove 2005 to be the largest hurricane year on record 21 named storms 13 hurricanes i Et Guilt and eBay iSeaieinnnmg mummy smmns rmsmms ARCHWES NPRSHOP o Nomi News Summi39v v Zarlmurvmqnm see i stream W Site Lets Consumers Offset Personal Carbon Morning Emtigri ilnLRl 22 mm Ecological ereenneiee names by Way Ufa new Web site tne PDpTEEh Carbon N Initiative it s part ofthe eniine auction Site eaeyi First you Palm5 e smeti you offset yDur guilt by giving money te EMIer inentei Bums Drganizat n u 5 en en 5 n environmentally unrfriendly you are an now eii it takes te PEW E 3 P s enenge tne world are guilt and eBay neeitn it Science Ttvj Slsi i From physical environment to biotic environment Globally sheries production and demand continues to increase u 4 c u candy or High harvest has raised global concern of SUSTAINABILITY l a nu was 95 m fEV Biodiversity I a I Marine biodiversity is very high 1 Not at the species level but at a deeper level of my JOf 33 known phyla eg chordata mollusca arthropoda 32 are found in the ocean 18 on land and 15 are exclusively marine ClSome marine environments rival tropical forests in terms of diversit l Coral reefs l Mud bottom bay in Maine gt 1000 species of invertebra es U Some have argued that global fisheries are in a state of collapse Collapsed laxa to 3ka W wan r Vea i Worm et al 2006 lmpacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecos stern Services Science 314 787 IraII In locid 0pm luau quot5 fish u InsI995 us landings 30 5M W a mm M Source See endnulu 24 l Mam heldqu mil lb v I Wu Fluid 00000 lbxl E Nwl m cameme m I M mamain I m on We no mi rm o o a o o o o o o o 65 squot g a 9 3 5 qquot qquot sun IW called for complete moratorium on Whaling in 1985 Virtually all Whaling is banned by International Whaling Commission 51 member nations i ll IIL rndllOn39II Wllullng CDIIHHILV JIUH b 91 7 gt I quotquot quot7quot sacrum comm REPORT 1007 nu mum lrmn mu annual mmquot in bushing139 IA May IIII39I lie rmmuu we mm am ANUtnRAGE m mm I a mum M rS eru mi mm mm mutt a in v mi 1 new I anth D j V 39 mzf queuesaw e httpIWCoffic org so valued Why were l Whale Oil lZE Lightin g Whaleoil burned sloVily viIithout an offensive odor It was Ci For lubricating Whaleoil was processed into ne lubricating oils for industries such as cloc ma ing L i Other uses soapsvarnish cosmetics paint I Whale bone Baleen U Buggy whips Carriage springs Corset stays Fishing rods Hoops for women39s skirts Umbrella ribs and many other applications where n ays plastic or steel wou d be used ScaWbrlci HOW ARE WHALE POPULATIONS DOING ik meetah umquot aauaia Population rx mulr quot5mm n a6 392 mill l 7 Most whale populations are increasing 3333313 Em i i l39 mmmamuw oov m mm mmu m w OvaAm m 1565 IN man we w w amimi win 1 m 4w 3 no tunmun mum uquot mi um umquot moo 111 n ebu LIIW 4am Wow A a w n mum r mm mm nunmm VinVim an mm mu m m m mum mum who mum in mam min quotin linC In Illnnmd H le a quotwe LIST OF MEMBER NATIONS Tutal 7 Antigua amp Barbuda Argentina Australia Austria Belgium Belize enirl Brazil Cameroon chiie China paapla39s Rep of care d39xvoire Cmatia Cyprus madm The Gambia Guatemala Icelan Italy Korea Rep of Mmhallislands Rep of Mongolia a au Russian Federation St Vincent tlTha Grenadines 0 Islands Sui mun Sweden Si Km a New slavak Republic Spain Togo LISA 1024 2007 51 in 2003 66 in 2005 Bloombergcom 39 WM w M Alluralla larger lapanelta Vauth with You 1 one Ami Whalng cup 7 mom a to quotu mm m to man 0 aim we nu momm rnu 39 I But Backtothis Global prod How long can this go on Total shery production by region l950 l970 l990 20 DWestem Europe l W lAsla excl China a China http www fan myDocREFFIELDuu ADMmamzeuz him 39 I Ll 39 Data indicate that We are saturating or oversatumting capacity it Samuem Ilenqu Mch Fwy umlmod mm mm Damon lg mvmg mum l UndNIbvm Ilwmhesl it was law l llu 1 r n n m l wle Example 1 Caribbean Coral Re 39 a cascade of human exploitation I Top Predator Monk seal extinct I Large herbivores aSea turtles hawksbill green manatee CA nearly extinct I Sharks and large fishdeclining I Small fish now being exploited imp p00 em mop Honeuordxa From I B C Jackson 1997 Reefs since Columbus Coral Reefs 16s 2332 onlliall olitim f On the abundance of sea turtles butinthose twentyileaguesy they saw very many rnore for the sea was thick Vjviththernand they39were ofjthe very largest 39 39 quotseemed tn 39 39 r on them 9 39 39L 1 494 Jackson asserts that the biomass of turtles 660 million was likely as large as the biomass of ungulates on the Serengeti and kept the sea grass beds trimmed like a lawn a A W m rm m m w w my mo mu 39m m m mum 1 mm m 1 ma h lm m m mu m L Northwest Atlantic Ocean Fisheries FAO 1997 umvrmtm nmnazm uquot 1959 19m 1959 1992 1999 197a 197A 1973 1582 1938 199m 19 m omammups Isaclam memes arkshelb ll 3391Fluun zvsha nms sulss El amttank snneks t ullass shss I Macks multzts sauna 33112mm25ba as cnngers I Hemngs samnzsannhwtes I aroma hakes handguns FOR SALE 1 Northwest Atlantic Ocean F1sher1es FAO 1997 This has been managed for sustainability since the 1950s amp Economic Collapse 5W 9 1 Northwest Atlantic Ocean Fisheries FAO 1997 This has been managed for sustainability since the 1950s znnnnn VSEIEIEIEI VUUEIEIEI annnn 19 9 19m 1 1983 19 6 Only 50 years of sh left GLOBAL LOSS OF SEAFOOD SPECIES 9 m specme cortapsed lctubmv W 94 daintQSOEDOJ s Extrapolaled longterm quotEnd I Year smmcr SnianrwaO our mm x2quot nmmum H mm In me Solutions I Traditional fisheries management DWhat is that I Globalization and free trade issues i Local sherman vs offshore shing I Single species versus ecosystem management 3 Marine reserves and no fish zones ENVIRONMENTAL SEMEEESIR NEWS NETWORK Rum r In Full l nu tI l 39 d lmillh lilsksl it Appendix Slides from here forward present more FAQ fisheries trend data Northeastern Atlantic Fisheries FAO 1997 WEB 1556 1958 1952 1956 15m law 1978 1982 axe lean we Iomemexci 32m lSSVREMishes hasses cUnder 327cm have haddock m 357HemquotEssammes anchwies IS rJacks mullet saunas Ler rum vimpwmuw u Qt whkmukuym New V 3 39W39gmuuuau 3 Bow 9 3m 5 afition dam Baftic mm cw Powalum mum r39ml Ill 1 Qlwlm rm 20m mu m m nu me In munum n onln nnlrlr raltITIu r nd ock plmuml m In munmed mus a nu yam 21 4 z 3 quotrun wild Bullir whmmllu r populununs m llllrnlmrll lull sliul c in nun flu alrln s gunmanemail 1IlllllllLllnI l m ulrul sea IWI39W Franz Fxsc ex Eu clasesE uc shuym Mm Apnl 15 mm Innm A whimnun m u quotlupihnduuli m mum A quotan mm ummmum a mm quotI 4 a n Ivvvr mllwW lulnlbuulm mm ElbaMIan nunhgmnil umquot um m rmmmmmw mm In NH um um v nplu mm at umlnnuhl quotalumnanu MEInth u thanquot to lmmm mm m aw H mm quot1 m4 um 39 I mum mm L Medltenanean and Black Sea t m mm mm quotmum m SUSTAIN39ED MAXIMUM YIELD SMY 2 Hanest a constant proportion Pupulauun Size quotH EU sets lower Baltic cod quotas cuts days at sea u r V3 M Mm m m m mm m mam mum W W N am Wu n WWW 1M mm m Mm mm mm m m n 7 m m mum a m MWJMM 39 WW an a mum nus qmmm m rurrongrc mmnmmm MAM 4 mm u Emu 5 n an may mm u a a Brimigcies o ecosys w The New Era of Fishing GOV FYSH AND GAME Mam m Mm ma Summmy Marine Sanctuaries An alternative approach to restricted access Marine Management Areas 7 chum 7 Senmmmm mm mm 7 Mms mm 7 inugmammtmmu MarineBiosphere Reserves Agmiy T 1997 Mm mum ma Oceanoxsexvzcnn EILV ENVIRONMENTA m r wnunnnur ne nm M NEWS NETWORF r or CASE STUDY T253171 Philippine Coral Reef Sanctuaries new r Apo and Sumilon marine reserves were 39 m 39 k w established inthe mid 1970 s Community support has been strong and consistent at Apo 7 Community based management has Communlty sup has ucFuated and omnemsrsmsamm mmm enforcement Vanable at sumllon asr emmrrnw Russ andAlcala 1999 Coral Reefs 18 3077319 Sumilon 1 19731998 15 a J The oommunrty z towns on nearby rslands set the rules Mrmqlauu 4 mm 5 Sum 5 on Is1and a memo r In 1 80 new mayors were e The nauonal government took controlofmanagement n1980 Fig 2 A local sher hook and line nsmnn 111 1mm o1 me no Enforcementhasvaned ennsnurten SumHon Resene Gunrd House in Dec mho 1 through trme Dosniren nnuonnl 121w passed m 1980 homung mum 111 um rescue u and Imc shln 13 allowed Fuvllmm Results AP0 SUMILON APO 19761998 1 e r r rThe communrty set the rules rThe communrty f ces the rules he community rs on the rshnd rThe communrty J L V W y I Fishing Permanently Banned Around the Channel Islands Global Assessment of Marlne Axesexve encampassmgWS square miles takes effectlsn l mdis one nfthelngestin the U s Reserves I 1306 marine reserves WorldWide 7 80 million hectares 160 mil acres 7 50 ofthe area is encompassed by 3 Galapagos GreatBamer Reef North Sea I Management known for only 383 29 7 70 had low to moderate management effectiveness 7 117 had levels ofprotection classi ed as high Kelleher et al 1995 World Bank No shing areas mecnllmm snacmeommanm slamsnearanWanner am wme henna mamas the aetwnrnn anaemia mane isnaiarnntsn mum swam momentum was quot5 headhunting w amnesia a norm mamaew Mnherwewsndvmmmxlmn anaemic W quotW a s new 39 mm m mva milemm 5mm Mmmmnmpuvmlammmm wrisliu251mmnmlimgrml pn nmlvs Mm mum mi an kmllnlwxnl imisnnrtns isms w m was m molqu swim avkm awei Wm bum Suit aims to block city s expansion quotmmquot Wquot mm i 2391 aw m g m arm uum mmmun mum am awbe mculnmuFukh u s um M un a wummmu h wow xmvuumn 11mm hqwuu1l mrmm m rm m n imnrrfaramrvrln mlrarmmnmmw mmn wnmmm mmu nr ul WWW m 51 43 my v lflvzlmr n hm Linear Policy chain minim KM mm W 01mmquot nu mu pun Mm mum1mm Pearson Scienti c Environmental Policy looks more like this Windows of opportunity 1 California 2 Katrina 3 San Diego res Windows of opportunity for innovative policy Feather Hlver Marysvillo mm mm ma cm um Imam mm mm mm quot iy clumaxe threat to bmdiversny M ulnmn mmm medium lur llw munq s l V a x HML V my U9 w plant am mm rv tnv r l m mm Xaln zd m w 5mm mm an dwv39my uxrr szn mum my si ma more 105 vacnm Wm M m altW w myqu 39uw Wuwp mm my aplmr uhKEanh mam m m 4m mmm m a m r 39 WM v u m mmwumm 39 on 5 Environment A 5 nnlnnm mu rues lln rM m Ei39lilCimmun m if Carbun Markets are emergmg Bell has begun Announcem ents Today Nuclear energy Convenu39onal El Monday Altema ve Energy Biofuels Frida ary a1 a on Dec 12 am S PM 7 Sn True false Mulaple Chulce g swarms 39l fmmmwseluf 7 ENERGY Monday Wednesday Nuclear Energy Nuclear Waste The US Energy Stream Fossil Fuels Green Energy u 5 nm ln Nuclear power provides 20 ofall US electrical power How Nuclear Power grew in the US Virtually no new capacity since mid 1990 s 225 Talal an under and m npnmuan And the US Government 5 5 Current Practice 6 i E 09 o t t n o W D llope fur future 39 539 r a Why is radiation bad for living Radlanon 39 exposure organisms Athigh levels it causes darnage to DNA and prevents cells from undergoing cell division At low levels it acts as an enhancer for altering DNA controls over cell division and can cause cancer 7 eg it is thought that a byproduct ofChemobyl could be as high as 150000 to 500000 cancer deaths in the region numbers hotly debated ls anatural proeess andradiauon eirists all around us in the world at very lovvlevels Sumemulecules arevery stable others very unstalole rneaning they arernore urlessllkely to decay rnsvrnillisieverts it t a 1007500 rnsv Increased eaneerrisk Nuclear Fission Facts 7 Enrichsz unisiprocessto concenritemu in ore decay 39 rneaning itloses neutrons orprotons in a random process We de ne a halfrllfequot as the average length ofurneit takes fur v ufthe isotopie mulecules to spontaneously lose The byrpruducts ofloornloardingmu with neutrons is other radioactive rnatenal ineluding plutonium Nuclear Wastes Dif culties associated with nuclear power include disposal ofwastes produced during 7 mining 7 fuel pruduchun and e reactor operation options 7 Ocean durnping e Burying radioaeuve rnine wastes rnill tailings 7 Dry eask storage nigiiieveivioenprstrrye minimum Montana retrievroie amigo Nuclear Waste ByProducts EPA requires storage for 20 halfilives 97 of nuclear Waste is dead in 10 years The last bit plutonium lasts for 24000 yrs for 1 halflife Safety Issues 1 2 Nuclear disasters Control of plutonium accessibility 3 Storage of nuclear waste Hm minw l Plutonium access One of the byproducts of standard nuclear power generation is plutonium Plutonium is used to make a high grade radioactive fuel for nuclear weapons 7 North Korea and Weapons program Control is problematic James Bondtype movies 7 Radioactive cobalt Went missing in Iraq 7 Plutonium missing at Los Alamos in 2005 2 Disasters 1979 Three Mile Island A close call on a meltdown Steam generator shut down automatically because feedwater pumps lost power A pressure valve opened to release pressure This valve stuck open draining the system of coolant water No sensor detected that the cooling tanks were empty The reactor core heated up too much partial meltdown and radioactive gas was emitted to atmosphere Disasters Chernobyl A meltdown Two engineers running a test of a standby diesel generator took safety controls off line Disabled coolant to reactor but did not account for radioactive heat that continued to be generated Reactor heated up steam could not be released Steam and heat boosted nuclear reactions in core Engineers inserted carbon tipped rods to control reactions This increased nuclear reactions by further slowing neutrons The result the explosion blew the 2000 ton top offthe reactor quot 90 million curies of radioactivity released in a plume that settled over 1000 s of sq miles 2 people died initially 31 emergency personnel brought in to ght disaster also diedlater ofpoisoning 135000 evacuated 1000 sq mi fenced off area 2 other reactors still in operation 7 Workers bussed in 3 Waste storagezRegulation 39 Nuclear Waste Policy Act 1997 a Different versions passed by House and Senate in 1997 r Bills could not be reconciled in committee so was never signed by President 39 Department of Energy is in charge 39 Issue storage of nuclear waste a Dakotas and SW Native American tribes leading candidates a Yucca mountain on the nuclear testing grounds in e Dumped nuclear reaciars Liquid waste discharges Who wants it near them LULU 7 locally unwanted land use 39 Everyone remembers these issues when thinking of nuclear power a It is said that safety is much improved in newer plants 39 Not In My Back Yard NIMBY a Problem with finding a longterm storage site a Nevada governor vetoed choice of site but was over riden by US Congress how does that work 39 Nuclear by products equally disliked The Yucca Mountain Project Aner mereman 20 years and 4 billion m serenirire siuriy me 5 Cungressappmved useaMuumarm rraiiurr snrsi lungrterm geniugi repusiiuryiur speni nuclear iuei and highrlevel radioactive Waste rrrre Senate has righ ullychusen tn alluwthe preeess ei developing a nuclearwasie repesriery ai Vucca Mountain tn pruceed tn irre nexi siep recugnizing irraiirre independent experts atthe NuclearRegulatury cemmrssren NRC deserve me righttu reviewthe 24 yearseisereniire study uWucca Mountain andtu unsiderthe site ier a ireense said Energy Secretary SpencerAbrahamquuwmg theJulyBJUUZVEIm Storing Nuclear Waste Underground 7 Groundwater pollution 39 Yucca Mountain has very deep groundwater and little rainfall 7 Demonstrable lack of volcanic activity or earthquakes 39 Yucca mountain is not very active in theory ieste Aeeeunt i Log In Email a piint 2006 A A it Text six Wssriigm DC senator Reid sets His Agenda vucca Mountain Included De l zuus us 27 AM PsT Senate inaiarity ieader Harry Reid says ne nas set nis agenda for tne next two years and Vucca Madntain is included in an interyiew Witn tne Associated Press Reid said ne Wants ta focus an etnies retarin stein eeii researen funding and Working ta cut wastemi ending The future arVdeea Madntain is aisa up tar debate The president nfthe Edisan Electric Institute says ittne praieet mayes ee forward it Will take teamwork betw ri dEmDErats and nuclear dt eiais We are somewhere in here new mini eauumw mm in mur mm mmquot m nunwin an ciuui m nic e Hidth i 39 39 Fl 90m N 39 Pf ik 55 Hmquot seam Mi ii i iiiiiiriwy iiY rilit ciiiiiiy iii tiiiii aiuiiuiii quotmum it tilquot ii iii ii iii nit v iiiiiuii i Hiniin n l39p quotit iiltiiii ii men yii iy m are tun In pitiii h Spun U W Vum uninieiii lIyIr ciiit Laurly unit it saw aiiaiviiieii ii nu a vVuuV nlnin iiit iinimmiieiiiee nah ii Jim Nevada TV statlon m H uf W Alternatlve Alternative Nuclear Power Breeder Reactor 7 Uses plutonium by breeding 238U into 239PU by the addition of a neutron This greatly increases the volume ofpotential nuclear fuel since 99 3 of all Uis 238U 7 Plutonium ZZBPU is What goes into nuclear Weapons 7 239PU is also a byproduct offission reactors 7 Iraq North Korea Pakistan said theywere using breeder reactors for power but US concerned that they are for nuclear Weapons Nuclear Power Fusion 7 2 H to He 7 7 Same process as Hbomb 7 Super heat H20 with heavy H deuterium tritium to release H 7 Still a net energy drain 39 We put more energy into heating up the Hydrogen than We get out of the fusion reaction The big three SUPPLY US Energy Flow 1999 Quantities in BTUs 2 40 5 E 53 5 3 3000 2 2 33 an quot6 g m 2000 c H a 2 Natu ra was 3 6 E g 1000 B E 5 LE 0 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 r ear m Wm 13333 5 233133quot Exists g wu 1mmm 2 5 MWquot u my quotw E x mm w me via nu mm m u m mm m H mm 0 mm H Viewpoint 1 quot3quot quot he wor d s runnmg out ofoH Mannmm quot no as m m m m m mu nu ma 1 m we m mm quotmm m V m a ratmm Vlew 2 Much ofthe world IS underlaln wlth some klnd of re supply IS not meeting demand we won t develop these sources e v r WW 4 m1nm h Mn umww r an 39rhvmvlv I39Unh n39nu39 m Awur n W 5 l le um s Tndzy Nuclear energy 7 crrmmm Energy Wed Altemauve Energy onfuels Friday Summary evaluations Dec 12 Fmal exarn 6 PM 200 s W W SUTruefalse N m Istvmexa mls alrsz um um Synlhz z any Announcements ENERGY Monday Wednesday Nuclear Energy 7 7 7 Nuclear Waste The US Energy Stream Fossil Fuels Green Energy um um Aquot anquot Nuclear power provides 20 ofall US electrical power How Nuclear Power grew in the US Virtually no new capacity since mid 1990 s 225 mm on may and 15 m upmauun Nunm mam R Bl L Iul mm 3955 Ba 70 72 74 3975 75 39so 82 3984 5 se39sa 3 Y z 94 as 95 a How 7 eactor 7 And the US Government my pa mummm inauzl w a ENERGY CurrentPractice 393 mm My Mum Halfllfe Why is radiation bad for living organisms At high levels it causes damage to DNA and prevents cells from undergoing cell division At low levels it acts as an enhancer for alterin DNA controls over cell division and can cause cancer e eg it is thought that a byproduct ofChemobyl could be as high as 150 000 to 500000 cancer deaths in the regionT nunihers hm y ebated Radiation exposure Nuclear Fission Facts lnitaal product Uraniurnisotoper U Naturally decays ouch aan is 7mm million yearsl is a natural process and radiataon exists all around us in the world at very luwlevels A r 992 otorariirnismuu wrmu nous isvtu itemuin are ea s aning itloses neutrons orprotons in a Sumemulecules arevery stahle 39 quot H orn proeess others very unstable meaning We e ne a alfrllfequot as the averagelength ottirneit takes fur v ufthe isotopie molecules to spontaneously lose aneutron orproton decay they arernore orless likelyto decay The hyrproduets othornhardingmu with neutrons is other radioactive rnatenal including plutoniurn lEIEIrSEIEI msv e creased eaneerris rnsvrnillisieverts i i t n k Nuclear Waste ByProducts Nuclear Wastes Dif culties associated with nuclear power include disposal ofwastes produced during it mining 4 7 fuel produetaon and 7 reactor operation Ophons 7 Ocean urnping e Burying radioaetave rnine wastes rnill tailings e stora nigiiwe w ereprstayrvminrortarlll nmtaeereaimoe songs Safety Issues 5725 1 Control of plutonium accessibility 2 Nuclear disasters 3 Storage of nuclear waste l Plutonium access One of the byproducts of standard nuclear power generation is plutonium Plutonium is used to make a high grade radioactive fuel for nuclear weapons 7 North Korea and Weapons program Control is problematic James Bondtype movies 7 Radioactive cobalt went missing in Iraq 7 Plutonium missing at Los Alamos in 2005 2 Disasters 1979 Three Mile Island A close call on a meltdown Steam generator shut down automatically because feedwater pumps lost power A pressure valve opened to release pressure This valve stuck open draining the system of coolant water No sensor detected that the cooling tanks were empty The reactor core heated up too much partial meltdown and radioactive gas was emitted to atmosphere Disasters Chernobyl A meltdown Two engineers running a test of a standby diesel generator took safety controls offline Disabled coolant to reactor but did not account K for radioactive heat that continued to be generated Reactor heated up steam could not be released Steam and heat boosted nuclear reactions in core ngineers inserted carbon tipped rods to control reactions This increased nuclear reactions by further slowing neutrons The result the explosion blew the 2000 ton top offth reactor 90 million cuties of radioactivity released in a plume that settled over 1000 s of sq miles 2 people died initially 31 emergency personne brought in to ght disaster also died later ofpoisoning 39 135000 evacuated 1000 sqmi fenced off area 2 other reactors still in operation 7 Workers bussed in 3 Waste storagezRegulation 39 Nuclear Waste Policy Act 1997 7 Different versions passed by House and Senate in 1997 7 Bills could not be reconciled in committee so was never signed by President 39 Department of Energy is in charge A 39 Issue storage of nuclear waste yr Dakotas and SW Native American tribes leading Q andldates 7 Yucca mountain on the nuclear testing grounds in In I Dumped Nuclear Reactors Kara ea Dumped nuelear reaclars a Liquid wasle discharges Who wants it near them LULU locally unwanted land use Eudli Sadr 39 Everyone remembers thes ei ssues wh e39n hldng of nuclear power 7 It is said that safety is much improved in newer plants 39 Not In My Back Yard NIMBY 7 Prob em w1 ln ing a longterm storage site 7 Nevada governor vetoed choice of site but was over riden by US Congress how does thatwork 39 Nuclear byproducts equally disliked The Yucca Mountain Project iv 39 I Allermureman 20 years and 4 bllllun rrr serenlrlre studthle u s cundress appruved Vucca Madman lvevada asthe rrallurr sllrsl lungrterm deuludlrepusllurvlursperrl nuclear luel and mdrrlevel radluarwe Waste enalehasrlgmmllychusentu alluwme rueessul develuplrrd a nuclearwasle repusllurv al Vdcca Mudrrlalrr lu preceed lu me next slep recudrrlzlrrd lrrallrre lrrdeperrderrl experts al me Nuclear Regulatory Cummlsslun NRC deserve me rrdrrl lu revrewlrreu ears ul serenlrlr study ul Vucca Mountaln and la eunsrderlrre srle lur a llcense sald Energy Secretary SpencerAbrahamluHuwlng me JulyBJUUZvute Storing Nuclear Waste Underground 7 Groundwater pollution Yucca Mountain has very deep groundwater and little rainfall 7 Demonstrable lack of volcanic activity or earthquakes Yucca mountain is not very active in theory We are somewhere inhere rim n Wei Suevlalreamm Email a pnnt 2006 a A n TextSix nsmme Washinqmn DC Senator Reid Sets His Agenda vucca Mountain Included De 12uus us 27 AM psr Senate majnrity leader Harry Reid says ne nas set HlS agenda fur tne next Wu years and Vucca Muuntaln l5 included In an lntcrvlcw thn tne ADciacd WCII we said ne wants to fucu on Ethics refurm stem cell research funding and Wurklng ta cut wasteful Endingt Tne future nfvucca Mnuntaln l5 alsn up far debate Tne president Bf tne Edlsun Eieetne Institute says lf tne prnject maves fnrward ll Wlii take teamwnrk between demaerats and nuclear Uf cials Nevada TV station mmc vmw mm cannumm quotanquot m rm 1 lm 5132 m M M Alternative Nuclear Power 39 l t F Sim NAPAUREJEgt ems W Breeder Reactor ts 7 Uses plutonium by breeding 238U into 239PU by the addition of a neutron a tn rm Svuh out on szu Muunnm Nun Wm leun 11m in at mu n M This reatly increases the Volume ofpotential nuclear m1 is mu Bulld Yaw Dwn W mquot 3 mm 7 um i h since 99 3 of all U ninth n 321 lm 331 w m W 7 Plutonium WPU is what goes into nuclear weapons milky m quottaint43731 mLegt 7 239PU is also a byproduct of ssion reactors 1 mil n wt t an 7 Iraq North Korea Pakistan said they were using 639 quotquot1 l gm lm mi Iquot V39 breeder reactors for power but US concerned that they are for nuclear weapons ri tumn wool w n mun vlum v righurl a um um canny imusmn nth unnuna men may cw was la m ngiul it nu mes Alternative Nuclear Power a m 3 40 5 E 39a m Fus1on u39 3000 7 2 H to He 3 39 r r s a 5 can 7 Same process as H bomb 6 5 Z 000 7 Super heat H20 with heavy H deuterium E g 39 tritium to release H E Nama Gas o 7 Still a net energy dram E g 139000 39 We put more energy into heating up the Hydrogen ED 0 than we get out of the ision reaction E 0 1550 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Year