Soc Psych Persp As Amer
Soc Psych Persp As Amer ASA 003
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verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
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Date Created: 09/08/15
ASA 3 Midterm Review Studv Guide Not every article you will need to know for the midterm is covered here but most of the major ones are Not EVERYTHING here will be covered on the midterm just the things I mentioned during discussion last night Remember to focus on case studies what those studies entail what the results are and what those results mean Also focus on hypotheticals examples Professor Dhinsa did mention that the Triandis article wouldn t be on the midterm however Ithink it is still important that you guys understand the core concepts from that article individualism vs collectivism Some articles that you may want to focus particular attention on that are not in this guide are A1 study methods Take all this information as a GUIDE and not anything else Don t be overwhelmed by everything that s down here Everything you need to know is in the readings remember that first and foremost Lastly GOOD LUCK Tim Fong The Contemporary Asian American Experience Pg 1938 Asian American immigrants into the US 9 THREE major waves 0 1848 1924 First wave of Asian immigrants to US 0 Chinese The first largescale immigration began in 1852 Yet the huge in ux in mid1860s to help work during the Gold Rush and the building transcontinental railroad I 1868 Burlingame Treaty Free migration and emigration of Chinese to Us in exchange for American trade privileges in China I Note the bachelor lifestyle I Types of work Agricultural cleared land dug canals planted orchards harvested crops manufacturing shoes cigars clothing small businesses restaurants laundries general stores domestic services house boys cooks gardeners 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act Suspended entry of Chinese laborers for 10 years other laws eventually passed barring Chinese laborers and their wives permanently 0 Japanese How Japanese immigrants experience differed from Chinese immigrants experience I Japanese mostly immigrated to Hawaii but not to mainland I Japanese fully took advantage of agricultural boom I Calls for complete Japanese exclusion were blocked and instead compromise with Japanese government was worked out Gentleman s Agreement due to victory in RussoJapanese War I Gentleman s Agreement allowed Japanese women in US which allowed Japanese in Us to increase population 0 Filipino I First group to arrive were students supported by government scholarships I Types of work Agricultural and service laborers manufacturing railroad porters labor union organizers I Filipinos lived in American territory following SpanishAmerican War in 1898 and therefore were considered nationals that could freely travel in Us without restriction I High male to female ratio 0 Korean I Types of work Plantation labor work students I Picture brides 0 Indian I Did not work in Hawaii prior to entering the American mainland I Extremely high male to female ratio I Formed cooperatives pooled their resources began independent farming o AntiAsian laws and sentiment o Denial of naturalization rights to Chinese immigrants 0 Examples of antiAsian laws Foreign Miners Tax San Francisco tax ordinance on all aliens ineligible for citizenship 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act 1913 Alien Land Law and subsequent amendments 1917 Immigration Act 1924 National Origin Act antimiscegenation laws 0 AntiAsian case law Yick Wo v Hopkins Ozawa v US US v Thind o WWII and the Cold War Era o WWII I Japanese internment 0 During WWII Franklin Roosevelt passed Executive order 9066 It goal was to relocate Japanese residing in the US to internment camps 0 Contrast with increasingly positive characterization of Chinese immigrants evidenced by increased employment opportunities outside segregated Chinatown communities I Asians in the military I Impact of 1945 War Bride s Act on Asian immigration I Repealing of Chinese Exclusion Act in 1943 o 1946 LuceCellar Act 0 Cold War I Refugee acts oflate 1950s and 1960s allowed entrance into US for those escaping home country s oppressive governments 1952 McCarran Walter Act 7 eliminated exclusionary laws and removed ethnic bars to immigration and naturalization e g Chinese Exclusion Act Brought in ux of educated professionals who were quite distinct from vast majority of earlier Chinese immigrants because they were usually able to integrate into American mainstream quickly becoming basis of emerging Chinese American middle class Korean War Korean and Japanese war brides orphaned children 0 Post1965 Asian Immigrants and Refugees 3 key time periods 0 1965 Immigration Reform Act Resulted in causing a dramatic increase in Asian American Immigration in the Late 1960s Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1968 Closed backdoor of illegal immigration Immigration Act of 1990 Kept front door of legal immigration open 0 Encouraged immigration of more skilled workers to help meet the needs ofthe US economy 0 Global restructuring Pushpull theory Asserts that difficult economic social and political conditions in the home country force or push people away At the same time these people are attracted or pulled to another country where conditions are seen as more favorable 0 But does not fully explain immigration patterns 1946 SmithMundt Act Created exchange program for specialized training 1976 Health Professional Educational Act 0 Vietnam War and Southeast Asian refugees 3 waves of immigration 0 1975 Fall of Saigon Mostly urban elite and middle class from Vietnam many worked closely with the U S military tended to be more Westemized Catholic proficient in English 0 Indochine Resettlement Act of 1975 19781980 Larger and more heterogeneous group more devastated by their relocation experience were less educated urbanized and Westemized o Difficulties for ethnic Chinese in Vietnam 0 Persecution of Hmong in Laos and Cambodia 0 After 1980 Facilitated by 1980 Orderly Departure Program US has accepted these refugees for not only humanitarian reasons but also in recognition that US foreign policy and military actions in Southeast Asia had a hand in creating much of the calamity that has befallen the region Claude M Steele A Threat in the Air How Sterentvne Shape 39 quot Performance Pg 5176 0 Stereotype threat Situational threat that in general form can affect the members of any group about whom a negative stereotype exists Where bad stereotypes about these groups apply members of these groups can fear being reduced to that stereotype 39 Identitv and o Disidentification Reconceptualization of the self and of one s values so as to remove the domain as a selfidentity as a basis for selfevaluation o Threats of academic identi cation 0 Structural and cultural threats 0 Stereotype threat Refers to the strictly situational threat of negative stereotypes the threat does not depend on cuing an intemalized anxiety or expectancy It is cued by the mere recognition that a negative group stereot I 0 Focus of experiments ype could apply to oneself in a given situation Should have its greatest effect on the better more con dent students in stereotype groups those who have not internalized the group stereotype to the point of doubting their own ability and have thus remained identified with the domain Features Stereotype threat is a general threat not tied to the psychology of a particular stigmatized group it affects the members of any group about whom there exists some generally known negative stereotypes Controlling mechanism of stereotype threat is a particular concurrence Type and degree of stereotype threat varies from group to group and for any group across settings To experience stereotype threat one need not believe the stereotype nor even be worried that it is true of oneself The efforts to overcome stereotype threat by disproving the stereotype can be daunting 0 Intellectual performance in the domain in which negative group stereotypes apply Hypothesis 1 For domainidentified students stereotype threat may interfere with their domainrelated intellectual performance Hypothesis 2 Reducing this threat in the performance setting by reducing its interfering pressure should improve the performance of otherwise stereotypethreatened students 0 Model s implication that stereotype threat and the anticipation of having to contend with it unceasingly in school or some domain of schools should deter members of these groups from identifying with these domain and for group members already identified it should pressure their disidentification o Stereotype threat and intellectual performance 0 Stereotype threat of women performing math Re ecting the impairing effects of stereotype threat women significantly underperformed in relations to equally qualified men Matched for there strong literature skill and identification women performed just as well as equally qualified men this happened researchers reasoned because women were not stereotype threatened in this area Ruling out the biological limits of women s math ability In the genderdifference condition researchers expected women still stereotype threatened to underperform in relations to equally qualified men but in the nogenderdifference condition researchers expected women with stereotype threat reduced to perform equal to such men The genetic interpretation predicts that women will underperform on the test regardless of how it is represented Results Women performed worse than men when they were told that the test produced gender differences which replicated women s underperformance observed in earlier experiments but they performed equal to men when the test was represented as insensitive to gender differences 0 Internal or situational threat Doubting of abilities and general performance anxiety were not significant impairments to performance 0 Stereotype threat of African Americans on standardized threat Similar results were obtained when African Americans were primed as to race underperformance due to stereotype threat and when they were not primed as to race equal performance Stereotype threat may be a possible source of bias in standardized tests a bias that arises not from item content but from group differences in threat that societal stereotypes attach to test performance 0 Reaction of disidentification o Selfesteem s resilience to stigmatization Stigma itself offers esteemprotective strategies Stigmatized can blame their failures on prejudive of outgroup members they cam limit their selfevaluative social comparison to the ingroup of other stigmatized people and they can devalue he domains in which they feel devalued o Disassociation of selfesteem and school achievement proor school achievement of abilitystigmatized groups is mediated by disidentification then it might be expected that among the ability stigmatized there would be disassociation between school outcomes and overall selfesteem Although Black students performed less well than White students they till had comparable levels of overall selfesteem Source of overall selfregard Disidentif1cation with domains in which their evaluation prospects were poor in this case school and home life and identi cation with domains in which their prospects were better ie their peers For disidenti ed students of both races negative feedbacks about an intellectual task had less effect on their selfesteem than it did for identi ed students 0 Wise schooling Practice and Policy Situational design of schooling in particular design that secures these students in the belief that they will not be held under the suspicion of negative stereotypes about their group 0 For domainidenti ed and domainunidenti ed students I Optimistic teacherstudent relationships I Challenge over remediation I Stressing expandability of intelligence 0 For domainidenti ed students I Af rming domain belongingness I Valuing multiple perspectives I Role models 0 For domainunidenti ed students I Nonjudgmental responsiveness I Building selfef cacy Young Kathleen and Takeuchi David T Racism Pg 136163 0 For purposes of the article racism was de ned as prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race or institutional practices even if not motivated by prejudice that subordinate people of given race 0 National poll found that most American voters believed that Asian Americans do not encounter discrimination in US However these perceptions are divorced from the daily experiences of Asian Americans in the Us There are varying degrees and qualities of racism experienced by Asian ethnic groups who migrated to Us Each speci c Asian American ethnic group has experienced different receptions from American society depending on factors both internal to the ethnic group such as historical circumstances for migration demographic variables cultural characteristics originatingcountry power in international arena and external to group such as political economic and sociocultural context of Us at time of group s immigration 0 Note the examples provided by the authors to show illustrate the cultural climate experienced by various Asian ethnic groups in the Us 0 Discriminatory Practices against Asians in Us 0 AntiAsian laws Were enacted at all governmental levels and anti Asian sentiment could be found through all branches of government I Examples 0 CA tax on entrance to state CA Alien Land Acts of 1913 and 1920 San Francisco Cubic Air ordinance San Francisco haircutting ordinance Antimiscegenation laws Laws that prohibited Asians from testifying against Whites in court 0 AntiAsian immigration and naturalization laws 0 Executive Order 9066 o AntiAsian violence Violence against a minority group represents one of the more primitive manifestations of racism and the most overtly threatening O O 0 Examples 0 AntiChinese riots and antiChinese violence in early 1870s 0 AntiFilipino riots during Depression Hate crimes against Asian Americans are disproportionate to population numbers Asians and Paci c Islanders were found to be disproportionately victimized by hate crimes and related incidents than would be expected by their numbers in the population Anti Asian incidents accounted for 145 of reported hate crimes although Asians and Paci c Islanders represented only 86 of the population Colonialism Racism is usually embodied in historical colonialism because in the institutionalized contact between racial or ethnic groups that have unequal power race often is the major determinant that maintains categorization of those with the power and those who are to be governed AntiAsian discrimination in housing US Civil Rights Commission documented numerous incidents in which Asian Americans experienced raciallymotivated intimidation harassment vandalism designed to prevent Asian Americans from living in particular communities Discrimination in schools In 1850s CA legislature authorize superintendent to withhold funds from schools that did not exclude African Americans Native Americans and Asian students 0 By 1885 separate but equal schools were set up for Asian In 1920s there was 2tiered school system to segregate White students from nonWhite students Asian students Note some of the obstacles encountered by students with limited English proficiency At institutions of higher education there is underrepresentation of Asian Americans in faculty positions discriminatory admissions policies and policies regarding financial aid to Asian American students 0 Asian American students were admitted at lower rates than were White applicants despite comparable academic qualifications 0 Discrimination in employment opportunities O I Note some of the obstacles to Asian Americans in employment I Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits racial discrimination but Asian Americans are not absolutely protects because Asian Americans can be denied employment due to their Asianaccented English I Experiences with the glass ceiling may limit upward mobility I Asian must work harder to receive comparable economic gains Interminority con icts There were problems betweeni I Native Americans and Chinese in late 1800s I Korean Chinese Americans and Japanese Americans during WWII I Haitian African Americans and Korean Americans in 1990s Individuallevel theories of Racism Theories that incorporate an individual perspective include research done on attitudes and personality characteristics of prejudice persons the characteristics of minorities the socialization processes in the development of racist attitudes the social roles and status of prejudiced individuals and the cognitive sources of prejudice O O O Authoritarian personality Those having an ethnocentric attitude will display personality traits such as a punitive demeanor preoccupation with power and status intolerance for weakness of others and respect for submission to and obedience to ingroup authority gures I Cause and manifestation of authoritarian personality Harsh and restrictive discipline received when these individuals were children Such discipline resulted in psychodynamic processes such as the introj ection of the parents the repression of criticism of the parents and the repression of hostility toward authority As adults the repressed criticism surfaces instead in a projection onto the outgroup prejudice and repressed hostilities are then displaced on the out group discrimination I Limits of this explanation This theory does not explain changing attitudes sentiments if racism were simply the result 0 the dysfunctional personalities of individuals within groups then the relationship between groups would be expected to remain stable which we know is not true Affective cases of prejudice F rustrationaggression hypothesis posits that frustration that cannot be relieved is suppressed and the ensuing aggression is redirected or displaced onto out groups typically minority group members I Limits of this explanation It cannot explain why certain minority groups are targeted instead of others nor can it differentiate between other types of aggression perpetuated against minority group members Racist attitudes Racial prejudice is seen to be a necessary condition for racial discrimination It would seem that if it were possible to change racial attitudes then racism would decrease I The major source of socialization and thus racist attitudes are the family school peers and mass media O O O I Note the effect of the model minority myth on mainstream s perceptions of Asian Americans Symbolic racism This theory has been used to explain White American racial attitude toward African Americans on their response to racial issues in the political arena Selfesteem It is hypothesized that individuals within one group will try to achieve or maintain a distinctive and comparatively positive social identity relative to another group I Low selfesteem individuals were found to be more prejudiced in that they rated both in group and outgroup members negatively rather than simply rating outgroup members more negatively relative to in group ratings Cognitive sources of prejudice I Categorization of individuals had been found to create intergroup bias effects A cognitive factor in intergroup con ict might be the result of in group formation and identification rather than simply denigration of outgroup members Another cognitive error is the expectancyconfirmation bias which is the tendency to find evidence that will confirm prior expectations and not look for evidence that might disconfirm one s expectations which may explain stereotyping and the difficulty in changing existing racial attitudes Another cognitive process is saliency bias the more distinctive stimulus such as a minority group member is more likely to be the focus of one s attention which may explain why individuals may tend to automatically blame minority group members rather than majority group members Social explanations of racism 0 0 Cultural deprivation Past history of discrimination and unequal treatment of minorities had resulted in a situation whereby minority group members did not perform as well as majority group leading to negative attitudes I But Asian Americans provide a counterexample to the cultural deprivation theory in that they have done well despite initial social disadvantages and yet they still experience discrimination Classbased explanations The model minority myth makes Asian Americans the example for other minorities to follow Other minorities face with inequities in the economic system channel their hostilities and frustrations toward Asian Americans Racial segregation Racism continued to be a problem because demographic or institutional segregation limited contact between minority and majority group members thus limiting conditions for individual and societal change It is theorized that prejudice could be reduced if there were opportunities for majority and minority group members to have contact on an equalstatus basis I Note both the positive and negative effects of desegregation in terms of prejudice 0 Group selfinterest Boundary maintenance is a defense of intergroup boundaries to explain racial attitudes in that the group that currently possesses power wealth and status will be unlikely to support policies that might redistribute resources if such redistribution results in an ultimate loss of resources for that group There is no incentive for the group with the resources to share the resources and it might be in the self interest of the group the support the policies that maintain the status quo 0 Group processes Note the Sheriff experiment results in both the competitive noncompetitive and cooperative atmospheres 0 Institutional practices I Institutional racism Current institutional practice embody the past historical patterns of injustice toward minority groups and tend to maintain the status quo differential between group 0 Does not necessarily require the conscious prejudice of an individual agent but merely requires the normal operations of current institutions 0 Affirmative action may be a solution to institutional racism The impact of racism Effects of prejudice and discrimination of Asian Americans 0 Dion study suggests that racism does not impact selfesteem o Asamen study suggests that the more a person perceived racism the greater the effect on the Japanese selfconcept but not on the Chinese self concept Note Findings on the theories of racial attitudes toward African Americans do not always translate to those theories explaining racial attitudes toward Asian Americans Teresa A Mok Getting the Message Media Images and Stereotypes and Their Effect on Asian Americans Pg 7795 0 Purpose of article Discuss how Asians and Asian Americans have been portrayed in the media and the implication this has for them 0 Demonstrates that stereotypes about Asian tend to shift from good to bad depending on the historical or economic situation of the US culture 0 It addresses the following issues in media 0 Asian community is very diverse but little diversity is portrayed 0 Media also fails to differentiate btwn Asians AAs Americans Asians seen as onedimensional caricatures Since the 1920 s Asians have been depicted mostly as onedimensional characters and background characters They were portrayed as either good or bad depending on the sociopolitical climate of the times 0 It is clear that some Asians buy into the stereotypes of the opposite sex and some of them feel guilty about it o Whites were seen as the standard for attractiveness O O 0 Media portrayals may affect perceptions of Asian Americans 0 Since many Americans have little contact with Asian and Paci c Americans the impact of lms television and print is likely to be profound o Insensitive or unidimensional portrayals of Asian Americans by the media might foster prejudice and promote antiAsian bias 0 Asians as background color World events and history 0 Yellow Peril characterization o WWII portrayals of Japanese Chinese sharply contrasted 0 1940s and 1950s portrayals of Chinese North Korean communists contrast with Japanese 0 1970s portrayals of Vietnamese 0 Even television shows and films that took place in Hawaii did little to bolster Asian American presence in media 0 Exotic evil aliens The Dragon Lady and Fu Manchu 0 Both Asian men and women were seen as somehow out to enslave Whites through a combination of Oriental mysticism and deadly potent sexuality I Sessue Hayakawa Anna May Wong I Images of Ming the Merciless Dr Fu Manchu Dragon Lady Sinister evil diabolical immoral murderous sneaky inscrutable evil foreigners bent on economic and political domination of the world 0 Yellowface and miscegenation White actors often portrayed Asian characters 0 Why gt Because the studios disapproved of interracial love scenes I Consequences of Whites portraying Asians o Lumping together of diverse Asian groups into one strengthening the onedimensional stereotypes to feed public perceptions of what Asians and Asian Americans are like 0 Good characteristics of Asians attributable to the White actor 0 Asian characters would generally resolve social dilemma by killing themselvesikilling themselves for the bettering of others generally Whites portrayal of noble sufferers I Later expanded to include loyal sidekicks or those who killed themselves for their country Summa of Portrayals of Asian Americans in the Media 1 Generally Attitudes of mixed respect fear drove media portrayals 7 fear that Asians were taking over world economically and politically e g portrays fear about marriage or union between Asians and Whites The more Asians look and act Asian the less acceptable they are and the more likely they will be portrayed as villainsias Asian ways are seen as evil The more White Asians look and act the more acceptable they are and the more positive their portrayalias Western civilization is seen as good 2 Gender roles Stereotypes differ for men and women Asian men s various characterizations Reserved quiet diligent studious modest intelligent effeminate quickwitted virtuous courteous to elders honest introverted shy socially awkward 2 Asian women s various characterizations Beautiful dainty servile slender enchanting sexy Madame Butter y M Butter y Miss Saigon Portrayal of Asian Americans from Eurocentric point of view Do these portrayals affect the way Asian Americans see themselves gt Media does include their standards of beauty and attractiveness fact that they do not conform to these standards has impact on selfesteem 0 Media images may be a part of one s cultural reality Do these portrayals affect the way Asian Americans view other Asian Americans gt Many Asian Americans almost overwhelmingly accept some form of stereotypes about Asian men and Asian women 0 Media may contribute to increasing outmarriage rates Do these portrayals affect the way Asian Americans view White Americans gt Perceptions of White Americans revealed that they were seen as embodying the standard for attractiveness Model minority 0 Myth Stereotype With strong family values determination and hard work Asian Americans have been able to succeed in Us society Yet it fails to take into account the fact that some Asian Americans may not have done as well as media represents them O O 0 this myth was primarily advanced in the 1960s by Hollywood when another minority group African Americans began the civil rights movements Today the myth continues with emphasis on the educational attainment Asian Americans have supposedly achieved The myth was created around the idea of comparing Asian Americans to White Americans The acceptance of Asian Americans into society was often portrayed as hinging on their willingness to shed many Asian characteristics food language clothing style for an all American characteristics The message this sends is that in order for Asian Americans and other minorities to better their chances of being accepted they should assimilate and act white Jean S Phinney When We Talk About American Ethnic Groups What do We Mean Pg 371388 Background information American ethnic groups are often thought of as discrete categories to which people belong that explain some aspects of psychological functioning 0 Why is ethnicity important to research psychologists gt 2 main reasons I It is often used in psychological research to fill in theoretical and empirical gaps that have resulted from the focus of mainstream research on largely White middleclass samples Greater awareness of ethnic issues can bring increased sensitivity to treatment of clients from diverse backgrounds Goal of study Focus is on American ethnic groupsiAfrican Americans AsianPacific Americans Latinos Native Americans 0 To examine 3 aspects of ethnicity that are assumed to account for its psychological importance Note that these aspects are overlapping but have been separated for purposes of this study I Cultural values attitudes and behaviors that distinguish ethnic groups Subjective sense of ethnic group membership ethnic identity held by group members Experiences associated with minority status including powerlessness discrimination and prejudice 0 To demonstrate that these aspects are best understood in terms of dimensions along which individuals and samples vary rather than as categories into which individuals can be classified I Problems with ethnic categories as they are currently understood 0 Categories are imprecise and arbitrary social constructions rather than natural entities that are simply out there in the world 0 Categories vary over time context and individuals 0 Within categories there is tremendous heterogeneity there is greater variation within groups than between groups in terms of social class and education generation of immigration geographic region family structure size and composition of ethnic community etc I Problems with labeling 0 Many groups share several alternative labels available and these various labels have different meanings both for members and nonmembers of a particular group 0 Labels can vary with social context 0 Ethnicity as culture 0 Culture is conceptualized as the norms values attitudes and behaviors that are typical of an ethnic group and that stems from a common culture of origin transmitted across generations 0 But there is problem of tremendous heterogeneity within groups I Differences within groups includes those of country of origin generation of immigration region of settlement in US socioeconomic status community structure dispersion and mixing with mainstream America and other ethnic groups in Us Also acculturation presents difficulty when thinking of ethnicity as culture because it does not become clear whether particular individuals or samples actually re ect the culture they are though to represent 0 Ethnicity as identity 0 Ethnic identity is conceptualized as an enduring fundamental aspect of the self that includes a sense of membership in an ethnic group and the attitudes and feelings associated with that membership I Ethnic identity is a complex cluster of factors that define the extent and type of involvement with one s ethnic group 0 View of ethnic identity as the link between ethnicity and psychological outcomes is based on the assumption that ethnicity is meaningful psychological variable to the extent that it has salience and centrality for the individuals involved I Ethnic identity varies in terms of strengthithe stronger one s ethnic identity the greater the contribution that that identity makes to one s selfconcept 0 Components of ethnic identity Selflabeling sense of belonging positive evaluation preference for the group ethnic interest and knowledge involvement in activities associated with the group 0 Ethnicity as minority status O Minority status is based on history and present status of one s ethnic group in society includes the struggle to gain equality recognition and acceptance within a predominantly White society or events like slavery internment relocation and immigrant or refugee status personal experiences with prejudice includes level of detriment for groups with less power and status one s responses to perceptions of stereotypes and discrimination includes effect and magnitude of effect on selfesteem I These factors likely interact in complex ways in in uencing psychological outcomes 0 Implications and recommendations 0 0 Ethnic categories will continue to be needed because of the importance of exploring and understanding the many differences associated with aspects of ethnicity but they should be used with caution I Researchers should describe ethnic samples thoroughly in terms of all variables that may be relevant such as social class geographic region and level of acculturation Ethnicity should not be treated like an independent variable that explains outcome 0 Conclusion To explain outcomes that are in uences by ethnicity we need to explore at least 3 dimensions of differences that vary within and across ethnic groupsiethnicity as culture ethnicity as identity ethnicity as minority status 0 As these dimensions are more clearly defined and studied within and across groups we will begin to get a better comprehension of the role of ethnicity for psychology Ham HL Kitano Diane C Fujino Jane Takahashi Sato Interracial Marriages Where Are the Asian Americans and Where Are They Going Pg 603627 0 Research purpose To present history of Asian Americans review past major findings present current data provide a model to understand and to make future predictions 0 Definitions 0 Inma1riageintragroup marriage Asian American ma1rying within their own ethnic group Outmarriageintergroup marriage Asian American marrying out of their own ethnic group Interracial marriage Asian American not only marrying out of their own ethnic group but also marrying a person not of Asian ancestry History Why is it important to look at group s history in America gt Because it tell us about marriage types whether intragroup intergroup or interracial and rates 0 O O Motives for immigration have varied Asians came as sojourners contract laborers voluntary immigrants and refugees some wanted to enter the mainstream while others have preferred a pluralistic experience Demographic characteristics such as sex ratio family composition education social class background age of arrival were different Development and maintenance of ethnic communities Some Asian groups live in cohesive communities with large numbers and with ample opportunities for social withingroup interaction whereas others were much more scattered and prone to interact primarily outside their ethnic group Most eventually settled in urban areas and their marital preferences were different from those living in rural areas Time of entrance into the US varied Some have been here for more than a century whereas others are relative newcomers there are withingroup and between group generational differences Reception by the host society has varied Those who came prior to the 1950s faced antimiscegenation laws as well as other barriers to participation in the host society whereas newcomers have benefited from equal opportunity and affirmative action legislation However economic recession and Asian bashing also have been part of the current scene Note that generally intergroup and interracial marriage rates in Hawaii are higher than those of the mainland because of more exposure to various cultures and because of fact that Caucasians do not occupy the same dominant position they do on the mainland Theories as to why there is upward trend in intergroup and interracial marriages for Asian Americans 0 O O O 0 Relative group size heterogeneity and sex ratio I The smaller the group the higher the rate of outmarriage I The more diverse the group the higher the rate of outmarriage I The more unbalanced the sex ratio the higher the rate of outmarriage for the oversupplied gender Acculturation and assimilation Higher rates of outmarriage were related to higher education middleclass status professional occupations generation and nonfarm residence This may be attributed to propinquity physical closeness in terms of work school housing and play which leads to increased outgroup contact there is higher likelihood of meeting and liking each other Legal barriers and changing norm Abolishment of antimiscegenation laws and seeming acceptance of Asian Americans in American culture have led to higher rates of outmarriage Hypergamy Many Asian Americans have the notion that they are marrying up by outmarrying Psychological theories Marginal meets marginal An Asian American may feel rejected by their own group when they are exposed to another group who accepts them they identify with this new group internalize their norms and idealize their way of life Caucasian men may be marrying down because they have low selfesteem and feelings of inferiority that cause them to marry members of a lowerstatus group since they feel they can do no better Management of Oedipal fantasies Inadequate repression of attraction to oppositesex parent may lead to relationship with individuals who are different from parents 0 Method Data was collected from LA County marital records from 1989 to 1998 0 Results There was general trend over the years toward increasing outmarriages 0 Japanese Americans had the highest rates whereas Korean Americans had the lowest rates 0 Females outmarried at higher rates than males 0 There is increasing rate of outmarriage with successive generations born in US 0 Discussion 0 Generation was most important predictor of outmarriage rates Why higher rates for successive generations gt Length of time in US acquisition of language and social skills exposure to American norms and values loss of family control over ma1riage growing independence of children issues of Americanethnic identity mobility in housing educational occupational and social integration 0 Gender was also important predictor of outmarriage rates Why higher rates for females gt Because females may be more accepted by dominant culture may acculturate more rapidly and may have stereotypes and images that increase their value as mates in comparison to Asian men who face negative stereotypes o Other factors I Area of residence and sheer numbers of available partners Ifthere is lack of available Asian American partners it is less likely that ingroup marriages will take place Ability of ethnic group to provide resources such as social activities and organizational support ExampleiKorean American communities have large number of churches and other resources that enable young adults to interact with one another increasing the likelihood that they will marry within their group Increased portrayal of interracial dating and marriage in media Final Review outline Leong F CareerT 39 t and vocational behaviors Pg 657690 Career interests Asians in general prefer physical sciences business and skilled technical trades Females exhibit more interest in artistic or social science fields or they liked domestic elds Japanese didn t follow Asian norms for occupation interests b c of higher level of acculturation There was a difference between expressed and measured interests in Asian students Asians aren t going into career elds that they personally want but elds that they re expected to go into or the more stable or respectable fields Occupational values The most important values to Asians in jobs are money and task satisfaction Found through study of Chinese 539h and 6h graders object orientation and solitude of lesser value boys value object orientation selfrealization and ideasdata more than girls girls value altruism more sex differences could be noncultural lack of comparable white sample in terms of similar region socioeconomic status and time span study asserts need for broadening occupational options for Asians while stil respecting cultural values which underlie occupational values highly acculturated Asians value selfrealization more than lowacculturated Asians Asians place greater emphasis on extrinsic values than Whites value security more could be because of Asian culture s greater emphasis on pragmatism collectivistic orientation in decision making and mind set in uenced by immigration experience Career development Asians score lower in a measure of career maturity career maturity classified as l decisiveness in career decision making cdm 2 involvement in cdm 3 independence in cdm 4 orientation to cdm 5 compromise in cdm higher levels of dependent decisionmaking styles than Whites Asians aren t immature careerwise but their occupational value orientations are affected by their cultural values which emphasize collectivistic orientation in decision making signi cantly more conforming and socially introverted Asians more verbally and socially inhibited felt more emotionally withdrawn and socially isolated experience a greater deal of social anxiety Asian social discomfort due to con ict between informal nature of social relationships in US culture and their own more formal traditional cultural values Asians may choose physical science and technical trades due to higher level of social discomfort Asians underrepresented in social sciences and other vocations that require verbal and persuasive skills and high levels of social interactions such as law and psychology Work adjustment and vocational problems Asians more likely to present vocational career problems to counselors than personalemotional problems Occupational stereotyping Asians perceived to be more likely to succeed as engineers computer scientists and mathematicians Less likely to succeed as insurance salesmen Occupational discrimination and segregation limits to upward mobility that can be obtained through educational success and is shown in under representation of Asians in some elds and overrepresentation in others Mean income of Asians is also still lower than that of Whites despite comparable or higher educational achievement Sue Stanlev and Okazaki Sumie AsianAmericanF 39 quot 39 A quot A lquot in Search of an Explanation Pg 691704 Purpose of study To examine the achievements of Asian Americans and two of the major explanations that have been proposed for the achievements of Asian Americans 4 points to keep in mind when reviewing this research 0 Asian Americans represent heterogeneous group with marked within and betweengroup variations in a number of characteristics 0 Research ndings have not been able to shed much light on factors that account for the achievement levels 0 Single explanations cannot adequately account for the observed performance patterns 0 The concept of relative functionalism also considers the problems of achieving in non educational types of endeavors Achievement levels of Asian American students Asian and Paci cIslander Americans APIAs exceed the national average for high school and college graduates 0 Evidence I Higher high school graduation rates I Higher college enrollment I Higher admission rates to University of California campuses I Higher college graduation rates I Better high school GPAs and math SAT scores Explanations for achievement patterns 0 Socioeconomic status It is thought that perhaps APIAs are more advantaged in terms of socioeconomic standing and provide their children with special resources and opportunities I However the median parental income of APIAs was lower than that of Whites 25400 and 32900 respectively yet APIAs were found to have higher high school grades and math SAT scores than Whites o Heredity To determine whether APIAs are innately superior to Whites in intelligence it is necessary to demonstrate that APIAs are higher not only in educational attainments but also in intelligence and cognitive functioning I Unfortunately few studies have compared these groups on intellectual measures 0 Sowell study 1978 concluded that Chinese and Japanese Americans equal or exceed the national average But his study was limited by fact that samples were small and estimates were based on performance rather than verbal tests 0 Lynn study 1977 found that at every age level Japanese children outperformed Americans But there are many criticisms of Lynn s study including fact that Lynn failed to take into account the fact that Japanese samples tended to have higher socioeconomic standing and higher representation of urban rather than rural children than did American samples Stevenson 1980s found that there were no general differences in cognitive functioning between APIA and American samples and superiority of APIAs in math was not attributable to higher levels of cognitive functioning Hypothesis that APIAs are genetically superior in intelligence would appear to be refuted by empirical data 0 Culture What factors are hypothesized as causes of high APIA educational achievement gt Largely on the basis of anecdotal and observational evidence rather than on empirical ndings investigators have identi ed the following values or practices in Asian families that may promote educational achievementsgdemands and expectations for achievement and upward mobility induction of guilt about parental sacri ces and the need to ful ll obligations respect for education social comparisons with other AsianAmerican families in terms of educational success and obedience to elders such as teachers Family socialization for high achievement is key Families emphasized educational achievements held high expectations for achievements controlled the behaviors of the students and considered school very important Hard work respect for education and motivation to become educated among other traits foster academic success In the cultural model the research task is to identify relevant cultural values and practices and correlate them with educational attainment Dornbusch study investigate the relation between family variables and academic achievement for various ethnic minority groups 0 Findings do not support the cultural hypothesis that APIAs differ from other groups in achievements because of the differences in upbringing Although ethnic differences in parenting styles do exist they fail to account for the observed ethnic differences in achievements 0 Only on one response was there a significant group difference APIAs were more likely to believe that success in life has to do with the things studied in school This belief was directly related to high school grades 0 Findings do not necessarily invalidate a cultural explanation Perhaps other family or socialization variables are important singly or in combination and more studies should be conducted A better model would posit that cultural values or socialization patterns affect a mediator a more proximal variable such as effort or motivation which is likely to show stronger correlation with achievements The mediator is also influenced by other variables besides culture such as opportunities for advancement in other areas of life Relative functionalism It is thought that APIAs educational achievements are in uenced by opportunities present for upward mobility Noneducational areas include career activities such as leadership entertainment sports politics and so forth in which education does not directly lead to the position To the extent that mobility is limited in noneducational areas for APIAs education becomes increasingly salient as a means of mobility I Education was channel for social mobility of Asians partly because they were frozen out of some sectors of the economy Kim Rebecca Ethnic Differences in Academic Achievement between Vietnamese and Cambodian Children Cultural and Structural Explanations Pg 705724 0 Background information to study Southeast Asian immigration experiences 0 Southeast Asian SEAs left their homelands as political refugees eeing war death and persecution and thus lost their families and contact with loved ones in the process SEAs entered American as part of the largest refugee resettlement program I As political refugees many are dependent on government nancial assistance and they are concentrated in lowincome neighborhoods 0 Difficulties with immigration and adjustment suggest that SEAs will not fare well in terms of their educational achievementichallenging the commonly told story of Asian American students academic success 0 There is sharp contrast between Vietnamese students and Cambodian students the Vietnamese are excelling academically and are catching up to East Asian immigrant children in terms of their educational achievement however the same level of success is not found among other SEA children particularly the Cambodians I Evidence Number of children classi ed as gifted math scores generally higher academic performance 0 Purpose of study To examine ethnic differences in academic achievement between Vietnamese and Cambodian children to show that accounting for cultural and structural disparities between the two groups can help explain differences in their achievement 0 Ultimate goal of study To appreciate the diversity among Asians in America and to better understand their achievement 0 Literature review Cultural and structural explanations 0 Cultural explanations Emphasize the importance of cultural values beliefs and practices that have been commonly used to explain Asian American children s education success I Cultural values from Asian immigrants home countries are said to be transplanted to America and are used by Asian families to socialize their children and to help them achieve academic and economic success 0 It has been argued that cultural values in uenced by the Confucian tradition found in East Asian countries and Vietnam that place high value on education hard work and social solidarity as a means of achieving mobility help explain Asian children s higher academic achievement I Criticisms of cultural explanations 0 Values are not necessarily predictive of success Most students of all ethnicities realize the value of education yet all students do not succeed How can this be used then to explain success of Asian students 0 Explanation does not account for the possibility that minority status may contribute to achievement drive I Generally cultural arguments can explain achievement but do not explain the whole picture 0 Structural explanations Stress the premigration group characteristics of immigrant groups and the social structure conditions of the host society to explain immigrants and their39 39 quot 39 quot 39and quot 39 39 1 Examples of structural conditions group characteristics Parents education occupation income structure of immigrant social networks or communities ethnic communities 0 Case Study of Vietnamese and Cambodians O ample Immigrants from Vietnam and Cambodian mostly entered US due to US involvement in Southeast Asia Immigrants sought refuge in US and initially faced some of the same dif culties 0 However cultural and structural differences distinguish the groupsi 0 Vietnamese immigrants have Confucian philosophies that support hierarchical patriarchal society that emphasizes hard work respect for elders and education Vietnamese culture is more collectivistic Cambodian immigrants have Theravada Buddhist tradition that is considered more individualistic stressing personal development and individual good behavior 0 0 Potential explanations O 0 Cultural explanation Because of differing cultural values it is suggested that Cambodian children may not have the same family and social pressure to achieve in school compared to Vietnamese children Cambodians do not have the same degree of social and family solidarity as Vietnamese and that Cambodian children may not receive the same amount of pressure to do well in school as Vietnamese children as Cambodians stress innate intelligence where Vietnamese stress learned intelligence Structural explanation Because Vietnamese immigrants included a first wave of more educated and af uent people who had arrived earlier the second wave of more impoverished Vietnamese bene ted from the economic and community structures that the first group had already established 0 Hardships imposed by new Communist regimes in Vietnam and Laos were vastly exceeded by those in Cambodia As a consequence of the severity of war experienced by Cambodians have physically and emotionally disturbed family structures leading to lower academic achievement Data and Method Data was derived from Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study CILS 0 Data was gathered from questionnaires 0 Demographic data National origin parental occupation and education length of US residence family structure student aspirations psychosocial conditions related to adaptation process Academic data Scores on standardized reading and math test from school system Hypotheses Cultural hypotheses and variables 0 1 Higher education aspirations and greater emphasis on grades and education will relate positively to academic achievement 0 2 An increase in time spent on homework and studying will be positively relate to academic achievement while an increase in time spent watching television will be negatively related to academic achievement 3 Increased emphasis on family and kin will be positively related to academic achievement I Structural hypotheses and controls 0 1 Increased levels of father s education mother s education and parents socioeconomic index SEI scores will be positively related to academic achievement 2 Absence of information on parents SEI scores will be related to lower academic achievement 3 An increased percentage of those living under the poverty level as well as an increased percentage of adults with less than a 9th gra e education in the respondent s census tract will negatively affect academic achievement 4 Those who attend white majority schools in suburbs will do better than those who do not and that increased gang activity in schools will relate to lower academic achievement 5 Children of parents who have a close community of friends from the home country will do better in terms of academic achievement than those who lack that community The children who received help from relatives in adapting to the new country will do better than those who received no help 6 Those who live with 2 natural parents will perform better academically than those who do not 7 Those who have experienced discrimination will not do as well academically compared to those who have not experienced discrimination I Variables controlled for Age gender length of US residence ethnic Chinese heritage family structure amount of community support attitudinal variables 0 Models used for interpretation I Model 1 Looks at the ethnic differences in academic achievement between Vietnamese and Cambodian children with the 4 main control variablesiage length of US residence gender Chinese ethnicity I Model 2 Adds structural variables to those in Model 1 I Model 3 Adds cultural variables to those in Model 2 0 Results I Raw math and reading test scores Vietnamese gt Cambodian I Cultural variables Educational aspirations Vietnamese gt Cambodian Other indicators of education Vietnamese Cambodian Time spent studying Vietnamese gt Cambodian Time spent watching television Cambodian gt Vietnamese Value of being close with parents kin Vietnamese gt Cambodian I Structural variables Attendance at school with gang presence Cambodian gt Vietnamese Attendance at school with white majority Vietnamese gt Cambodian Ties to community from home country Vietnamese gt Cambodian Higher social class Vietnamese gt Cambodian I Model 1 Reading Vietnamese gt Cambodian in terms of scores when controlled for 4 main variables gap between groups decreased but still Vietnamese gt Cambodian Math Vietnamese gt Cambodian in terms of scores when controlled for 4 main variables gap between groups decreased a little 0 Model 2 0 Reading Adding structural variables to Model 1 reduced ethnic differences in achievement 7 of 12 structural variables were signi cant in predicting reading achievement scores 0 Structural variables with significant predictor value include Mother s education gang activity at school attendance in white suburban schools discrimination experiences community ties of parents Structural variables with no signi cant predictor value include Father s education level the class makeup of the neighborhood family structure 0 Math Adding structural variables to Model 1 reduced ethnic differences by a small margin 4 structural variables were signi cant in predicting math achievement scoresiexistence of SEI scores parental community ties gang activity at school discrimination experiences Model 3 0 Reading Most cultural variables were not signi cant 2 werei education aspirations and attachment to parents 0 Math Increased educational aspirations were related to higher math achievement scores 0 Discussion Structural variables were generally more successful in explaining ethnic difference in academic achievement 0 Structural variables such as parents class background child s school setting parents community ties were signi cant predictors of academic achievement and reducing ethnic differences in achievement 0 Among cultural variables only the variable that measured one s educational aspirations was signi cant in predicting both reading and math achievement scores Structural and cultural variables were not equally useful in predicting reading and math achievement scores or for explaining differences in achievement between Vietnamese and Cambodian children 0 Structural variables may better explain reading achievement because math skills are more easily transferred from old country to new country In this situation children of immigrants and refugees who come from more educated and economically resourceful families may be better able to improve their reading skills than math skills Another possible reason for inherent differences between Vietnamese and Cambodian achievement Westemization and modernization of Vietnam during the French occupation that made their overall adaptation in American including their children s educational achievement easier relative to Cambodians Study weakness It is dif cult to separate the cultural effects from the structural effects as they are so interrelated Implications of study 0 The study illustrates the cultural and structural diversity among Southeast Asians 0 We as a society should try to make public schools safer provide more equitable resources and help immigrant populations to rebuild stronger ethnic communities We can also help students to have more speci c goals for education and foster higher educational aspirations Chan Sucheng Cambodia s Darkest Hours Pg 816841 0 Note the use of the term survivor to describe Cambodians and Cambodian Americans 0 A historical sketch 0 Cambodia was strongly in uenced early in its history by Hinduism I But little is known about the early history What is known is derived from temples and engravings on them inscriptions carved into stone found elsewhere and accounts written by Chinese envoys who visited I Why is so little known gt Because the historical record is sparse because a er cloth wood and palm fronds all rot easily with the warm humid weather 0 Invasions throughout Cambodian history 14 Century Thai I Nth1939h Century Vietnamese I 18 11 Century Thai I Mid19 h Century French imperialism 0 Modern history I 1970 Deposing of Prince Sihanouk I 19701975 First Cambodian Civil War between USbacked Khmer Republic and North Vietnambacked Khmer Rouge 0 Note the philosophy of the Khmer Rouge and how they came to power also note different factions that also existed including Pol Pot s o The First Cambodian Civil War 19701975 0 Note the 3 reasons for the Khmer Rouge s rapid victory I Especially the reasons motivations behind Sihanouk s alliance with the Khmer Rouge and how his eventual phasing out was accomplished I Also the reason for Vietnamese support of the Cambodian Civil War 0 Initially the rural and provincial populations were supportive of the revolutionary movement supportive of Pol Pot I Among other reasons US bombings of the Cambodian countryside led to increased support for the Khmer Rouge 0 Reasons for the failed effort of the Khmer Republic I Weaknesses with the army corruption of the army officials I Demoralization of the army because of comparisons to Khmer Rouge army I Decreases in US aid which led to malnutrition and starvation of civilians o Eventually Phnom Penh was evacuated o The nature of the Khmer Rouge Revolution 0 Note how cultural history experts find it hard to characterize Khmer Rouge motivation for the revolutionary efforts 0 Traits that Khmer Rouge supporters normally had Conceptions of honor revenge paranoia patronage obedienceiall embedded in hierarchical Khmer social structure I Why supporters of Khmer Rouge efforts participated without question Mukh face kumkam karma shared belief in Pol Pot s desire to transform Cambodia into the most advanced Communist society shared belief in creation of Utopia o The killing elds 0 Purpose of the evacuation of the capital city Phnom Penh was to prevent any resistance from developing against Khmer Rouge I When city residents came into the countryside there was a lot of resentment from the rural populations who were now forced to share already scarce resources I There were a divide between the new people and the old people o The new people were put to work in farms and Cambodia became one big forced labor camp that promoted selfreliance and rejected symbols of Western imperialisms I Khmer Rouge further rejected Western ideals by destroying markets money banks private property schools religion I Note the harsh conditions endured by Cambodians which led to many deaths due to starvation malnutrition exposure to the elements 0 Family and friends were separated from one another 0 Note the tactics used by the Khmer Rouge to terrorize people to prevent uprising and their attitudes toward what they were doing 0 There was rampant ethnic cleansing as many ethnic Vietnamese Chinese Laotian Thai Khmer Krom were killed because of their ethnicity 0 Revolution Devours its Own 0 There was atmosphere of suspicion among Pol Pot s regime leading to execution of many highranking of cials o 4 goals of Khmer Rouge in Cambodia I To destroy old society and its social political economic and cultural infrastructure I To force entire society into new socioeconomic patterns I To counter revisionism and coups d etat from within I To eliminate threats posed by Vietnam and perceived collaborators from Vietnam 0 These goals were not realized though because of 1error gone mad terror that seems to have become an end in itself 0 Resistance 0 There were some lucky escapees from the forcedlabor camps o Eventually the Socialist Republic of Vietnam with support of Khmer Rouge dissidents removed Pol Pot from power and installed new government headed by Heng Samrin and Hun Sen I Note the 3 reasons for Vietnamese involvement in efforts to overthrow Pol Pot I People s Republic of Kampuchea was established 0 The People s Republic of Kampuchea PRK and the 2 Civil War 19791991 0 Note the attempts of the new government to restore Cambodia and the difficulties it itself created including the blocking of relief efforts 0 3 factions opposed the new government Sihanouk Khmer Rouge Son Sarin I They combined forces to form the Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea GCDK and eventually overthrew PRK I Formation of State of Cambodia 0 Instability of relations between USSR and China led to an increased Vietnamese presence in Cambodia I But the collapse of the Soviet Union led to withdrawal of Vietnamese occupation 0 Since then there has been ongoing war between factions for control of Cambodian government Zane Nolan WS and HuhKim Jeannie Addictive Behaviors Pg 783810 0 Focus of study Presentation of research on alcohol and other drug use smoking and gambling 0 Alcohol and other drug use 0 Drug use among Asian American youths Asian Americans are generally shown to have the highest percentage of abstainers those who refrain from using alcohol other drugs I However the Barnes and Welte study showed that Asian American students who did drink consumed the largest amount of alcohol per day when compared to other ethnic groups 0 Drug use in Hawaii Studies conducted in H have tended to nd lower rates of alcohol consumption for Asian American populations when compared to those for Whites I Those that depended or abused drugs though were less like to seek professional help than were Whites 0 Personal shame and embarrassment appeared to be major barriers with more Japanese Native Hawaiians and Filipinos than Whites Native Hawaiians who drank tended to consume more alcohol than did drinkers in other Asian groups Among females alcohol consumption was much lower overall than among males Accumulated evidence seems to indicate that Whites and Native Hawaiians do not differ signi cantly from each other but that these two groups had signi cantly higher drinking rates than did the Japanese Chinese and Filipinos 0 Asian drug use in the continental US I Rates of Asians were signi cantly lower than the rates found for Whites o In general Asian Americans have higher rates of abstinence and lower rates of drug use than do other ethnic groups 0 Among Asians Chinese men reported the least drinking while Japanese men reported the most drinking 0 For each Asian ethnic group there was a higher percentage of abstainers among foreignbom Asians than among their Americanborn counterparts I Kitano study 0 Rates of heavy drinkers Japanese gt Filipino gt Korean gt Chinese 0 Rates of moderate drinkers Chinese gt Japanese gt Filipino gt Korean 0 Rates of abstainer Korean gt Filipino gt Chinese gt Japanese I Studies on Korean Americans in LA suggest that the in uences of family and church can explain lower rates of alcohol use 0 Crossnational studies on Asian drug use I Rates of alcohol abuse and dependence in China Shanghai gt Taiwan I Rates of current Japanese drinkers Japanese men gt White gt Japanese Americans in California gt Japanese Americans in Hawaii 0 White women gt Japanese Americans in California gt Japanese Americans in Hawaii gt Japanese I Alcohol consumption is gaining acceptance in Japan due to several factors 0 Drug use estimates based on treated case data ere are low rates of Asian American admissions into drug abuse treatment centers 0 This may be due to lower prevalence rates but could also be due to underutilization of services I Drinking patterns among Chinese males 0 They usually were not involved with other drugs and were not normally characterized as engaging in violent behaviors 0 They usually only drank hard liquor 0 General conclusions on p 793794 I Note the negative effects and benefits that may help to explain the differences in alcohol consumption among different Asian groups 0 Smoking and tobacco use 0 Asians had the lowest prevalence of regular users at each grade level and the lowest lifetime prevalence rates at each grade level except the 10t grade I Drug use involving marijuana alcohol or other drugs was found to be the most important predictor of tobacco use in each ethnic I Gender differences among Asians were large relative to those found to Whites o Asians had the lowest proportion of participants who smoked monthly but they also had the second highest rate of individuals who smoked weekly or daily I Not attending school was the best predictor for tobacco use Other predictors include smoking by peers drinking by signi cant adults drug context at school poor grades selfcare habits risk taking smoking by mothers 0 Vietnamese American males were less likely to smoke in middle school than were other students but were more likely to smoke in high school than nonVietnamese students I Important social influence identi ed for Vietnamese adolescents involved family members who smoked 0 Adult smokers Asian adults reported less parental smoking less spousal smoking and more pressure to quit smoking from both family and friends possibly due to the greater number of children in the household 0 Gender and acculturation have important influence on the smoking rates of Asian Americans 0 Gambling 0 Pathological gamblers often encounter family job financial legal difficulties as a result of their addiction 0 Female gamblers How they are different from male gamblers I Typically start gambling later in life I More apt to depression and to gamble less for excitement than for escape I Underrepresentation in treatment because there is greater stigma on female amblers 0 Stages in career of pathological gambler Winning phase gt Losing phase gt Desperation o Anecdotal accounts strongly suggest that Asian Americans may gamble more than other ethnic groups but there is no research on problem gambling among members of Asian American groups 0 Note the limitations of the ndings presented in this article 0 Most commonly encountered limitations are lack of attention to inter and intragroup diversity among Asian Americans the use of selfreport measures and the infrequent use of culturallybased variables to explain ethnic differences in addictive behaviors Chun Kevin M Eastman Karen L Wang Grace CS and Sue Stanlev S P 39 quot 39 Pg 741 763 o 4 factors are included in the model for analysis of psychopathology in Asian Americans Components of this model are logically linked Vulnerability factors may contribute to development of psychopathology whereas cognitive and emotional responses to these factors comprise the experience with mental illness In turn experience affects how psychopathology is manifested and the manifestation of disorders forms the basis for prevalence estimates 0 Vulnerability Encompasses those person and environmental factors that contribute to the development of psychopathology 0 Experience Includes culturallyembedded explanatory models of mental illness 0 Manifestation Constitutes expression and course of psychopathology 0 Prevalence Based on treated and untreated case estimates 0 Vulnerability 0 There is currently no conclusive evidence that Asian Americans are more biologically vulnerable to certain mental disorders than are other ethnic groups However this does not imply that significant psychobiological differences between Asians and Caucasians do not exist 0 There is strong evidence that Asians and Caucasians differ signi cantly in their psychobiological reactions to alcohol and psychotropic medication 0 Studies of newborn infants also suggests that important psychobiological differences exist between Asians and Caucasian as evidenced in early development differences in temperament excitabilityimperturbability There are numerous environmental stressors that place Asian immigrants refugees at increased risk for psychopathology including culture con icts language difficulties lack of social supports nancial strain experiences with war trauma in home country political upheaval in home country resettlement issues in new country 0 Experience Traditional beliefs in intertwining soma and psyche relationship may lead to both psychological and physiological conceptualizations of mental illness 0 O O O o Manifestation O 0 These environmental stressors may contribute to elevated levels of depression anxiety disorders posttraumatic stress disorder Some protective factors include hardy personalities Such beliefs may also determine coping strategies employed among Asians 0 Those who conceptualize psychopathology in terms of psychological and physiological causes are the best candidates for seeking professional help Interdependence con icts such as interpersonal tension social isolation and group disharmony may be salient for many Asians who maintain culturally proscribed interdependent representations of self Interdependent selfrepresentations may attribute interpersonal problems according to situational rather than dispositional factors they externalize their problems rather than internalizing problems Asians experience with psychopathology is heterogeneous as experiences vary with acculturation such that mental health beliefs among recently arrived Asians might be more embedded in their native culture compared to those who have resided in US longer Psychiatric nomenclature that is frequently used in US might fail to capture psychosocial experience for certain segments of Asian American population especially for those who come from preliterate societies Culturebound symptoms Indigenous expressions of distress intimately connected to Asian experience of stress and mental illness Examples Koro hwa byun In a study of Asian and Caucasian students ethnic differences discriminated between depressed and 39 l l 39 39 39 symptoms such as poor appetite indigestion suffering from gas differentiated depressives from nondepressives for Chinese and Japanese but not for Caucasians while urge to eat when not hungry discriminated depressives from nondepressives only for Caucasians Somatization Expression of distress that is manifested as general or vague physical complaints This might involve general aches and pains in extremities or head weakness throughout the body nausea or upset stomach or numbness and tingling Theories of somatization 0 Actual physical symptoms manifest with psychological symptoms 0 Saving face as physical symptoms are more acceptable 0 Cultural not cognitive preferences 0 Prevalence o Treated cases Although treated case method is inadequate because Asian Americans tend to underutilize mental health services it provides an initial step to gaining better understanding of extent of mental disorders among Asian Americans ian Americans have lower rates of hospital admissions for mental illness 0 Asian Americans college students have lower utilization rates of mental health services Asian Americans that do seek services are more severely impaired 0 Greater proportion of Asian American clients received psychotic diagnoses than did Caucasian clients Asian Americans were diagnosed with major affective disorders and schizophrenia symptoms than Caucasians o Untreated cases I Signi cant numbers of Asian Americans reported depressed days and depressive symptoms feelings of loneliness memory problems worrying 0 There is tendency to overdiagnose Asian American clients There are cases in which it was later recognized that symptoms were not indicative of delusional disorder but instead was congruent with cultural beliefs I Cultural competence is necessary for accurate diagnoses for adequate treatment Language barriers often pose barriers for treatment 0 Note the recommendations for future research Sue Stanley and Zane Nolan The Role of Culture and Cultural Techniques in Psychotherapy A Critique and f 39 quot Pg 881896 0 Purpose of article To examine the principles underlying attempts to develop effective psychotherapy with ethnicminority groups 0 Problems in providing effective services 0 There is clear evidence pointing to underutilization and high dropout rates for Asian Americans and other ethnic minority in mental health services 7 y 0 Lack of bilingual therapists 0 Stereotypes therapists have of ethnic clients 0 Discrimination O Inability of therapists to provide culturallyresponsive forms of treatment 0 This leads clients to find mental health services strange foreign unhelpful 0 New issues raised by contemporary strategies 0 Ethnic and culture match have been suggested to improve therapeutic relationship Other methods include I Hiring bilingualbicultural personnel who could work with ethnicminority clients Continuing education of current staff Creation of mental health centers or sections of mental hospitals that specialized in treating these ethnic clients Organizing multiservice centers where mental health programs could be embedded within legal social service and language programs Despite the research that shows that such practices could be helpful in getting and retaining Asian Americans in therapy putting such concepts into practice is more difficult I Why 0 0 Because even with cultural training there is often insufficient knowledge and inappropriate overgeneralizations using that knowledge 0 Note example in the book about the Japanese American dancing 0 Because it is hard to gure out how to integrate cultural knowledge into existing methods used in Western psychotherapy 0 Even with the advent of techniqueoriented recommendations that seem to work for some Mexican and African American clients they are not adequate for Asian American clients 0 Individuals who develop a theoretical style or orientation found problems in adopting a different style to treat Asian Americans 0 Many Asian American clients who were unacculturated seemed unwilling to talk about their emotions and to work well with little structure I Distal nature of contemporary strategies 0 Therapists knowledge of the culture of clients is quite distal to therapeutic outcomes in the sense that the knowledge must be transformed into concrete operations and strategies 0 Cultural knowledge is not directly related to successful treatment outcomes 0 It may be wiser to focus on the proximal process A reformulation 2 concepts are especially relevant to ethnic minorities and these concepts can be goals for training programs for therapists learning how to deal with Asian American clients 0 Credibility Client s perception of the therapist as an effective and trustworthy helper I Ascribed v achieved credibility 0 Lack of ascribed credibility may be the primary reason for underutilization of therapy whereas lack of achieved credibility may better explain premature termination 0 Note the 3 mistakes a therapist can make to reduce credibility with the client p 888 and how credibility can be restored 0 Role of cultural knowledge is to alert therapists to possible problems in credibility Without knowing the cultural values of an ethnic minority group therapists would have to assess their credibility on a casebycase basis 0 Giving Client s perception that something was received from the therapeutic encounter I Explanations of the treatment process can be considered gifts to the client 0 Why gt Because explanations are intended to provide a rationale and to alter the client s expectations so that they t the therapy process Explanations are attempts to change client s expectations to match the therapist s form of treatment I Why is giving necessary 0 To quell the high dropout rate 0 To demonstrate the achieved credibility of the therapist and therapy 0 To lessen the skepticism toward Western forms of treatment on the part of many Asian Americans I Examples of gifts Anxiety reduction depression relief cognitive clarity normalization reassurance hope and faith skills acquisition coping perspective goal setting 0 Normalization Process by which clients come to realize that their thoughts feelings or experiences are common and that many individuals encounter similar experiences
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