Chemistry Book Notes Week 5
Chemistry Book Notes Week 5 Chem 143
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Zirko on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 143 at University of Montana taught by Dr. Cracolice in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 2 in Chemistry at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Week 5 Book Notes Chem 143 Prof Cracolice Chapter 51 How do Equilibrium Systems maintain Equilibrium 22216 511 How do Equilibrium Systems Maintain Equilibrium 0 Le Chateliers Principle if an equilibrium system I subjected to charge processes occur that tends to partially counteract the initial change brining the system to a new position 0 What Happens to a Chemical Equilibrium when there is a Change in Concentration of One Species 00000 0 Equal forward and reverse reaction rates shown by double arrows Size of formulas represent relative concentrations of different species More product I raises rate of reverse reaction I larger arrow from right to left Unequal reaction rates change system in the direction of the faster reaction rate Le Chateliers principlel predicting direction of shift without detailed analysis Substance will always try and return to equilibrium 0 What Happens to a Chemical Equilibrium when there is a Change in Volume of the System 0 O O 0 Includes one or more gases changing in concentration I change in volume Both change and adjustment involves pressure caused by entire system Kinetic molecular theory and ideal gas law says that pressure exerted by gas is a result of billions of collisions of molecules hitting walls of the container Frequency of collisions increase I pressure increases Volume reduced pressure increased because they have shortened the distance to travel before hitting walls Change number of gas molecules I more particles mean more collisions and higher pressure Gaseous equilibrium is compressed increased pressure is partially relieved by shift in direction of fewer gaseous molecules system is expanded reduced pressure will be partially restored by a shift in direction of more gaseous molecules Coefficients are part of proportions as number of gaseous molecules Only gaseous molecules are involved in pressure adjustments If equal number of molecules shift doesn t occur and change in volume doesn t affect equilibrium 0 What Happens to a Chemical Equilibrium when there is a Change in Temperature 0 O O 0 Changes both forward and reverse reaction rates so the reactions are equal Temporally destroyed equilibrium Makes thermochemical equation Delta H is either in the equation or off to the right of the equation where it is either positive or negative Thinking about energy being added or removed from the system Week 5 Book Notes Chem 143 Prof Cracolice Chapter 52 What Characterizes Acids Bases and their ReacUons 22416 521 What Were First Particulate Level Models of Acids and Bases 0 Maj or advancement made by Arrhenius 0 Thought charged particles could exist in water solutions 0 Bases were bitter in taste slippery turned litmus dye blue 0 Acids sour turns litmus dye red reacts with carbonate and neutralizes a base 0 Arrhenius acid when dissolved in water release of hydrogen ions 0 Arrhenius base dissolved in water releases hydroxide ions 0 Explained why reactions occurred like they did 0 Bases usually form precipitates with metals 0 Liebig thought important to recognize how acids react O Knew acids had hydrogen I through some compounds with hydrogen didn t rot like an acid 0 Thought reactivity was based on hydrogen 0 Didn t see that solutions could contain charged particles 522 How Can the Favored Direction of a Reversible Proton Transfer Reaction be predicted 0 Use Lewis Diagrams to look at hydrogen ion concept 0 Reactions interpreted as removal of a proton from acid by OH39 0 Substances other than hydroxide ions could remove protons 0 BronstedLowry Model of Acids and Bases an acid base reaction is a proton transfer reaction in which proton is removed from acid by base Acid Compound from which proton can be removed Base is a compound that can be remove a proton from an acid 0 Amphoteric substance that can behave both like an acid and a base water 0 Forward reaction forward directions described from left to right 0 Reverse reaction reverse direction described from right to left 0 Bronsted Lowry proton transfer reaction BHA HB A39 0 What are the Characteristics of Proton Transfer Reaction 0 Most bronstedlowry acid base proton transfer reaction are written with double arrow because they are at equilibrium 0 Conjugate acid base pair every reversible proton transfer reaction two conjugate acid base pairs can be identified are for the forward reaction and for the reverse 0 Write formula of conjugate base from the acid by removing a proton 0 Write formula of conjugate acid of any based by adding a proton 0 Any amphoteric substance has both conjugate base and conjugate acid 0 What Causes Proton Transfer Reactions 0 Bronsted Lowry behaves as an acid by losing protons Week 5 Book Notes Chem 143 Prof Cracolice More readily protons are lost stronger acid Bases gain protons stronger attraction of proton stronger base Weak base weak attraction of protons Strong base strong attraction of protons 0 Ho Can the Favored direction of an Acid Base Reaction be predicted Stronger acids and bases are the most reactive Stronger acids will always release a proton to a stronger base yielding a weaker acid and base as favored speices in equilibrium 0 Weaker combination of on right side of equation reaction favored in forward oogoooo direction produces greater abundance 0 Procedure 0 Given part of reactants write a equation for transfer of one proton from one species to another 0 Label acid and base on each side of equation 0 Determine which side of equation has both weaker acid and weaker base side identifies products in favored direction 523 How did Lewis Develop a General Model of Acids and Bases 0 Lewis brought new perspective on acid base reactions 0 Lewis focused on electrons and electron orbitals and interaction 0 Empty orbital allows a hydrogen ion overlaps with the filled oribital or hydroxide ion to form an electron sharing bond 0 No overall protontransfer species with an unshared electron pair react with speicies with an empty orbital 0 Acid as a substance that accepts on electron pair in forming a chemical bond and a base as a substance that allows an electron pair in forming a bond 0 Proton doesn t need to be changed reaction doesn t have to take place in water 0 Explains formation of complex ions 0 Reaction of nonmetal oxides with water to form acids Chapter 53 How is the Concentration of a Strong Acid or Base Determined and Expressed 22616 531 Why do Ions Exist in Pure Water 0 Autoionization ionization of a substance that occurs automatically 0 What is the Equilibrium Constant for Water and Water Solutions 0 Reversible equilibrium reaction equilibrium expression KaH30OH39 0 Shows equilibrium constant for water in 2 sig figs 1010 14 0 Typical solutions are 1M or less I creating H20 molecule into ratio to solvent is very great Week 5 Book Notes Chem 143 Prof Cracolice Water or water solution are neutral solutions neither acidic or basic A solution with a hydronium gt hydroxide is acidic A solution with hydronium lt hydroxide is basic Inverse relationship between hydronium and hydroxide 0000 532 How do Chemists Express Hydronium Ion and Hydroxide Ion Concentration 0 pH or pOH logH and logOH39 0 pHpOH14 0 looking at pH loop shows relationship of pH hydroxide ion concentration pOH and hydronium ion concentration 0 logarithm digits to left of decimal are not considered as sig figs counting sig figs in a log begins a decimal point 0 How is pH Measured 0 pH meter 2 parts glass electrode and electronic meter 0 electrode interacts with solution 0 indicator solutions can be used to approximate pH by changing color at specific pH 533 How is the pH of a Strong Acid or Base Determined 0 Strong Acids acids are 100 ionized ideal strong acid 0 real strong acids don t completely dissociate 0 for ideal strong acid molar concentration of the acid is the hydronium ion concentration of the solution 0 remember strong acids chloric perchloric bromic iodic hydrochloric nitric sulfuric 0 at low concentrations hydrogen ion concentration from water ionization becomes significant 0 consider strong acid concentrations to be between 1M and 1 10396M 0 How is pH of Strong Base Determined 0 Strong Base metal hydroxide salt completely dissociates into its ions in water 0 Common strong bases NaOH KOH and CaOH2
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