Week 2 - EBIO 1210
Week 2 - EBIO 1210 EBIO 1210-001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tatiana Tabares on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1210-001 at University of Colorado taught by Dr. Barbara Demmig-Adams in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 237 views. For similar materials see General Biology 1 in Biology at University of Colorado.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Lecture 2 Lipids Lipids 1 Fats and their link to energy metabolism and health Know the 4 classes of large biological molecules and their building blocks Know the 3 subgroups of lipids and their function Know the building blocks of a fat Relate structural differences in shape in fluidity in energy content and in their health effects Compare the properties of nonpolar and polar bonds and predict from its bonds whether a molecule is an energy source dentify and use the common principles underlying structure formation and breakdown of the four classes of larger biological molecules All Biologically important large molecules are based on Carbon because C bonds with up tp 4 partners facilitating formation of large molecules All biologically important large molecules are constructed from small building blocks 1 Lipids from fatty acids 2 Nucleic acids DNA amp RNA from nucleotides 3 Proteins from amino acids 4 Large Carbohydrates polysaccharides from the simplest sugars monosaccharides First class of Large Molecules of Life LIPIDS Lipids consist mostly of bonds between carbon and hydrogen atoms CH bonds and often form strings of CH2 units Lipids include Fats store energy Phospholipids form biological membranes Steroids act as hormones regulate genes What does it take to be and stay alive Everything that living cells do requires energy Lecture 2 Lipids Fats Are constructed from 2 types of smaller molecules A Glycerol backbone to which 3 fatty acids are attached Fat triglyceride glycerol 3 fatty acid chains Relate structural differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids to their differences in shape in fluidity in energy content and in their health effects Saturated and Unsaturated Fats differ in energy content health effects and shapefluidity At room temp Saturated fats are SOLID while unsaturated fats are LIQUID Saturated Fat Molecule Max number of Hydrogens in tail All single bonds Straight in shape Forms SOLIDS at room temp Found in higher amounts in animal products Less healthy Unsaturated Fat Molecule Less than the max number of hydrogens in tail One of more double bonds Bentshape Stays LIQUID at room temp Found in higher amounts in plant products More healthy No kinks saturated One kink monounsaturated Two or more kinks polyunsaturated LL linoeic acid omega6 series ALA alphalinoenic omega3 series Lecture 2 Lipids are required in human body as even longer and more highly DHA Nutritionistrecommended changes to current US diet Reduce saturated fats activate genes that promote fat storage Increase unsaturated fats activate genes that promote fat burning CH bonds are essential for life 1 serves as an energy source 2 does not mix with water amp serves as a barrier around cells to keep certain substances in or out Carbonbased gasoline molecules are burned with oxygen to release energy Electrons are held quotlooselyquot in bonds between atoms with similar or equal attraction for electrons 0 High potential energy state unstable reactive o Nonpolar covalent bond 0 Shared electrons equally Electrons are held tightly atoms like 0 with very high attraction for electrons 0 Low potential energy state stable not reactive 0 Polar covalent bond 0 One atom quothogsquot electrons does not share equally Nonpolar bonds have high chemical potential energy low stability these molecules are an energy source Polar Bonds have low chemical potential energy high stability Lecture 2 Lipids these molecules are not an energy source Burning saturated fatty acid releases more energy Energy is released when either is burned to C02 and H20 An energy investment that needs to be subtracted from the energy gain is necessary to first break CH CC or CC bonds The CC bond is stronger and costs more energy to break than the CH or 00 bonds Unsaturated fats are easier to break better energy source CC Saturated fats harder to break doesn39t make a good energy source CH Lecture 3 Phospholipids Membranes Dehydration Synthesis Large molecules are formed from monomers by removing water 0 H from one end 0 OH from the other Hydrolysis Larger molecules are broken down by adding water One less than the number of monomers used to make it This polarity makes water quotthe solvent of lifequot Water is essential for life Water is polar o electrons are pulled toward oxygen H2039s polarity is further enhanced by the 2 pairs of negative electrons on the other side 0 Hydrogen bonds based on the electrical attraction between opposite partial electrical charges form between water molecules The polarity of water molecules and the resulting hydrogen bonds make a water molecules as well as to other quotwaterlovingquot molecules Water molecules stick together Cohesion Hydrophilic quotwaterlovingquot molecules have polar or charged regions that attract water and mix readily with water watersoluble o unequal sharing of electrons electrons held tightly between atoms with diff electronegativity 0 Polar Hydrophobic quotwaterfearingquot molecules are nonpolar waterinsoluble 0 Equal sharing of electrons held loosely between atoms 0 non polar Phospholipids phosphate glycerol 2 fatty acids Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic Tails Because of phospholipids structure they are perfect for forming membranes which have selective permeability Lecture 3 Phospholipids Membranes Know the building blocks of a phospholipids Phospholipids Bilayer the basis for biological membranes The solubility of a substance in water is determined by the ratio of its polar for groups here 0H and CO bonds to its nonpolar CH bonds Watersoluble vitamins are easily taken up from supplements wheras waterinsoluble fatsoluble vitamins are not unless they are consumed with water Salt NaCl charged hydrophilic Both polar molecules and electrically charged substances like salts dissolve readily in water Saturated fats are easier to break down better energy source more tails 0 fat saturated fatty acids Monounsaturated fats are harder to break down less tails not a good energy source 0 Phospholipids Cholesterol Precursor in synthesis of steroid hormones 0 Sex hormones amp steroid stress hormones 0 made from saturated fatty acids link between high levels of cholesterol and high consumption of saturated fats