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Capital and Labor in Modern America

by: Mark Levine

Capital and Labor in Modern America HIST 1200 (History, Steven Watts, Survey of American History Since 1865)

Mark Levine
GPA 2.9

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You need to have a good idea on everything in the notes for the test. Incorporate the vocabulary words into the essays and you should do fine.
Survey of American History Since 1865
Steven Watts
Class Notes
American History
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mark Levine on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1200 (History, Steven Watts, Survey of American History Since 1865) at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Steven Watts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History Since 1865 in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 02/29/16
10­01­14 The Incorporation of America II: Capital and Labor in Modern America I. Efficiency for Profit:   Efficiency, it is a very important word for progressives in the political  world. Breaking down the work process to the smallest part and then  re­organizing it for more efficient production=greater profit.  II. Traditional Unionism:   III. New Unionism:  They don’t like the AFL and don’t like the protective legislative. They  believe the system has problems that are more deeply than what people see. They want to tear down the system Gompers is building up. Want  to gain worker control of the system. Secondly they want, to organize  all industrial workers to make one big union. They think they can  bring modern capitalism to its knees.   Scientific Management: Made arguments on how to make­work so  much better. The first, if you want to make production better, one  thing you need to eliminate was “brain work”, workers can do it were  they don’t need to think. Any kind of decision­making on the factory  floor shouldn’t be up to the workers, but be up to the managers. When  he died this book came across American businesses. Became heart and soul to the management of America. What made this was the assembly line in the Henry Ford companies; they cut down the hours to make a  car very efficiently. Because this worked Ford dropped the price on  what it cost to sell a car.  Frederick Winslow Taylor: Pioneer in the whole corporate life and  with the scientific Management. Born 1856, very interested in  engineering. Became interested in efficiency. To stop his boners at  night he got a belt with nails to stab him every time it happened. He  went on the floor of a factory and watched how it was done.   Time and Motion Studies: The workers would get stopwatches and  they would go to the each steps and time on how long it took to  complete the task. And then they would see how much motion was  required to make the part. While studying these facts he would knock  seconds to minutes off on how long it took to complete these parts.   Hawthorne Experiment: 1920s, in a big western electric plant.  Efficiency experts came in to see how fast these things were being  made. Workers worked harder when these guys were studying them.  When these guys left the workers slowed down. Paying attention to the workers was a way to make it faster.   Industrial Psychology: 1920s­1930s, study the psychology of  workers to see how to make them work better. When factories aren’t  noisy, there are cycles of energy of going up and down. To counter  that play music, work hard: soothing music, work slowly: energetic  music. In the end there would be more work and more efficiency. This  also said that workers would work better when they are given breaks.  Workers respond to the ability to hang out on their breaks, (break­ room). And finally, the workers identify with their company when the  company pays for sports team. If you work more efficient then there  would be more wages and then you can buy more consumer goods.    Elton Mayo: Professor at Harvard University, and an expert in the  industrial field. Goes to Hawthorne to do the time and motion study.  Mayo and the company conclude, the most crucial company was when the team was there paying attention to these people.    AFL: Pushed the wages, less work hours, and better working  conditions. Now they want a partnership with big businesses and big  government, and get a good deal for workers.   Samuel Gompers: Famous Labor leader, who created the AFL, which is the biggest trade union in the United States, Nothing to do with  politics. Just organize workers national for better working conditions,  better wages, and less work hours.   Protective Legislation: AFL got behind this very firmly to protect the workers, and to pass laws to protect the workers with the conditions  and how safe it is to work where they are.   Triangle Shirtwaist Fire: In New York City, in 1911, happened in  the garden district. Where there was a bunch of big building that hired  immigrant women to make shirts. Dozens and Dozens or hundreds and hundreds of women sat and made men’s shirts. The managers decided  that they had a problem, that all these young women were leaving  these machines and wasted time. To deal with this problem is by  locking the doors and the women couldn’t get out. A fire started and  the young women couldn’t get out, and all these women died. 47  leaped out of the windows, try to escape and died.  New York Factory  Commission was aim to look at problems to look at places like this to  see if the workers were safe to work where they are working. Illegal to lock doors from the outside.   National Labor Board: Government agency, which sets up to task  was to set labor problems before they got too bad, because during the  World War I they needed all there workers to work. Representatives  from workers, and government people. AFL had a direct voice in  agencies like these to solve these problems. This is traditional union.  After WWI more members joined with 3 million members. Some  workers didn’t do what AFL wanted for the workers.   IWW: Industrial workers of the world, was a radical union in early  th 20  century, that wanted to do what was said in section three. Lead by  Big Bill Haywood, was a union leader, lost an eye in a labor fight.  Made fiery speeches, that rejects politics and AFL. One big union, that have a general strike that would destroy capitalism. Mining strikes that turned bloody very quickly, the shotguns at people that they didn’t  like. They were crushed in the red scare; the government said this  group is full of the communist. Arresting these guys and throwing  them into jail.   


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