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Trees and Forests

by: Miss Macy Buckridge

Trees and Forests PLB 144

Miss Macy Buckridge
GPA 3.68


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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Macy Buckridge on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PLB 144 at University of California - Davis taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see /class/187546/plb-144-university-of-california-davis in Plant Biology at University of California - Davis.


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Date Created: 09/08/15
ERSEHUFPLB144 Trees amp Forests Fall 2001 Dr Caroline Bledsoe October 19 2001 Mycorrhiz as of Forest Tree Root Systems Key Concepts Mycorrhizas are a symbiotic association between certain fungi and plants where fungi receive carbon from the host plant and plants receive mineral nutrients eg N P Fe Ca Mg etc from the fungus Almost all forest trees and plants in general form bene cial mycorrhizal associations Mycorrhizas are particularly important in uptake of immobile nutrients eg phosphorus iron Forest trees generally form either ectomycorrhizas or endomycorrhizas the 2 major types of mycorrhiz as Inoculation of plants with mycorrhizal fungi is particularly important for exotic species or plants planted into disturbed areas eg mine spoils road cuts stressed sites U39 eENN Study Questions What is a symbiotic association How do trees bene t from mycorrhizal associations list 4 Why are mycorrhizal fungi more ef cient at acquiring nutrients from soil than the ne roots of a tree What is the source of carbon which mycorrhizal fungi use for their growth What are the differences between ecto and endomycorrhizas Name 3 trees which form each type Are the fruiting bodies 1 39 or J of 39 39 39 fungi edible or poisonous What are saprotrophic fungi How do they differ from mycorrhizal fungi Are all species of mycorrhizal fungi equally bene cial to their host plant 999P N1 Introduction Myco Irhizas fungus root Symbiosis mutual bene ts to plant host and fungal partner A widespread phenomenon occurring throughout the world s ecosystems A longterm phenomenon mycorrhizas probably coevolved with land plants What are mycorrhizas Are all fungi mycorrhizal How speci c are the partnerships Do plant and fungus recognize one another WUOWPWH N Types of mycorrhizas A Ectomycorrhiz as Visible to naked eye Fungal hyphal cells form sheaths or mantles on surface of ne roots as well as a network Hartig net within the root but not within cells Fungal hyphae also extend from root surface into soil sometimes forming rhizomorphs 03 Endomycorrhiz as Also called VAM Not visible without microscope Hyphal cells found on root surfacewithin root inside cortical cells but plant plasmamembranes are intact Fungi form coils in root as well as vesicles storage amp arbuscules exchange of carbonnutrients Fungi form feederrunner hyphae in soil C Other types of Mycorrhizas l Ericoid forms on plants in the Ericaceae family manzanita blueberry rhododendrons azaleas etc Plants grow in acidic soils with high organic matter mycorrhizas produce enzymes to degrade complex organic compounds chitinase oxidases lignases etc Ericoid do not form extensive hyphal networks like ECTO or ENDO 2 Orchid a very special case because fungi supply BOTH C and nutrients to tiny orchid plant for several years Mycorrhizas 1 3 Arbutoid forms only on Arbutus species eg madrone D Examples of endomycorrhizal roots ectomycorrhizal roots and ectomycorrhizal mushrooms Endomycorrhizal tree species maple ash sycamore black walnut cherry sweet gum eucalyptus redwood etc Ectomycorrhizal tree species pine spruce r hemlock birch beech oak willow etc 3 Functions of Mycorrhizas What do mycorrhizas do 7 provide mutual bene ts to plant and fungus A N UTRIEN TS Mycorrhizal fungi increase nutrient uptake by plants especially immobile nutrients such as phosphorus H2PO4 Other nutrients inorganic Nitrogen ammonium NH4 nitrate NOg39 amp organic N amino acids low molecular weight N compounds potassium K iron Fe magnesium Mg Sulfate SO4 B CARBON Mycorrhizal fungi obtain carbohydrates from their host plant 1 How do mycorrhizas obtai1 C from plants Carbon compounds differ between plants glucose fructose sucrose amp fungi mannitol trehalose glycogen 2 Mycorrhizas also release carbohydrates into rhizosphere soil food web C OTHER FUNCTIONS 1 Enhanced nutrient absorption resulting in healthy plants 2 Increased lifespan of plant ne roots 3 Soil structural agents forming soil aggregates 4 Eextracellular phosphatases production solubilize bound P 5 Pathogen protection chemicals antibiotics physical barriers 6 Partners in soil food webs 7 Carbon exudation into soil via the rhizosphere 8 Chelation of metal ions Siderophore production 9 Plant community structure 4Case Study Restoration of valley oak Quercus lobata at the Cosumnes River Preserve CA Soil Treatments Characteristic Units Ag Field Soil Sterilized Forest Soil Forest Soil Oak seedling height cm 21a 26b Shoot biomass gmseedling 22a 36ab 44b Leaf area cm2 107a 168ab 208b Mycorrhizal types 3 2 4 Mycorrhizal infection white 82a 18a 10a Brown 20a 20a 69a Black 002a 20a 18a Berman JT and CS Bledsoe 1998 Soil transfers from valley oak Quercus lobam Nee stands increase ectomycorrhizal diversity and alter root and shoot growth on valley oak seedlings Mycorrhiza 7 223235 To learn more about mycorrhizas via the web httpwww dnai 39 39 39 quot fungihtml fungi in San Francisco area httpwwwp1tclcomtolhomehtm Tree of Live Nursery in southern CA httpwwwuoguelphcabotanyfaselfaselhtm UnivGuelph Ontario Canada httpplantbioberkeleyedubruns UC Berkeley lab DrTom Bruns http mycornancyinrafrMycorWeb html excellent links httn39 fnmm herb Isa nmir h quot N isstable8131999 Fungal species database httpmycorrhizaagutkedu Univ Tenn mycorrhizal photo exchange Books Allen MJ 1992 Mycorrhizal Functioning An Integrative PlantFungal ProcessChapman amp Hall NY Brundrett M N Bougher B Dell T Grove and N Malaczuk 1996 Working wi 39 39 in Forestry and A 39 1 Australian Center for Intl Ag Research Canberra Australia Mycorrhizas 2 P eger FL and RG Linderman 1994 Mycorrhizae amp Plant Health Am Phytopath Soc St PaulMN Classes with 39 f quot about 39 39 Soil Ecology SSC112 3 cr Fall Mycorrhizal Ecology SC209 3 cr Fall Rhizosphere Ecology PLBl46 3 cr Spring Introductory Mycology PLB148 5 cr Diagrams from Brundrett et al 1996 Working with Mycorrhizas in Forestry and Agriculture Australian Ctr Intl Ag Res Mycorrhizas 3 ENHERSPLB 144 Trees and Forests October 3 2001 Tree Form and Function I Architecture I Introduction Trees are the structural elements around which forest communities are established Tree form has both vertical and horizontal dimensions Fgures l amp 2 Trunk or Stem gives height Sca old Branches provide spread Leaves and smaller branches ll out the canopy Roots have both depth and spread What is the adaptive advantage of being a tree SIZE Outgrow competitors Elevate leaf canopy Increase light harvesting Increase canopy spread May even shade competitors The tree form is a an expensive and b risky strategy Figure 3 1 Major commitment of resources into growth and development of the vegetative body 2 Postponing reproduction o en for many years Large size implies needs Figure 4 A Adaptations to support weight 1 Mechanical strength wood 2 Branching pattem geometric relationships 3 Growth responses to changes in weight distribution B Water conduction over long distances xylem Growth strategies A Rapid juvenile growth phase B Perennial habit I Conservative strategy 7 relatively small increments recycling modular system 2 Adapted to seasonal patterns of environment 7 annual cycle of growth Structural elements of tree architecture are genetically controlled but development of individual trees is modi ed by environmental conditions to determine actual pattems


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