Week 1 of notes
Week 1 of notes HIST 202 - 01
Popular in World History since 1700
Popular in History
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan5294 on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 202 - 01 at University of Indianapolis taught by Emily Grayce Miller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see World History since 1700 in History at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
Absolutism and Political Enlightenment I The Consolidation ofSovereign States a Emperor CharlesV Spanish attempts to revive Holy Roman Empire as strong centerof Europe i Through marriage political alliances ii Ultimatelyfails 1 Protestant Reformation provides coverfor local princes to assert greaterindependence 2 Foreign opposition from France Ottoman empire b Unlike China India Ottoman empire Europe does not develop as single empire rather individuals states c Charles V abdicates to monastery in Spain II The New Monarchs a Italy welldeveloped as economic powerthrough trade manufacturing finance i CityStates b Yet England France and Spain surge ahead in sixteenth century with innovative newtax revenues i England HenryVIII 1 Fines and feesfor royal services confiscated monastic holdings ii France Louis XI Francisl 1 New taxes on sales salt trade III TheSpanishInquisition a Founded by Fernando and Isabel in 1478 Catholic b Original task search for secret practitioners ofJudaism or Islam latersearch for Protestants i Spread to Spanish holdings outside Iberian peninsula in western hemisphere c Imprisonmentexecutions i Intimidated nobles who might have considered Protestantism ii ArchbishopofToledoimprisoned15591576 IV ConstitutionalStates a England and the Netherlands develop institutions of popular representation i Englandconstitutional monarchy ii Netherlands republic b English Civil War 16421649 i Begins with opposition to royal taxes ii Religious elements Anglican church favors complex ritual complex church hierarchy opposed by Calvinist Puritans iii KingCharlesIand parliamentaryarmiesclash iv King loses is beheaded in 1649 V The Glorious Revolution 16881689 a Puritans take over becomes a dictatorship b Monarchy restored in 1660 fighting resumes c Resolution with bloodless coup call Glorious Revolution d KingJames II deposed daughter Mary and husband William of Orange take throne i Shared governance between crown and parliament VI Result ofthe Glorious Revolution a GovernmentNewWay and Model of the world b England becomes a Constitutional Monarchy c The English Bill of Rights are Created d Habeas Corpus VII The Dutch Republic a King Philip II ofSpain attempts to suppress Calvinists in Netherlands 1567 b Largescale rebellion follows by 1581 Netherlands declares independence c Based on a representative parliamentary system VIII Absolute Monarchy a Theory of divine right of kingsGod gave you the powerto rulere places Pope at the top of the social pyramid b French absolutism designed by Cardinal Richelieu under King Louis XIII 16241642 i Destroyed castles of nobles crushed aristocratic conspiracies ii Build bureaucracy to bolsterroyal powerbase iii Ruthlessly attacked Calvinists c Look at Question from Social Contract IX Louis XIV The quotSun King 16431715 a The Statthat s me One of the best examples of a divine right king absolutist b Magnificent palace at Versailles 16705 becomes his court i Largest buildingin Europe ii 1400 fountains iii 25000 fully grown trees transplanted c Powercentered in court important nobles pressured to maintain presence X Absolutism in Russia The Romanov Dynasty 16131917 a PeterI quotthe great i Worked to modernize Russia on western European model ii Developed modern Russian army reformed Russian government bureaucracy demanded changes in fashion beards forbidden iii Built new capital at St Petersburg b Catherine II quotthe Great Enlightened Despot i Huge military expansion 1 Partitions of Poland 17721797 ii Social reforms at first but end with Pugachev peasant rebellion 17731774 Europe s Age of Nationalism I Definitions a Conservatism Old Way i Support for the established order in church and state Monarchs landed nobles and church Favored gradual or organic change b Liberalism New Way i Support for a representative government dominated by the propertied classes and minimal government interference in the economy I Emergence of Ideologies a Conservatism i Edmund BurkeRefection s of the French Revolution Kishlansky ii Disavowed rapid revolutionary change iii Favored slow evolution of society b Liberalism i Viewed conservatives as defenders of illegitimate status quo ii Manage not stifle social change iii John Stuart Mill III Monroe Doctrine a 1823 No further colonization and intervention by European powers in the Americas US President creates it b Britain happy because it would break Spain s trading monopoly IV Nations and Nationalism a Na on i A type of community especially prominent in nineteenth century b Distinct from clan religious regional identities c Nationalism i Based on shared language customs values historical experiences 1 Sometimes common religion d Idea of nation has immediate relationship with political boundaries V Types of Nationalism a Cultural nationalism i Literature folklore music as expression of Volksgeist quotspirt of the people b PoliticalNationalism i Movement of political independence of nation from other authorities ii Unification of national lands VI Nationalism and AntiSemitism a Nationalist ideologies distrustful of indigenous minorities b Pogroms i Violent attacks on Jewish communities in Russian empire beginning 1881 c AntiSemitism rallying cry of many European nationalists d Debate on loyalty ofJews in European societies VII Zionism a Observed intense mod antiSemitism concluded that Enlightenment and revolution could not solve this human ill b Worked to create refuge forJews by reestablishing Jewish state in Palestine i Zion synonymous with Jerusalem c 1897 convened first World Zionist Organization VIII The Congress of Vienna a Prince Klemens von Metternich Conservative b Established balance of power Worded to suppress development of nationalism among multinational empires like the Austrian d Ends French Revolution IX Key Principles Established at Vienna a Balance of power b Legitimacy to the throne restore heirs c Compensation from Prance Pay 700000000 francs d Coalition forces to occupy France 35 yea rs e Supported the belief that there is always an alternative to conflict X Italian Unification a Giuseppe Mazzini i Arcatect for Italian unification b Giuseppe Garibaldi i Militaryforce c Victor Emmanuel II i First king d Cavour i Prime minster XI Unification of Germany a Otto Von Bismarck i Prime Minister ii Arcatect of German Unification b Realpolitik uses wars with neighbors to unify Germany c Second Reich proclaimed in 1871 d Kulturkampf battle for civilization i AntiCatholic and socialist ii Welfare state Industrial Revolution A Overview The Industrial Revolution a Energy Coal and steam replace wind water human and animal labor b Organization Factories over cottage industries c Rural agriculture declines urban manufacturing increases d Transportation trains automobiles replace animals watercraft B Enclosure Movement a To fencein C Genesis ofthe Industrial Revolution a Great Britain 178 Os b Followed agricultural revolution i Food surplus ii Disposable income iii Population increase 1 Market 2 Labor supply D British Advantages a Natural resources i Coal iron ore water b Ease oftransportation i Size of country ii River and canal system iii Canals and railroads c Exports to imperial colonies i Especiallymachinetextiles E Steam Power a Steam engine i James Watt 17361819 ii Coalfired iii Applied to rotary engine multiple applications 1 Horsepower b Especially prominent in textile industry F Iron and Steel a 1709 British smelters begin to use coke i Iron production skyrockets b Bessemer converter 1856 Henry Bessemer i Refined blast furnace makes production of steel faster and cheaper G Transportation a Railroads i 1815 first steampowered locomotive ii The Rocket1829 28mph b Steamships c Dense transportation networks developed i 13000miles of railroads laid between 1830 and 1870 d Rapid and inexpensive transportation encouraged industrialization H Spread of Industrialization a Western Europe i Spread to Germany Belgium France ii French revolution and Napoleonic wars set stage for industrialization iii After 1871 Bismarck sponsors rapid industrialization in Germany