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Amer Natl Govt

by: Pierre Huel

Amer Natl Govt POL 001

Pierre Huel
GPA 3.56

Stuart Hill

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Stuart Hill
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Pierre Huel on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POL 001 at University of California - Davis taught by Stuart Hill in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/187590/pol-001-university-of-california-davis in Political Science at University of California - Davis.


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Date Created: 09/08/15
Political Science One Final Study Guide Chapter 6 mass media the means employed in mass communication Often divided into print media communicate information through the publication of words and pictures on paper and broadcast media communicate information electronically through sounds and images attentive policy elites Leaders who follow news in speci c policy areas twostep ow of communication the process in which a few policy elites gather information and then inform their followers mobilizing them to apply pressure to the government More likely to in uence public opinion and other leaders by airing their views in the media blogs Form of newsletter journal or log of thoughts for public reading usually devoted to social or political issues and often updated daily newsworthiness The degree to which a news story is important enough to be covered in the mass media marketdriven journalism Both reporting news and running commercials geared to a target audience defined by demographic characteristics Federal Communications Commission FCC An independent federal agency that regulates interstate and international communication by radio television telephone telegraph cable and satellite gatekeepers Media executives news editors prominent reporters who direct the ow of news horse race journalism Election coverage by the mass media that focuses on which candidate is ahead rather than national issues media event a situation that is so newsworthy that the mass media are compelled to cover it Candidates in elections often create such situations to garner media attention television hypothesis The belief that television is to blame for the low level of citizens knowledge about public affairs political agenda a list of issues that need government attention according to the public Often interest groups bring up issues that the society believes needs to be addressed watchdog journalism Journalism that scrutinizes public and business institutions and publicizes perceived misconduct Chapter 9 election campaign An organized effort to persuade voters to choose one candidate over others competing for the same office primary election A preliminary election conducted within a political party to select candidates Who will run for public office in a subsequent election closed primary primary elections in Which voters must declare their party affiliation before they are given the primary ballot containing that party s potential nominees open primary Primary elections in Which voters need not declare their party affiliation and can choose one party s primary ballot to take into the voting booth modif1ed closed primary primary elections that allow individual state parties to decide Whether they permit independents to vote in their primaries or for Which office modif1ed open primary Primary elections that entitle independent voters to vote in a party s primary presidential primary A special primary election used to select delegates to attend a party s national convention Which in turn nominates the presidential candidate caucus or convention A method used to select delegates to attend a party s national convention Generally a local meeting selects delegates for a countylevel meeting Which in turn selects delegates for a higher level meeting The process culminates in a state convention that actually selects the national convention delegates frontloading States practice of moving delegate selection primaries and caucuses earlier in the calendar year to gain media and candidate attention general election A national election held by laW in November of every evennumbered year straight ticket In voting a single party s candidates for all the offices split ticket In voting candidate from different parties for different offices f1rstpastthepost election A british term for elections conducted in single member districts that award victory to the candidate With the most votes open election An election that lacks an incumbent Federal Election Commission FEC Abipartisan federal agency of siX members that oversees the financing of national election campaigns Elections hard money Financial contributions given direcly to a candidate running for congressional office or the presidency soft money Financial contributions to party committees for capital and operational expenses Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act 1974 Required full disclosure of campaign donations limited hard money to 1000 per individual 5000 per PAC per candidate no limits on soft money 2002 Raised hard money limit to 2000 Indexed for inflation banned soft money Rrestricted outside campaign ads 60 days b4 the election 527 committees Chapter 10 interest grouplobbies ll M 39 Money number of members having more members can be both good and bad prestige are the three things that make interest groups more powerful lobbyist What about our govemement makes it easier to have more interest groups The fragmented system state V federal 3 branches of government provides multiple points of access to power so interest groups have more potential in uence This is pluralism H More serious for larger groups if those groups are diverse trade associations Can not directly donate to or endorse a candidate only do soft money but can raise and spend unlimited amounts even under BCRA Give most of their money to incumbents in office direct lobb in W m r l Promoting an idea in the public so that the general public interest is high coalition buildin bying easier citizen groups Lobbying organization built arroudn policy concerns unrelated to members vocational interests Chapter 17 public policy a general plan of action adopted by the government to solve a social problem counter a threat or pursue an objective distributive policies Government policies designed to confer a benefit on a particular institution or group redistributional policies Policies that take government resources such as taX funds from one sector of society and transfer them to another Regulation Government intervention in the workings of a business market to promote some socially desired goal agenda setting The stage of the policy making process during which problems get defined as political issues issue def1nition Our conception of the problem at handthe way people think about a problem In uenced by our own values and the way we see the political world policy formulation the stage of the policymaking process during which formal proposals are developed and adopted Stated taX rate Official taX rate in the law Effective taX rate What people actually pay after deductions and taX cuts Four Stages Agenda setting policy formation implementation and poicy evaluation implementation the process of putting specific policies into operation policy evaluation Analysis of a public policy so as to determine how well it is working feedback Information received by policymakers about the effectiveness of public policy Fragmentation In policymaking the phenomenon of attacking a single problem in different and sometimes contradictory ways issue network A shared knowledge group consisting of representatives of various interests involved in some particular aspect of public policy nonprofit organization Organizations that are not part of government or business and cannot distribute profits to shareholders or to anyone else Chapter 11 reapportionment Redistribution of represenatives among the states based on population change the house is reapportioned by each census impeachment the formal charging of a government official with trason bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors incumbents a current of ceholder gerrymandering Redrawing a congressional district to intentionally bene t one politically party casework Solving problems for constituents especially problems involving government agencies descriptive representation a belief that constinuents are most effectively represented by legislators who are similar to them in such key demographic characteristics as race ethnicity gender racial gerrymandering the drawing of a legislative district to maximize the chance that a minority candidate will win election Vetoes The president s disapproval of a bill that has been passed by both houses of congress Congress can override a veto with a twothirds vote in each house standing committee A permanent congressional committee that specializes in a particular policy area joint committees a committee made up of members of both the house and senate select committee a temporary congressional committee created for a speci c purpose and disbanded after that purpose has been fulfilled conference committee A temporary committee created to work out differences between the house and senate versions of a specific piece of legislation seniority Years of consecutive service on a particular congressional committee oversight the process of reviewing the operations of an agency to determine whether it is carrying out policies as congress intended Speaker of the House The presiding officer over the House of Rep majority leader the head of the majority party in the senate The second highest ranking member of the majority party in the house fllibuster a delaying tactic used in the senate that involves speechmaking to prevent action on a piece of legislation cloture the mechanism by which a libuster Is cut off in the senate constituents trustees A representative who is obligated to consider the views of constituents but is not obligated to vote according to those views if he or she believes they are misguided delegates A legislator whose primary responsibility is to represent the majority view of his or her constituents regardless of his or her own view parliamentary system A system of government in which the chief executive is the leader whose party holds the most seats in the legislature after an election or whose party forms a major part of the ruling coalition earmarks Federal funds appropriated by Congress for use on local projects Chapter 12 veto the president disapproval of a bill that has been passd by both houses of congress Congress can override a veto with a two thirds vote in each house inherent powers Authority claimed by the president that is not clearly speci ed in the constitution Typically these powers are infereed from the Constitution executive orders Presidential directives that create or modify laws and public policies without the direct approval of congress delegation of powers the process by which Congress gives the executive branch the additional authority needed to address new problems Executive Office of the President The presidents executive aides and their staffs The extended White house executive establishment cabinet A group of presidential advisors the heads of the executive departments and other key officials divided government The situation in which one party controls the White house and the other controls at least one house of congress gridlock A situation in which government is incapable of acting on important issues mandate An endorsement by voters Presidents sometimes argue they have been given a mandate to carry out policy proposals legislative liaison staff Those people who compose the communications link between the White House and Congress advising the president or cabinet secretaries on the status of pending legislation Chapter 13 bureaucracy A large complex organization in which employees have specific job responsabilities and work within a hierarch of authority bureaucrats employees of a bureaucracy usually meaning a government bureaucracy departments the biggest units of the executive branch covering a broad area of government responsibility The heads of the departments or secretaries form the presidents cabinet independent agencies Executive agencies that are not part of a cabinet department regulatory commissions Agencies of the executive branch of government that control or direct some aspect of the economy government corporations Government agencies that perform services that might be provided by the private sector but that either involve insuff1cient financial incentive or are better provided when they are somehow linked with government civil service the system by which most appointments to the federal bureaucracy are made to ensure that government jobs are lled on the basis of merit and that employees are not fired for political reasons administrative discretion The latitude that Congress gives agencies to make policy in the spirit of their legislative mandate rule making the administrative process that results in the issuance of regulations by government agencies regulations Administrative rules that guide the operation of a government program incrementalism Policymaking characterized by a series of decisions each instituting modest change norms an organizations informal unwritten rules that guide individual behavior implementation The process of putting specific policies into operation regulation Government intervention in the workings of a business market to promote some socially desired goal deregulation A bureaucratic reform by which the government reduces its role as a regulator of business competition and outsourcing Procedures that allow private contractors to bid for jobs previously held exclusively by government employees Government Performance and Results Act A law requiring each government agency to implement quantifiable standards to measure its performance in meeting stated program goals Chapter 14 The Courts judicial review The power to declare congressional and presidential acts invalid because they violate the constitution Marbury v Madison 1803 criminal cases Court cases involving a crime or violation of public order civil cases Court cases that involve a private dispute arising from such matters as accidents contractual obligations and divorce plea bargain A defendants admission of guilt in exchange for a less severe punishment common orjudgemade law Legal precedents derived from previousjudicial decisions US district courts Courts within the lowest tier of the threetiered federal court system courts where litigation begins US courts of appeals Courts within the second tier of the three tier federal court system to which decisions of the district courts and federal agencies may be appealed for review precedent a judicial ruling that serves as the basis for the ruling in a subsequent case stare decisis Literally let the decision stand decision making according to precedent original jurisdiction The authority of a court to hear a case before any other court does appellate jurisdiction The authority of a court to hear cases that have been tried decided or reexamined in other courts federal question An issue covered by the US constitution national laws or US treaties docket A court s agenda rule of four An unwritten rule that requires at least four justices to agree that a case warrants consideration before it is reviewed by the U S Supreme Court solicitor general The third highest official of the US department of Justice and the one who represents the national government before the court amicus curiae brief A brief filed with the permission ofthe court by an individual or group that is not a party to a legal action but has an interest in it judicial restraint A judicial philosophy whereby judges adhere closely to statutes and precedents in reaching their decisions judicial activism A judicial philosophy whereby judges interpret eXi sting laws and precedents loosely and interj ect their own values in court decisions judgment The judicial decision in a court case argument the heart of a judicial opinion Its logical content separated from facts rhetoric and procedure concurrence The agreement of a judge with the Courts majority decision for a reason other than the majority reason dissent The disagreement of a judge with a majority decision senatorial courtesy A norm under which a nomination must be acceptable to the home state senator from the presidents party class action a procedure by which similarily situated litigants may be heard in a single lawsuit Chapter 18 laissez faire absense of government control in economics Keynesian theory An economic theory stating that the government can stabilize the economy That is can smooth business cycles By controlling the level of aggregate demand the money available to be spent for goods and services by consumers business and government and that the level of aggregate demand can be controlled by means of fiscal and monetary policies Fiscal policy Economic policies that involve government spending and taXing Monetary policy Economic policies that involve control of and changes in the supply of money Council of Economic Advisers A group that works within the executive branch to provide advice on maintaining a stable economy Federal Reserve System The system of banks that acts as the central bank of the United States and controls major monetary policies supplyside economics Economic policies aimed at increasing the supply of goods as opposed to decreasing demand Consist mainly of tax cuts for possible investors and less regulations of business budget reform rough timeline Gramm Rudman BEA BBA payasyougo GR Popular name for an act passed by Congress in 1985 that in its orginal form sought to lower the national de cit to a speci ed level each year culminating in a balanced budget in FY 1991 New reforms and de cit targets were agreed on in 1990 BEA a 1990 law that distinguished between mandatory and discretionary spending Essay Questions BBA a 1997 law that promised to balance the budget by 2002 Payas you go in the budget enforcement act of 1990 The requirement that any tax cut or expansion of an entitlement program must be offset by a tax increase or other savings progressive taxation A system of taxation whereby the rich pay proportionally higher taxes than the poor used by governments to restribute wealth and thus promote equality incremental budgeting A method of budget making that involves adding new funds an increment onto the amount previously budgeted in last years budget Earmarks Federal funds appropriated by congress for use on local projects 1 Explain how media executives news editors and reporters function as gatekeepers in directing news ow What types of news are likely to get through the gate How do the media affect elections Be sure to include an explanation of bias and perception 2 What are the di erent theories behind the formation and success of interest groups What bene ts do interest groups provide to the US political system Describe the various methods of lobbying and why they can be so successful 3 What advantages does incumbency give a member of Congress Is incumbency as great an advantage to senators as to representatives Why or why not What is pork barrel spending or earmarks How are earmarks distinguished from other types of spending Should reforms be considered to reduce earmarks J3 Distinguish between the trustee and delegate roles of representatives Which role if either tends to be more characteristic of US legislators a Trustees A representative who is obligated to consider the views of constituents but is not obligated to vote according to those views if he or she believes they are misguided b Delegates A legislator whose primary responsibility is to represent the majority view of his or her constituents regardless of his or her own view UI What factors in uence the level of presidential approval Discuss both factors that tend to reduce approval ratings and factors than tend to drive up approval ratings Compare the civil service sector with the private sector Can ideals about efficiency from the private sector be put to good use in a bureaucratic system Why or why not ex Current Events Know relevant news regarding these recent political events Midterm elections Tension in Korea S Korean military exercises N Korea retaliated 200 shellskilled W marines 2 civilians Current Status of DADT Ruled unconcsititutional by court in CA The Department of Justice asked for stay temporarily suspended the ruling that it was unconstitutional Republicans still say they won t support it Hasn t had any appropriate votes Wikileaks Founder Julian Assange iAustralian living in Sweden Arrested for sexual assault 250000 cables communications between State departments US government ordered federal employees and contractors not to read wikileaks Dream Act Currently not voted on CA Prison Crowding The California Prisons are extremely crowded Proposing Decriminilizing of some offenses so that it will bring down the amount of people that are in prisons Also bringing down the financial impact on the State of California The problem arose because the conditions of the state institutions were not okay for humans and needed to be addressed CA spends more money on prison inmates than students on K12 education People calling for the decrease of prison population Mandatory Mininiums GOP s Lame Duck Blockade Network Neutrality Exists right now on the intemet Servers have to provide people with an equal access Bandwith is open to all people Bush Tax Cuts Are set to expire without action Nothing has passed yet but both Republicans and Democrats have both agreed Obama wanted extension for people only making 250000 or less And wanted to end the tax cuts for people making more money Republicans demand extension for all and Democrats seem to comprimise on a 2 year extension START Rati cation START treaty with Russia to reduce Nuclear arms arsenals Both Countries US and Russia both signed the treaty However it needs to be ratified by the Senate Republicans are trying to bargain with the Democrats 67 100 of the senate needs to vote to approve the treaty in order to approve it Approval somewhat uncertain Free Trade Agreement with South Korea Climate Change Summit in Cancun VA court case on Health Care Bill Exam ID Defintions Importance At least one example Exams Clear conclusions 5 paragraph format w 23 examples for each point on long essay


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