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Natural Sci & Math

by: Cary Funk

Natural Sci & Math IST 008A

Cary Funk
GPA 3.53


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Class Notes
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This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cary Funk on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to IST 008A at University of California - Davis taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/187601/ist-008a-university-of-california-davis in Integrated Studies at University of California - Davis.


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Date Created: 09/08/15
F Biophotom39cs Too s a Oxymetry HIST 8A Lectme Mar 53 2007 ML Wb mam H F8 Shadme L1 i a WED National Laboratory UC DAVIS Main Points i 7 Review quiz and understand Spectroph otometry basics r Bioluminescence versus uorescence and uses in studying disease 7 Basics of plant circadian rhythms Basics of cancer The pulse oxymeter I What it measures and whythat is important How the measurement is made Where it is used Whyit sometimes fails Advanced instruments a Way to get light in fiberoptic cable a Mirrors m 5 Diffraction grating separate the colors 2 I l l a A detector I 39 liw l g A way to interpret thedata and display it htt h er h sics h astr sueduhbase h o t ho iccddiffract httpwwwpatonhawksleycouklMAGEStransJPG 20004000 work Use of Spectrophotometer in BP 1 7 Measure atomic and molecular energy levels Determine molecular geometries Identify chemical bonds Determine the interactions of molecules For qualitative analysis identify components of a sample For quantitative analysis measure the amount of material in a sample Advanced imaging techniques imaging with spectrophotometry data luminescence and disease V Bioluminescence e Energy ATP Oxygen Substrate gt Light Due to a chemical reaction Can be longlasting Fluorescence High energy light excited electrons lower energy emission e If higher energy light source removed then gone Bioluminescence the light can cause a fluorescent molecule to give off other lower energy light m A minescence and disease V x ynamic in vivo assays are possible 7 Distribution of pathogens follow a bacterial infection and response to treatment 7 Gene expression 1 Cancer tumor growth and response metastasis s Tracking cells Cell Fusion Jimadianr Rhythms and Plants V quotlA roughly 24 hour cycle circa dies in the physiological processes of living things Influences plant light perception flowering transpiration sugar metabolism cell elongation and much more 7 UliZailEZ What is Cancer Cells gone haywire Cells that continue to replicate and proliferate when they should have stopped Uncontrolled cell growth Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these cells to spread either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic systemquot httpenvl1ildpedi2orgwildCancer A page c w r mze ewr 7 9dquot W m m 639 m pi ith mgy m gammy W 921 s Qigium bra mm W 4 THEE Wm xgj mii li s a a if 19mg l gm ang ma W http e11 Wikipedia org gm What is Blood Main Functions of blood uppl m bland urbuund in plasma prutelns R Ernuval prwasie such as arbun meme urea and law acid material by antlbudles Cuagulatiun Which is me pan uf the budy s seinepair mechanism H Hp NW N H Amelia punm Ragulatiun ufbudy pH u anun pr Cure budy temperature e quotn in Other 55 is blood plasma sad ufvvater bluud proteins and lnurganl Electrulyles a a uid that l the bluud s liquid medium appearing yelluvvin ulur Hemoglobin makes up about 97 oflhe red blood cells dry content and around 35 of the total comenl including water WWW http Hen mklpedm orgwikxHzemoglobm Increased oxygen consumption during sustained exercise reduces the oxygen saturation ofvenous blood which can reach less than 15 in a trained athlete although breathing rate and blood ow increase to compensate oxygen saturation in arterial blood can drop to 95 or less under these conditions instance during surgery under anesthesia As a general rule any Bundltl n wnlen leadstu a sustalneernlxed venuus turatlun ufless than 5m Wlll be puurlytulerated and less than au leg This is due to o genat ed iron in the red blood cells l u wh39 be seen during blood donation and when nwe er r the way in which light penetrates through the skin veins typically appear blue in color This has led to a common misconception that venous blood is blue quot quot r 39munenea unuu 39 39 39 39 arterial blood which is depicted as red on the same chart http Hen mktpedtz orgwtktElood Hbcontains 4 hemes 402 gt Hb02 l Oxygen is bound cooperatively VISIR absorption changes with O2 binding HEME group Impiienwikipedia orgiw ikiiHem oglobin J39 Qggjm ai39 y a gammammagrmm 39 Lam mm w Mowar ExUnc mon coemaen Basic Principles 39 At the measuring site there are constant light absorbers that are always present They are skin tissue venous blood and the arterial blood However with each heart beat the heart contracts and there is a surQe of arterial blood which momentarily increases arterial blood volume across the measurin site This results in more light absorption during the surge If light signals received at the photodetector are looked at 39as a wavefon39n39 there should be peaks with each heartbeat and troughs between heartbeats If the light absorption at the trough which 39 quot btracted 39om 39 su the light absorption at the peak then in theom the resultants are the absorption characteristics due to added volume of blood only39 which is arten39al Since peaks occurwith each heartbeat or pulse the term quotpulse oximetryquot was coined mmlwww mummy EPl Semh pnn plzs hm PLJJse Oxjmetry a measure Wharf cefermineslimifs vim re 3 Absorption of Hb vs Hb02 1cm sog Hbl 1000 Abs Hb02 Abs Hb Absorbance 650 700 750 800 Wavelength nm I E m m 02 m 0 w E lt w m 3 Q Q Q L i1 390 0 1 Absorption of Hb vs Hb02 1cm sog Hbl 1000 905910an Absorbance Measurement 1 Two lightemitting diodes produce beams at red and infrared frequencies 660 nm and 940 nm can be variable There is a photo detector on the other side The diodes flash at approximately 30 times per second The diodes are switched on in sequence with a pause with both diodes off This allows compensation for ambient light The microprocessor analyses the changes in light absorption during the arterial pulsatile flow and ignores the nonpulsatile component of the signal which results from the tissues and venous blood httpwwwfrca sunkarticle aspxarticleid332 httpWWW oximeuy OrgpUlSSOXprillCiples htm P ulse Oxirnrgtlr y 392 M I g mm rleJ wbap n J JIQ mmng 1m gh i Y QJ JSI zsnun 230nm nm IEUUD 17DDD G lsuun Eunuu lluun PLJJSe thjms ymiy a W T1 s Mm a eselwo Ac vmnhlnlgmbemuon mumum u m dinml was ac Cemnm um lbla39vlhm u n non pulunm mum bleed u Cunmn lnm nhlu39v wn a n mm mm D Cemunlllgmlbuwuon mm mm hum m 39 rur a J39 quotra39ll A f A I H LJJys QJf J lE ry u M l I l Qsp irg U334ng may quot 39 nggt ru mg a my i bj mm 1an win A imsz gwumuhigm xznuu 1198B um 1195a 1195a um Main new gum 1152a 1157a 1155a xxssn xlsou lxsiu 1152a 1151a xxsuu O metry Where used A nesth sia on f naval mt PACU post anesthesia care unit Intensive Care Units Neonatal 7 Intensive Care Neviborn Nursery Delivery Suites Trans on Internal within the Hospital 8 External AmbulanceAir Transport Diagnostic Lab PFT pulmonary Function Testing Lab Exercise Lab Sleep Lab Subacute Care Centers Home Care Patients Other Patient Conditions W Blood Flow Assessment Cardiopulmonary Arrest Asthma Seizures Personal private pilot mountain climber etc Modi ed mm mm Wwamewmmiseaxavpmans m feet and have only a very weak pulse In this case a pulse oximeter may display a reading but it might not be accurate Some pulse oximeters have a means of indicating how strong the signal is they are receiving and it is important to check this A still weaker signal may mean the pulse oximeter is not able to work at all An irregular signal can also cause problems for a pulse oximeter trying to determine oxygen saturation This can be caused by an irregular heart beat or by the patient moving shivering or fitting Poor positioning of the probe can cause inaccurate readings due to various problems This can be a particular problem with very small fingers and very large ones Make sure the probe is well on the finger mp WWW pulseox lrfoWhan l39vtrn 7 quotetury Limitations Oximetry is not a complete measure of respiratory sufficiency A patient suffering from hypoventilation poor gas exchange in the lungs given 100 oxygen can have excellent blood oxygen levels while still suffering from respiratory acidosis due to excessive carbon dioxide Nor is it a complete measure of circulatory suf ciency If there is insuf cient blood ow or insuf cient hemoglobin in the blood anemia tissues can suffer hypoxia despite high oxygen saturation in the blood that does arrive It also should be noted that twowavelength saturation level measurement devices can not distinguish carboxyhemoglobin due to carbon monoxide inhalation from oxyhemoglobin which must be taken into account when diagnosing a patient in emergency rescue from eg a re in an apartment A CO oximeter measures absorption at additional wavelengths to distinguish CO from 2 and de ermine the blood oxygen saturation more reliably mp Henw upedia mgmhEmud sgmu Q Ximetry Limitations Carbon Dioxide especially when getting supplementary 02 may be getting plenty of oxygen in but not clearing out the CO2 Carbon Monoxide Pulse oximeters will display an oxygen saturation which is approximately equal to the percentage 0 hemoglobin combined with oxygen plus the percentage ofhemoglobin combined with carbon monoxide especially prevalent if person has been in M ethemoglobin Methemoglobin is an abnormal type ofhemoglobin that does not bind oxygen well Normally 12 of people39s hemoglobin is methaemoglobin A higher level of methemoglobin will tend to cause a pulse oximeterto read closer to 85 regardless ofthe true level of oxygen saturation Skin color darker skin types may give inaccurate reading when reading levels below 80 Nail varnish intravenous dyes strong external lights and electrical interference can all cause problems mp WWW pulseox WoWhalQ l39vtm PLJJSe mi ry 1 cu da ptive arm mam V Wm an 1 39 Q m mam http fx wmasimocomfRainbowfrbioveWiew111m C e a 39 y n0 39 m tam J quotJfrmasg zywmmg In mam 115133 M WM 5 n gang UH W lt magnum 39 ma a Wham quot 6mm th mm mmwamrmmw a anage39 re on al39i3939 v 1 lmpn r wvv39ws omanemscomfinvcsp 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