Theory & Hypothesis
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristina Notetaker on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Comm 3163 at Ohio State University taught by Jason Coronel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
January 19, 2016 Theory & Hypothesis Does exposing smokers who don’t want to quit, to anti smoking ads increase their likelihood of quitting? -finding: smokers exposed to ads were less likely to quit after exposure to an anti smoking ad. Note: this is only for smokers who do NOT want to quit smoking. -Why?- Theory. Theory: a series of logically interrelated premises/assumptions that are meant to explain a phenomenon in the world. (i.e: answers the question of why) Ex: Cognitive Dissonance. People are motivated to maintain their preexisting attitudes and beliefs. Information that challenges preexisting attitudes causes mental discomfort. To minimize discomfort, they engage in certain behaviors in response. Such as, to come up with favorable reasons to maintain existing attitudes, or denigrate or discount the information that challenges their preexisting attitudes. Relating to smoking example: According to cognitive dissonance, the smokers want to maintain their preexisting attitude of not wanting to quit, anti smoking ads challenges this preexisting attitude and causes mental discomfort, to minimize this discomfort, they denigrate/discount the information in the ad and come up with reasons to maintain their existing attitudes, these processes of discounting the information in the ad and generating reasons to maintain their preexisting attitudes.... have the side effect... Hypothesis: concise statements about what you expect to happen in the world. Must logically follow form the set of premises of thoughts.... EX: a hypothesis using cog diss: Politics: If you show voters negative information about a candidate they like.... they will like the candidate more. *Do not confuse theory and hypothesis. Hypothesis: Texting while driving increases your likelihood of a car accident. WHY? Your answer is essentially a THEORY. Concepts & Measures Concepts: abstract ideas meant to represent some facet of reality. (violence, attitude, intelligence, attention, love, chair, classroom) *concepts are the building blocks of scientific language. EX: watching violent TV causes aggression. Education increases intelligence. Use of social media causes loneliness Kim Peek -diagnosed as mentally disabled as a child, cannot button his own shirt, cannot live alone, scored below average on IQ test. - memorized at least 12,000 book, can read two pages at once, one page for one eye, can add phone numbers in his head until value reached trillions, amassed massive amounts of information on 15 subject areas. -Is he highly intelligent? -Researchers can disagree on the definition of a concept. In research, you need to explicitly define your concepts (loneliness) This is important because: communication between researchers, measurement. Measures: process of assigning quantitative values in a systematic way. EX: we define intelligence as “mathematical ability”. Possible measures: arithmetic test (pencil and paper), arithmetic test (cannot use pencil and paper) Validity the extent to which a measurement procedure measures what it intends to measure. (Are you measuring what you are supposed to measure?) -if you define intelligence as verbal ability, you measure it using a math test, not a very valid measure. Robert Yerkes -developed intelligence tests for military recruits during WW1. -Army Alpha Test for literate emgligh speakers. -defined intelligence as “native intelligence ability” mental faculties that are not swayed not influenced by culture and educational opportunities. - 47% of army recruits judged to have mental age of 13 year old. Reliability the extent to which a measuring instrument consistently measures whatever it is that it is measuring. (tells you the same thing, regardless if you take it once, or three times) -Is possible to be reliable but not valid! EX: BMI. *know difference between theory and hypothesis *explicitly define concepts *measures need to be valid and reliable ************************************************************************ ********* January 21, 2016 Notes Causation “How to think about causation...” X causes Y. “Counterfactual conception of causation”:Its the dominant view of causation in the social sciences. Unit: physical entity- person. Treatment: an intervention who effect we wish to asses. Outcome: potential effect of treatment. Example: Unit: Lisa Simpson Treatment: smoking for a year, or not smoking for a year Outcome: cancer, no cancer We want to assess if smoking causes cancer for a single unit (Lisa). Reality A: Lisa smokes Reality B: Lisa does not smoke If theres a difference in Outcomes between Reality A and B, we can then say that our treatment had a casual effect. -We only observe one of the realities. The other is the counterfactual. -You cannot simulltaneously observe a person in his/her treated and untreated states. “The fundamental problem of causal inference” **finished notes on paper.. need to transfer ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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