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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emerson Baumbach on Tuesday September 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEL 001 at University of California - Davis taught by David Osleger in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 51 views. For similar materials see /class/187622/gel-001-university-of-california-davis in Geology at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 09/08/15
GEL 1 LecTure 1 How PIaneTs Form Ch 1 specifically p 23 31 Ki Ch 4 p 451453 Where did The EarTh come from How do paneTs form BoTTom line EarTh and The resT of The planeTs in our solar sysTem formed from The remnanT gas and dusT lefT over from The formaTion of our sTar The sun Solar Nebula HypoThesis The solar nebula hypoThesis proposes ThaT The planeTs were formed from The disk of gas and dusT ThaT surrounded The sun as iT formed lie paneTs form as a byproducT ofsTar formaTon from nebua Nebula are clouds of gas and dusT in space ThaT mark The birThplace of sTars quotsTar nurseriesll The E is a few aToms big and is composed of small amounTs of various ices oxides carbon and some heavier elemenTs such as iron The g is almosT enTirely hydrogen which you know as The simplesT elemenT consisTing of one proTon and one elecTron hydrogen makes up abouT 75 of all The mass in The universe STages in The formaTon of The solar sysTem You jusT need To know The genera ideas of This mode MT The specifics This process happens over Tens To hundreds of millions of years 1 Begin wiTh a slowly spinning cloud of gas and dusT solar nebula wiThin The Milky Way galaxy 2 The nebular cloud begins To collapse Toward iTs roTaTing cenTer under The influence of graviTy CenTrifugal ouTward direcTed force causes The cloud To collapse To a cenTral plane This will evenTually become The plane of The solar sysTem 3 As The cloud collapses graviTy supplies The energy To heaT up and compress The cenTer which evenTually becomes The quotproTosunquot 4 The revolving masses of gas and dusT became Trapped in sTable orbiTs around The proTosun forming lanes of concenTraTion or quotringsquot 5 WiTh increasing heaT and pressure wiThin The proTosun nuclear fusion occurs wiTh The fusing of hydrogen inTo helium releasing energy and sTopping The conTracTion Thus The proTosun becomes The True sun 6 WiThin The circulaTing rings of concenTraTed maTerial TemperaTures cool To The poinT where maTTer begins To condense inTo larger and larger parTicles 7 ConsTanT collisions cause The boulder To asTeroidsize parTicles To evenTually coalesce under The force of graviTy To become small bodies of maTTer called planeTesimals The collisional growTh of planeTs by consTanT bombardmenT is called accreTion As planeTesimals coalesced Their increased graviTy would have helped To aTTracT nearby maTTer and hold iT all TogeTher 8 EvenTually These planeTesimals grow inTo proToplaneTs which in Turn evolve inTo True planeTs The original shapes of The proToplaneTs were irregular and heaT builT up due To fricTional heaTing Through consTanT collisions These hoT 39sofT39 early planeTs evenTually were reshaped inTo spheres under The force of graviTy The formaTion of our sun The nine planeTs over 90 moons and assorTed space debris such as comeTs and asTeroids occurred 46 billion years ago deTermined by daTing of radioacTive elemenTs wiThin meTeoriTes found on EarTh MeTeoriTes chunks of rock or meTal ThaT fall To EarTh from space are remnanTs of The primordial solar nebular maTerial ThaT didn39T become incorporaTed inTo The sun planeTs or moons 50 paneTs moons and space debris form as a byproducT of sTar formaTon from nebuas They are The efTovers ThaT didn 39T geT incorporaTed inTo The newy formed sTar aT The cenTer which accumuaTed 99 of The mass DifferenTiaTion and EvoluTion of PlaneT EarTh So planeTs are born hoT and spend The resT of Their lives39 cooling off PlaneTs evolve by progressive differenTiaTion separaTion of maTerials according To densiTy under The influence of inTernal heaTing DensiTy is simply mass per uniT volume eg a cubic cm of lead conTains much more maTTer Than a cubic cm of waTer which iTself conTains much more maTTer mass Than a cubic cm of air during planeTary differenTiaTion denser maTerials fall in Toward The core of The planeT while lighTer less dense maTerials accumulaTe Toward The ouTer surface In The case of The EarTh39s differenTiaTion heavy meTals like iron collapsed Toward The cenTer of The planeT while lighTer maTeriaIs silicon and oxygen floaTed Toward The surface The lighTesT maTerials comprising The ulTraThin hydrosphere and aTmosphere are held near The surface by graviTy DifferenTiaTion resulTs in mosT planeTs having an inTerior dense core a surrounding less dense manTle and a Thin leasTdense surficial crusT Thin veneers of a hydrosphere and aTmosphere blankeT The crusT WhaT provided The inTerna energy for differenTiaTion To occur WhaT was The source of heaT As planeTs grow heaT builds up in Their inTeriors due To 1 fricTional heaTing Through consTanT collisions This energy release by infalling maTTer is called heaT of formation and is an imporTanT source of heaT in The early sTages of planeTs 2 accumulaTion of radioacTive elemenTs U Th K ThaT decay To form heaT Thus paneTs in Their eary sTages are very hoT and This heaT energy is whaT drives The differenTiaTion process The young EarTh was hoT enough for The uppermosT several kilomeTers To be covered by a magma ocean39 IT Took several hundred million years for heaT To be released To space so ThaT The magma ocean could cool enough To form solid rock This 39Hadean Era39 dominaTes The firsT 600700 million years of EarTh hisTory The enTire differenTiaTion process on EarTh probably occurred by abouT 40 billion years ago How do we know This The oldesT rocks on EarTh are abouT 40 by old locaTed in norThwesT Canada by Then enough maTerial had apparenle accumulaTed on EarTh39s surface ThaT resisTed being recycled back down inTo The molTen inTerior forming EarTh39s crusT This is likely a consequence of The EarTh losing enough heaT To space so ThaT a Thin primiTive crusT could form Where did The eary hydrosphere and aTmosphere come from NoT only do volcanoes spew enormous amounTs of ash and lava They also emanaTe copious quanTiTies of waTer vapor C02 502 N02 and oTher gases by The process of volcanic ouTgassing EarTh39s original aTmosphere was derived by ouTgassing from widespread volcanism as The oceans of molTen rock on EarTh39s surface began To solidify during iTs iniTial heaT loss early aTmosphere likely rich in carbon dioxide and waTer vapor plus oTher reacTive gases expelled by volcanoes oxygen didn39T become a parT of The aTmosphere Till abouT 2 by ago due To The evoluTion of phoTosynTheTic organisms AT some poinT all of The waTer vapor in The early aTmosphere began To condense and fall as rain evenTually building up To form The world39s firsT oceans perhaps as early as 3940 bya Where did The oNgna wafer moecues in The EarTh 39s inferior originafe ComeTs basically 39dirTy snowballs39 composed of mixes of rocky debris and waTer ice bombarded The EarTh early in iTs hisTory and likely conTribuTed huge amounTs of waTer To The inTerior of The planeT This waTer was subsequenle ouTgassed by volcanism To conTribuTe To our earliesT aTmosphere and hydrosphere So mosT of The H and O aToms in your body and in The waTer you baThe in and drink very likely originally arrived on EarTh wiThin comeTs Those aToms were blasTed ouT of an ancesTral volcano To be incorporaTed inTo The aTmosphere hydrosphere and biosphere By abouT 35 bya afTer liquid waTer was esTablished on The EarTh39s surface and afTer The bombardmenT by meTeoriTe debris from The early solar sysTem died down life arose firsT life was bacTerial and fossil evidence exisTs To documenT The appearance
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